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32- 7 85 





,^ Accession No. 

Author: /W J t C > J *' * 
Title: } /;J\ 

This book should be returned on or before the date 
last marked below. 



This essay was written in 1922. Circumstances *over which 
I had little control prevented me from revising or completing 
it. I publish it now as it was written, because I no longer 
entertain the vain hope that 1 will be able to devote in the 
near future adequate time and attention to fulfil my original 
plan of writing a history^ of Indian civilization during the 
middle ages. 

The development of Indian civilization is a subject of 
absorbing interest, and historians are now beginning to pay 
attention to it. This interest is not merely topical," arising out 
of the clashes of our present-day life in India. The subject has 
a wider import and deeper philosophical significance. We are 
studying to-day the problems of .migrations of primitive and 
pre-historic cultures, and of conflicts of races and of civilizations 
during the past and in the present. The history of India which 
furnishes a striking illustration of the impact of many divergent 
cultures which were gradually transformed by a process of 
mutual adjustment, surely needs the attention of a student of 
sociology and history who endeavours to understand the inter- 
actions of human mind and the effects of 'cultural contacts as 
presented in the customs* religion, literature and art of a 

Before any generalizations can be made, it is necessary 
to collect facts. I have sought mainly to collect facts in this 
essay and facts too connected with only two aspects of 
civilization religion and art. I am conscious of the inadequacy 
of the attempt. It is partly due to the nature of |h enquiry- 
cultural facts are so deeply shrouded in obscurity and partly to 
, my personal difficulties. But for the encouragement of friends 
. who rr^ad the essay in the manuscript and considered its 
publication worthwhile, it might still lie mouldering in the desk, 


My thanks are due to Dr. Banarsi Prasad Saxena for pre- 
paring the index and making improvements in the manuscript, 
and to Mr. Bhagwat Dayal for reading the proofs. 

I am indebted to Mr. H. K. Ghosh, the enterprising 
proprietor erf The Indian Press, for undertaking its publication. 





INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... i 



MYSTICISM IN ISLAM ... ... ... 49 




RAMANANDA AND KABIR ... ... ... 143 

GURU NANAK ... ... ... ... 166* 


LATER SAINTS ... ... ... ... 192 


INDIAN ARCHITECTURE ... ... ... 229 

INDIAN PAINTING ... ... ... ... 258 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... ... ... ... 275 

APPENDIX ... ... 289 

INDEX ... ... ... ... 298 



I. Buddha answering questions (Ajanta). 

II. Buddha answering questions (Ajanta). 
HI, Departure of Bodhisatva as a deer (Ajanta). 
IV. The agony of Prince Sibi (Ajanta). 

V. The King of Benares and the golden geese 

VI. Raja going out to attend the Sermon of the 
Hermit (Ajanta). 

VII. Temptation of Buddha by Mara (Ajanta). 
VIII. A Court Scene The game of Dice (Ajanta). 
IX. A Palace Scene Dancing girls (Ajanta). 
X. Husband and wife in a forest (Ajanta). 
XI. Vijaya's conquest of Ceylon (Ajanta). 

XII. A Procession of Vidhura-Pandita Jataka (Ajanta). 
XIII. A Royal Procession Raja riding on an Elephant 

XIV. A Procession (Ajanta). 

XV, Farud slays Zarasp on Mount Sapad (Persian, 

about 1440). 

XVI. A disputation of Doctors (Mir AK Shir Nawai, 1485). 
XVII. Scene in a Public Bath (Bihzad, 1495). 

XVIII. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar Padishah in his 
youth at the time of his campaign against 
Kandahar and India (1505). 

XIX. Battle between the armies of Alexander the Great 
and those of Darius, King of Persia (Mir AH Shir 
Nawai. 1526). 

XX. Pastoral Spene (Mir Sayyid AK, 1539-43). 



XXI. A Picnic (Persian, 1569). 

XXII. Baz Bahadur and Ruprqati (Rajput School). 
XXIII. Shikar by night (Bichitar, Rajput %hool). 
XXIV. Agata-Patika (Rajputana). 
XXV. Ragini Sarangi (Jaipur School). 
XXVI. Dance of Siva (Kangra School). 
XXVII. Birth of Krishna (Kangra School). 
XXVIII. Gai-Charan Ula (Kangra School). 
XXIX. Hori Lila (Kangra School). 

XXX. Rape of Yadava Women (Chaitar, Tehri-Garhw 

XXXI. Hour of Cow-Dust (Chamba School). 
XXXII. Siege of Lanka (Jammu School). 
XXXIII. Siege of Lanka (Jammu School). 

XXXIV. Maharaja Shatrujit on horseback (Bundela Schoo 

XXXV. Temple of Visvanath at Khajuraho (Northern sty'e 
XXXVL Temple of Nuggehalli, Mysore (Deccan style). 

XXXVII. Temple of Subrahmanya, Tanjore (Dravidiai 

XXXVIII. Hoysalesvara Temple, Halebid (Sculpture 01 
eastern side). 

XXXIX. Jerusalem Exterior of the Qubbat As-Sakhrah 
(Dome of the Rock). 

XL. Exterior from the East. 

XLI. Cairo, Madrasah of Qayt Bey. 
XLH. The mosque of Sultan Barquq. 
XLI II. Mosque at Tabriz. 

Mosque at Ispahan. 



XLIV.-Tomb of Uljaitoo, 
XLV. Mosque in Mirz^pur Quarter at Ahinedabad. 

XLVL Central portion of Facade of Jami Masjid at 

XLVIL Atala Devi Mosque, Jaunpore. 
XLV1II. Lower Group of Jain Temples at Sonnaghur. 
XL1X, Chaumukha Temple, Rampur. 

L The Man Mandir Palace S. W Corner. 
LL The Man Mandir Palace Interior West Room. 

LI I. The Man Mandir Palace General View. 
LHL Mausoleum of Birsbgh Deo at Qrchha Rear View. 
LI V. Cenotaph of Maharaja Chhatarpur. 

LV, Chhattri of Maharaja Baladeva Singh, Gobardhan. 

LVI. The Pavilion of Jain Mandir, in the palace of 

LV1I. Kantanagar Temple. 

LV1I1, Temple of Gobind Deva f Brindaban. 

LIX. Temple of Jugal Kishore, Brindaban, 

LX Court in the palace, Tanjore, 

LXI.Qadam Rusul Mosque, Gaur. 


INDIAN culture is synthetic in character. It comprehends ideas 
of different orders. It embraces in its orbit belter's, customs, 
rites, institutions, arts, religions and philosophies belonging to 
strata of society in varying stages of development. It eternally 
seeks to find a unity for the heterogeneous elements which make 
up its totality. At worst its attempts end in a mechanical juxta- 
position, at best they succeed in evolving an organic system. 

The complexity of Indian life is ancient, because from the 
dawn of history, India has been the meeting place of conflicting 
civilisations. Through its north-western gates migrating hordes 
and conquering armies have poured down in unending 
succession, bringing with them like the floods of the Nile much 
destruction, but also valuable deposits which enriched the 
ancient soil, out of which grew ever more fresh and ever more 
luxuriant cultures. 

These foreign impulses have played an important part in 
India's history. As a matter of fact the process of its cultural 
development may be envisaged as the blending of three strands 
producing the characteristic pattern of their cycle. 

There have always been two distinct strata of society in 
India, the one higher and the other lower ; the first small in 
numbers, but in possession of highly developed religions, social 
ideas and institutions ; the second comprising the great mass 
of the people who occupy a humbler rung on the cultural ladder. 
The first provides the intellectual and aristocratic and the second 
the folk element in India's culture. r 

These two in their interactions have supplied two strands 
of the pattern, while the third was previded by foreign influences 
which in peaceful ways or by forcible means entered the 
country and contributed their sham m die perfection of trie 
design. The synthesis of the three Mid the evolution of new 
culfttres were wrought along its own mrUSttWrt lines by tte 
peculiar genius of the race, and age alter agevfe process has 


Hitinued. These ages in Indian history may be fixed and 

In the first place, Indian history may be broadly divided 
nto three epochs ancient, medieval and modem ; the first 
Beginning from the earliest times to the eighth century of the 
Christian era, the second consisting of the one thousand years 
olio wing the eighth century, and the third commencing with 
he nineteenth century and still running. 

The ancient epoch may be subdivided into four ages the 
/edic ending in the seventh century B.C., the Buddhist in the 
second century B.C., the early Hindu in the middle of the third 
century A.D., and the later Hindu in the eighth century A.D. 

The medieval epoch is divisible into two ages the early 
medieval from the eighth to the thirteenth and the later from 
the thirteenth to the end of the eighteenth century. 

In the first age India is discovered as an agitated scene of 
conflicting tribes and races in which one group attempts to 
impose its civilisation on the other. The Aryans and the non- 
Aryans meet in struggle and the war is waged not merely on 
the plane of politics and economics but also on that of cult 
and culture. The literature of the Vedic age is a mirror of this 
vast social conflict, it reflects its various stages (not necessarily 
successive) : the commencement of the Aryan onset when the 
victors warriors and priests exhilarated by their triumph sing 
joyous paeans in praise of the shining gods who confer the boons 
of victory, prosperity and long life; then the process of settlement 
and spread over Northern India when sobered by reflection and 
the responsibility of administering newly acquired lands they give 
utterance to hymns which embody their thinking on problems 
of social organisation, of cosmic origins, of human destiny and 
of ultimate reality ; and lastly, the assimilation of the victors 
and the vanquished, when the magic and the ritual attain a 
position ride by side with speculation and philosophy in the 
sacred arcana of die scriptures, when animistic beliefs and fetish 
^ vforship lie cheek by jowl with the sublime and subtle coneepU 
jtf cosmic older ui pantheistic godhead* 


The Rg-Veda {especially its maQ<falas from the second to 
the tenth) describes the first stage, the religious and social life of 
these early Aryans in the north-west of India between the banks 
of the Indus and the Sarasvatl. The first and tenth maritfala* 
of the Rg-Veda, the Sama- and Yajur- represent their more 
advanced state and the Atharva- and the Brahmanas the 
completion of the Vedic cycle, when the occupation of Northern 
India to the Gandak (Sadanira) was achieved and the original 
inhabitants were brought into the Vedic social system. 

The Vedic age ended some time between the seventh and 
sixth centuries B.C. Then began a new age in which the Vedic 
culture underwent a tremendous development with such force 
of expansion that it was almost rent into pieces. The impulse 
came from two sources, in the first place, from an inner urge 
which represented the assertion of the Ksatriya class in society ; 
and secondly, from a mysterious and swift interchange of ideas 
with the Western world. The sixth century was one of the most 
wonderful epochs of world history, when ideas passed from 
country to country making their presence felt from faj-off China 
to Egypt, Greece and Rome, radiating from that great centre 
of culture the city of Babylon which was the clearing house of 
world commerce and world ideas. 

The repercussions of these influences upon the Vedic culture 
ushered in the new age of science, philosophy and heterodox 
speculation on the intellectual side and of poetry and art and 
religious devotion on the emotional, while the basic Vedic 
religion was both systematised and popularized. During 
this period the Upanisads and the Bhagavadgita were 
compiled, the orthodox schools of philosophy were started, 
Buddhism, Jainism and other heterodox systems were founded, 
the first redactions of the epics and pf the archetypal Purina 
were made, devotional elements in Siva and Visnu worship 
were introduced, the sciences of metrics, etymology, grammar, 
astronomy, mathematics and medicine were elaborated, and the 
aits *>f war, administration* music, painting, sculpture and 
architecture were cultivated- The beginning and end of this 


age coincide approximately with the rise of the Sisunaga and 
the downfall of the Maurya dynasties (600 B.C. to 180 B.C.). 

About the close of this marvellous era of imperial expansion 
and cultural glories the north-western horizon again became 
clouded withnhe dark appearance of barbarian hordes and alien 
invaders. Antiochos the Great, Demetrios, Eukratides and 
Menander hovered on the borders or penetrated into the country, 
and barbarian streams of Yueh-chi and Sakas overflowed the 
passes and deposited settlements in Sindh, the Panjab and the 
plains round Mathura, and occupied the peninsula of Sura?tra. 
How far these events had an effect upon the overthrow of the 
Mauryas it is difficult to estimate, but they synchronised with 
the commencement of the new age, in which Hinduism reassert- 
ed itself. This was ah age of transition. Sanskrit learning 
was resuscitated by royal patronage, the great epics were re- 
edited, the popular legendary lore was compiled in the Smrtis 
and the earliest Puranas, the fluid mass of philosophical 
speculation was gradually crystallised into systems. Visnu and 
Siva worship began to overshadow the worship of the other 
gods in the religious pantheon. Buddhism expanded into China, 
Central Asia, and Persia, and although it broke up into the 
Hmayana and Mahayana schools and their subordinate branches, 
it still reigned supreme in the world of art furnishing inspiration 
for the monuments of Bharhut, Sanchi, Sarnath and Amaravati. 
Jainism which spread into Gujrat and Tamil land became 
divided into the Svetarpbara and Digarnbara schools. 

This was the period of the political supremacy of the 
Brahman dynasties of Sunga, Kanva and Satavahanas, and it 
lasted from 130 B.C. to 235 A.D. 

The curtain fell upon the last age amid a scene of utter 
anarchy and disorder. The Satavahana power broke into pieces 
and the empire which the Kusanas had built up in Western 
India dissolved, and the next period was inaugurated in 
"extreme confusion associated with foreign invasions from the 
north-west, which is reflected in the muddled statements *f the 
concerning the Abhiras, GardmbfailUs, Sakas, Yavanas, 


Bahlikas, and other outlandish dynasties named as the successors 
of the AndHras." For one hundred years the history of India 
remained shrouded in darkness which was lifted by the rising 
sun of the Gupta dynasty in the fourth century. The next four 
hundred years form a bright epoch in the advancing cycles of 
Indian culture. 

In every department of national life great achievements were 
made. In religion Hinduism attained its most fully developed 
form, Siva and Visnu worship became the dominant cults, 
Saktism made its appearance, but Vedic sacrifices began to fall 
into disuse. Buddhism and Jainism received a definite check 
and (gradually withered away. In Hindu religious literature the 
last redaction of the Mahabharata (including the HarivamJa) 
and the Ram ay ana was made, and the Puranas were re-edited. 
In philosophy the six Darsanas were completely systematised, 
the Vaisnava and Saiva schools of philosophy (the Pancaratra 
Sarhhita and Saiva Agamas), and other sectarian (Tantrika) and 
heterodox schools made their appearance. In poetry Kalidasa,* 
Dandin, Bana, Bharavi and others adorned the age and in prose 
the Pancatantra and other fairy tales which became the store- 
house of the world's stories were compiled. 

In the sciences Aryabhafta, Brahmagupta and Varaha-Mihira 
developed astronomy and mathematics, and Vagbhafta compiled 
the compendium of medicine. In the arts of painting, sculpture 
and architecture the works of Ajanta, Ellora, Bagh, Badarm, 
Samath and other places were accomplished. 

With the passing of Har?a*s empire the last period 
of ancient history closed, and the new epoch which may fitly 
be called the Middle Age began. The change from the 
ancient to the medieval times was vast. Politically it put an 
end to Imperialism based on a loose confederation of practically 
autonomous principalities acknowledging the overlordship of a 
suzerain power ; it saw the beginnings of feudal particularism, 
of Rajput tribes waging incessant wars with one another, and 
paviqg the way for the Muslim conquest. In religion it marked 
the almost complete disappearance of Buddhism and Jainism-from 


the land of their birth, the establishment of sectarian Hinduism 
all over India and its development under the impulses of Islam. 
In art it witnessed the evolution of Hindu-Muslim schools of 
architecture and painting, in literature the decline of Sanskrit 
learning and,,the rise of Vernacular languages, among them 
Urdu, and in science the infusion of Arab conceptions into 
Hindu medicine, mathematics and astronomy. The total Amount 
of change in all departments of social life was so great as to 
constitute the beginning of a new epoch. 

This epoch may be divided into two equal periods of five 
hundred years each, the first running from the eighth to the 
thirteenth and the second from the thirteenth to the eighteenth 
century of the Christian era, the first may be designated the 
early middle age and the second the later middle age. 
During the first age Islam began to penetrate into India peace* 
fully in the south and forcibly into Sii\dh and the north-west, 
and during the second it became the dominant force practically 
'over the whole of L the Indian peninsula. 

In order to trace the changes in the culture of the country 
which Muslim influences produced, it is first necessary to give 
a description of it as it existed before their advent. It will be 
convenient to divide culture into two heads religion and 
philosophy, and art and to treat each Head separately from the 
time of the advent of the Muslims into India till the passing 
of the Moghal empire in the eighteenth century. 



IN order to understand the religious conditions prevailing in 
India at the time of the Islamic impact, it is necessary to 
introduce some principle of simplification which will indicate 
the leading tendencies of thought and worship. An exhaustive 
description of the actual facts of all existing sects and cults, 
their relationships and conflicts, utterly bewildering in their 
complexity, will not be useful and need not be attempted. 

The Hindus treat their religion from the point of view of 
emancipation (mofe$a), for the attainment of which they recognise 
three paths the paths of action (Barman), of knowledge (jftancft, 
and of devotion (fefiafei). It will be convenient to arrange all 
the religions and sects under these three heads. It must, 
however, be remembered that the three paths are not mutually 
exclusive and do not necessarily imply antagonism ; as a matter 
of fact practically all the sects recognise their value and enjoin 
them on their followers. But it is interesting to note that the 
religious importance of the path of action exclusively was greatest 
in the earliest times, that of the path of knowledge grew later 
and that of the path of devotion last. The three have existed 
side by side but while the influence of the first two has waned 
that of Bhakti-Mdrga has increased. 

The path of action is the one principally laid down by the 
Vedas, developed and systematised in the Brahmavaa, Kalpa- 
Sutras, and Karma-Afirnarhsa and 'popularised by Dfmrma- 
Sastras, Mahabharata and the Parana*. What then is the 
philosophic basis of this Karma-Morga^ 

^ Whatever historical strata Vedic thought may contain* in it| 
mature form it is a well-rounded philosophic-religious qystem. 


n this system one supreme being stands forth as the ultimate 
eality. It is conceived of as the One 1 (efeam), the Person 
purttja), the Creator (viavakarman, 2 prajapatfi), the Absolute 
(tad 4 ), Brdhmaria 'transcendent and immanent, 5 omniscient, 6 
upholder of n^pral law 7 and maintainer of cosmic order. 8 He 
is the father, 9 the sustainer and supporter of the universe, 10 and 
the fulfiller of desires. *' One All is Lord of what is fixed and 
moving, that walks, that flies, this multiform creation/* 11 

How does He create the world ? There are several accounts 
of it in the Vedic literature. Sometimes the universe is conceived 
of as the result of mechanical production. 12 It is measured and 
spread out ; it has foundation, support and framework. 
Sometimes it is the fruit of sacrifice. Puru$a himself becomes 
the victim and from his parts are made corresponding portions 
of the universe. 13 More philosophically considered, creation is 
a process, the evolution of the existent (sat) from the non-existent 
(asat). 14 In the beginning not-being and being were both 
non-existent, there was a dark void in which the One breathed 
calm and windless, then desire sprang within Him which was 
the bond of being and non-being and the cause of entire 
creation. But the account which became popular was that the 
primeval being created the waters on which floated the golden 

1 Rg-Veda (Wilson's translation) I, 164. 46; VIII, 58, 2 Balakhtlya. 
a Ibid., X, 81. 82. 

3 Ibid., X. 121. 

4 Jbid., X, 129. 

6 Ibid.. 1, 164. 45; X, 90. 3 and 4. 

ibid., I. 25; Macdonnel : History of Sanskrit Literature, p. 201; 
Bloomfield : The Religion of Veda, p. 123. 

7 Rg-Veda 11. 28. 5; Bloomfield : The Religion of Veda, p. 124. 
$ Rg-Veda I, 105, 12; I. 164, 11. 

9 Ibid., X, 82, 3. 

10 Ibid., X, 82. 

llFrazer: Literary History of India, p. 57. 

!2rXg-Veda X, 12. 

IS Ibid,, X, 90. 

14 Ifeid,, X, 129. 


egg, he then entered it, and was born from it as Brahmd the 
first of created things. Brahma then created gods, heaven, 
earth, sky, sun, moon, universe and man. 

All these cosmogonies show a frankly pantheistic tendency, 
for creation either implies transformation of the First Principle 
into the universe, or the immanence of what was* transcendent, 
or the manifestation of the non-manifest. But within this 
pantheism lurks the principle of personality, for the universe is 
the result of desire, creation is the effect of will. 

This in fact is the most important conception from the point 
of view of the path of action* The universe is the theatre of 
God's will, every being living and non-living is moved by His 
eternal order and all action and movement is bound in one 
cha,in of law. Not only are natural phenomena day and night, 
sun and moon, rivers and oceans, and the gods Agni, 
Soma, Bfhaspati, Indra, Adits and Karuna, under the sway 
of law, but the very act of worship rite and sacrifice which 
(man offers to the gods obeys* the all-comprehending, all- 
encompassing rule of cosmic law. In fact before the severe 
majesty of law even the power of the gods pales into 
insi gnificance . 1 5 

Sacrifice is the symbol of this universal order ; it is even 
the source of Prajapati's power, for when He exhausts it in 
creation, the gods replenish his pristine vigour with sacrifice. 
Through sacrifice the gods display their activity in rain and 
storm and the rising of the sun. Sacrifice is thus the instrument 
by which the will of God is fulfilled. Man is the creature of 
God dependent upon His will, seeking to understand and 
interpret that will, and naturally moulding his actions in imita- 
tion of his gods. Sacrifice is, therefore, the means of attaining 
prosperity here and blessedness hereafter. 10 

The pathway of eternal bliss is that of action, which means 
sacrifice performed with faith and accompanied with prayer. 

15 Bergaigne: Le Religion Vcdiquc, Chapitre III. 

16 Ofammare : L'hUtoire <fo lde* theoeophrque* dam 2'ffttle, Qiapfoe fl 


Sacrifices are manifold they are obligatory and regular (nitya), 
obligatory but occasional (mrimitfifea), and optional (kamya). 
Then there are the great sacrifices whbh in later times had largely 
fallen into disuse ; and there are the domestic sacrifices (grhya) 
which still play an important part in the life of the individual. 
The Vedic sacrifices required oblations of animals as well as 
fruits and milk and cakes of rice, the first, however, disappeared 
from the ritual, and followers of Smrffa offered only non-bloody 

But sacrifice although symbolic of cosmic law and hence 
efficacious in bringing about the* desired ends is not the whole 
of human action. Man's life, therefore, is mapped out and 
man's place in society fixed. Rules are laid down for the 
governance of each part of the four fold station of life (a^rama) 
and fourfold classification of society (tfarrm). The permanence 
of these duties becomes the essential part of the religion of 
action (var^asrama dharma). 

Yet another development of this conception takes place in. 
the BhagaVadgltd where it is taught that salvation may be won 
through the path of action, and action is interpreted as per- 
formance of duty without attachment to fruits. 

This then was the speculative basis of the religion of 
Karman, But in popular practice it meant more or less the 
offering of sacrifices to the gods and the observance of the 
domestic rites. In the Vedas the gods had been the earliest 
products of creation. They were semi-anthropomorphised 
forces of nature, their functions were scarcely differentiated and 
therefore they easily melted into one another 

They call him Indra, Mitra, Vartuita, A$ni, and he is 
* the heavenly winged Garufmcrn." 17 

But later they acquired more definite personalities. On the 
eve of the advent of the Muslims in India the significance and 
numbers of the ancient deities had greatly changed. Most of 
them had disappeared from the popular pantheon, the import- 

c 17 Frazer : Literary Hktory of India, p. 57. 


ance of others had enormously varied, and a number of new ones 
had risen into favour. As beings of a higher order they played 
an important role in the universe and the life of man. Their 
favour had to be won by prayer and sacrifices and their wrath 
propitiated by suitable rites and penances. Each of these deities 
had its group of devotees and particular deities* had given rise 
to sects. It is necessary to gauge the relative popularity and 
strength of the sects prevalent in India in those times in order 
to understand the transformations wrought in subsequent times. 

The Vedic pantheon was peopled with gods that lived in 
the heavens or in the atmosphere or upon earth, their number 
was reckoned as thirty-three, but tho'se to whom the greatest 
number of hymns were devoted were Indra, Agni, and Soma. 
Varuna was the most exalted, and Prajapati was the lord of 
creation, Vi^u and Rudra-SiVa received meagre attention. In 
older epic mythology Brahma presided over the deities as creator 
and beneficent ancestor of all, while Agni, Yama, Varuna, 
Kukera and Indra were most often invoked. Later Siva and 
Vi$nu attained the predominant position and joined with Brahma 
formed the great Trinity. 

For the seventh and eighth centuries there is a considerable 
amount of contemporary evidence to show what the state of 
popular worship was. This evidence consists of the accounts 
of Chinese travellers, the Sanskrit dramas, the inscriptions and 
coins of Indian rulers, and the descriptions of the Arab writers. 
They disclose that while the non-Vedic religions. Buddhism 
and Jainism, were on the decline, the old Vedic religion had 
greatly changed, the worship of Siva was the predominant 
religion of India, the cult of Sakfi was rising into importance 
and Visnu and other deities were held in popular esteem in a 
descending scale. 

In the narratives of Fa-Hien 18 one finds that in the fifth 
century when the traveller came to India, the north-western 
portion of the country from Kabul and Khotan to Mathura was 

1* Be*l : The Boddhiat Record* of the Werfern World, Vol. 1. p. 


still loyal to Buddhism (Hinayana), in the Madhya Desa the 
assimilation of Buddhism and Hinduism was rapidly proceeding, 
there were ninety-six heretical sects all of whom allowed the 
reality of worldly phenomena and the Buddhists professed the 
Mahdydna doctrine, but the ancient region which had been the 
cradle of Buddhism was a desert, the Sanghardmas and Vihdras 
were in ruins and there were hardly any priests in the ancient 
cities of Sravasti, Kapilavastu, Kusinagar, Vaisall, Pafcaliputra 
or Gaya. The land was barren, the inhabitants had fled, the 
roads were infested with wild beasts, and desolation reigned 
over all. In the east, however, between Campa and Tamralipti 
Buddhism still flourished. 

When Hiuen-Tsiang visited India two hundred years later 
he found Hinduism vigorously established by the side of 
Buddhism. The north-western regions were no longer the seat 
of a flourishing faith. Everywhere, in Lamghan, in Gandhara, 
in Udyana, in Kashmir and the Pan jab and right down to 
Mathura the Hmay&na had been displaced by the Mahay dna, 
and more important still the Deva temples and Brahmana priests 
equalled in numbers and importance the Buddhist Sahghardmas 
and Sramanas. In the Madhya Desa, in the east of India, and 
in the south, wherever he travelled he found the same state 
of affairs. Har$a-Vardhana, the Emperor of Northern India, 
paid equal reverence to the two faiths and he exhibited his 
impartiality in the great festival on the plains of Prayaga by 
installing and worshipping on successive days the images of the 
Buddha, Surya and Mahesoara* 

Hiuen-Tsiang's narrative is full of references to the 
prevalence of Saiva worship especially in Pasupata form. In 
the Swat Valley was the spring of Siva which inflicted injury 
on crops, 10 above Soli to the north-east of Palusha there was an 
image of Mahesvara's spouse Bhima, and a temple of ash- 
smearing Tfiihdfeos, 20 in Makran there were hundreds of Detwi 

18 Walters: Yuan-CHwaag, Vol I. pp. 229-30. 
*30ibHL, p. 221. 


temples and very many professed Patupatas, and in the city 
there was a large temple to Mahcivara which was held in great 
reverence by the PaBupatat, 21 in Fcrla-na (Baluchistan) there 
were Deva temples chiefly belonging to the Poitipato*,** in 
Mahesoarapura (east of Sindh) the people wer* not Buddhists 
and the majority of temples belonged to the Palupafoa, 28 in 
O-tfen-f>o-chi-/o (a dependency of Sindh) there was a magnificent 
Mahe&vara temple and numerous Pa&upataB ; 24 in Khotan there 
were Pasupatas, for a Paaupata engineer was engaged by the 
Chinese prince to lay the foundations of his capital 25 ; in Kashmir 
the Kritiyas had overthrown Buddhism and established heresy 
(probably Saivism 26 ) ; in the Panjab from the Indus to the Sutlej 
there were numerous heretics, in Jalandhar all the heretics 
belonged to the Pdsupatas 27 (the cinder-sprinkled) ; in Ahichhatra 
(Ramnagar) there were sectaries who sacrificed to Hoara and 
belonged to the company of ash-sprinklers (Pasupatas), 28 in 
Kapitha (Sankisa) there were temples where they honoured 
Mahe&vara and sacrificed to him, 20 in Kanauj there was a 
splendid temple to Ma/iesoara, 80 in Benares there were over a 
hundred Deva temples and more than ten thousand adherents 
of the sects, the majority being devotees of Sioa (ra*7seu-Tsai) 
some of these cut off their hair, others made it into a topknot* 
they covered their bodies with ashes, and by the practice of 
all sorts of austerities they sought to escape from birth and 

21 Waiters: Yuan-Chwang, Vol. II, p. 257, 

22 Ibid., p. 262, 

23Beal : Buddhist Records of the Western World, Vol. II, p. 271. 

24 Ibid., p. 276. 

25Watters: Yuan-Chwang, Vol. II. p. 296, 

20 Beal : Op. cit. Vol. I, pp. 156-58. 

2T Ibid., pp. 15658. 

28 Ibid., p. 200. 

29 Ibid., p. 202. 

* 30 Walter. : Op. cit.. Vol. 1 I, p. 352. 


death, 31 there was a copper image of Mahcivara about 100 feet 
in height, " its appearance is grave and majestic, apd appears 
as though really living " 82 ; in Kapilavastu there was a temple 
of Ifoaradeoa** ; beyond Ayodhya on the Ganges river there 
were pirates wjio paid worship to Durga and who annually 
performed human sacrifice 34 ; in Bengal SaSanka who was a 
Saiva persecuted the Buddhists, in the University of Nalanda 
Hiuen-Tsiang disputed with Bhutaa who covered themselves with 
(ashes* 39 and the KdfxAikflB who wore chaplets of bones round 
their heads 36 ; on the eastern coast there were Hindu sectaries 
and at Bhramaragiri and Dhanakafaka the worship of Durga 
prevailed 87 ; on Potalaka mountain, east of Malaya, there was a 
temple of Sit)a 38 ; in Western India MalwS was famous for its 
learning, there were hundreds of DeVa temples and the majority 
of the sectaries were Pasupafas. 39 Even in Persia, Afghanistan 
and Central Asia there were Pdsupatas besides Buddhists and 
they performed their rites in their temples* 40 

The literary evidence confirms the account of Hiuen-Tsiang. 
Sudraka's Mrcchakafika shows the predominance of 
Buddhism, but it by no means ignores Siva, for the Nandi in 
invoking benedictions, calls upon NilakflQtha (Siva) whose blue 
neck is entwined by the arms of Gauri effulgent like lightning. 41 
Kalidas* in the opening lines of Raghuvumsa pays homage to 

31 Watten : Op. cit., Vol. II, p. 47. 

32 Beal: Op. cit.. Vol. 11. p. 45. 

33 Wattew : Op. cit.. Vol. II. p. 13. 

34 Beal : Life of Hiuen-Tsiang, p. 86. 

35 Ibid., p. 161. 

36 Ibid., p. 161. 

37 Beal : Op. cit., Vol. tt, p. 214, note, and p. 224, note, 
88 Ibid., p. 233. 

38 Wnttefs : Op. cit. Vol. II, p. 242; Beal : Vol. II, p, 261. 
40 Beal : Op, cit.. Vol. II, p. 277, 

* 41 WiUon: The Hindu Drama. Mfechakatika, * 


Parvati and Parametoara. 42 Sana's Harfacharita is replete with 
metaphors alluding to Siva ; *he refers to the yawning gulf of 
MahabhairaVa's mouth, to Siva's begging bowl made of 
Brahma s skull 48 ; and among the devotees of various sects to 
Maha-Paiupatas*** In the Kadambari reverence i* paid to &oa 
as Mahdkcda, ** the pre-eminence yielded in Kddamban to Siva 
certainly shows that this was then the popular worship/' 45 
Ujjain was spoken of as a creation of Mahdkflla. Bhavabhuti 
in his Malatt Mddhava represents MalatT to have visited the 
temple of Samfezra. 46 Siva worship prevailed over Western 
India. There were great linga shrines at Mandhata, Ujjain, 
Nasik, Ellora; Naganatha, east of Ahmad nagar, and at the 
source of the Bhima, and sanguinary' rites were still observed 
at IVfendhata in the twelfth century A.D. 47 In the absence of a 
fixed chronology for the Pur anas it is difficult to rely upon their 
evidence, but the important position occupied by Siva both in 
the Mahabharata and in the Pura^as clearly proves that the cult 
had obtained such widespread popularity that it had to be given 
recognition in the Brahmanical system. It is not unlikely that 
the admission of Siva into the trinity was subsequent to that of 
Vi$nu, and that the Vaifnava redactions of the epic and of the 
Purdrtas are earlier than the Saiva touches. It is, however, 
undoubted that the worship of both Siva and Vi^nu existed side 
by side, and that during the Gupta period Siva was the more 
popular of the two deities. 

The coins of the Ku$ana kings and inscriptions of the 
various dynasties point to the same conclusion. 4 * The Arabs 
who during the course of the seventh and eighth centuries made 
many descents upon the coast of Gujarat, the Gulf of Cambay 

42 Kalidasa : Raghuvaihta. 

4*Coweli and Thomas : Bina'i HarfaCarit*. pp. 259, 260. 

44 J, Vidyirfgara Bhattacharya : Haifa Carita, p. 204, 

45 Ridding : B&nm's Kadambari, p. xvii. 

46 BKmvabKuti : Milatt Midhava. Act 111. 
**?Pariter: Introduction to Markapdcya Purina, 

4$ Rap*on ; Indian Coins, KafanM* p. 16. 


of Sakti in various forms. In the Mahabharata there are hymns 
addressed to Durtfa, 57 and the Tantras which inculcate her cult 
probably assumed their present form in the sixth century. 58 The 
cult of the mothers (mdfrfeo*) was closely allied to Saktism 
and was widely spread. 

The Saura cult appears to have been widely diffused 
about this period. Multan had a splendid temple which was 
seen and described by Hiuen-Tsiang, Ibn Haukal, and 
Istakhri. The Kitcfb al Fihriat mentions Soma worshippers who 
had an image of Soma on a chariot drawn by four horses, 
holding a stone of the colour of fire. Al Shahrastan! gives the 
same account. 59 Mayura in his Surya Sataka makes Surya, 60 
the supreme god and identifies him with Brahma, Siva, Kisriu, 
Varna and Kubera. Surya is to him not only the god and the 
primary cause but a kinsman and kind friend, a teacher and a 
father. Varahamihira 61 gives directions for the installation and 
consecration of the images and temples of the sun, and 
Harsavardhana styles himself a * great devotee of the sun 
(Paramadityabhakta). ' 62 

The worshippers of Ganapaii or Ganesa, Skanda or 
Kartitqeya, Candra, and other gods and goddesses hardly need 
detailed notice. 

The followers of the path of action (kprma-marga) were 
found in all the sects and among the devotees of all the gods. 
Their worship consisted in addressing prayers to the gods before 
the images at home or in the temple, in performing prescribed 
rites domestic and public in offering sacrifices rarely human, 
in some cases bloody, but more often consisting of corn and milk 

57 Mahabharata : BMtma Parvan, Chapter 23, VirtJ* Parvan, Chap. ( 
(P. C. Ray** translation). 

58Gedeit: E.R.E. Tantatfw. 

58Rehat^k: Early Moslem Account*. 

eoQuackcnbo.: Mayfira Sataka. 

eiVarthamiKira: tranhtted by Kern. 

**V; A, Simtk: Gupta Coinage, J.R.A.S, 1089, p. 1. * 


and fruits. Fasts, pilgrimages, charity, penances and ascetic 
exercises were part of the good deeds which won the favour of 
the gods. The path of action was the path of legal duties, and 
fixed ceremonial ; it led to prosperity in this life and to heavenly 
bliss in the life beyond. 

The second path for the attainment of salvation is that of 
knowledge (jndna-marga). The Veda9 and the Brahmana* had 
emphasised the value of action. But when the theory of 
metempsychosis and the law of far man rose, it became apparent 
to the logical mind of the Hindu thinkers that devotion to action 
could not lead to deliverance and freedom. It was necessary 
to discover some other means to break the rigid chain of cause 
and effect, to bring to an end the otherwise indestructible impulse 
of primeval action. It became necessary to make a searching 
enquiry into the very nature of action and to find out the law 
of its fulfilment and exhaustion. This enquiry was started 
early by the forest recluses whose bold speculations are 
embodied in the Upanifada. It was soon taken up in what 
Grierson calls the * Outlands of Aryavarta/ i.e., among the 
peoples inhabiting the regions to the south-west and east of the 
midlands occupied by Vedic Aryans, by Ksattriyas and other 
non-Brahmanas. And the profound and earnest discussions of 
cosmic origin and human destiny, of the nature of the ultimate 
reality and its relation to the individual, of good and evil and 
of the psychology of conduct and of the means of deliverance 
led to the foundation of a number of religio-philosophic, or to 
use Oltramare's term, theosophic systems Sdnkhya, Yoga, 
Veddnta, Bauddha, Jaina, Saiva, Vai$riava, Tdntra, Lofcayota 
and others. 

Although each one of these systems proposed * different 
solution of the problems of life and thought, there are certain 
features common to all of them which form the basis of the 
Pre-lslamic Indian culture. * 

In the first place, all the systems have the same point of 
departure, i.e., the Vedic conception of law, only they apply it 
more rigorously than the ancient seers did. This conception of 


law IB combined with the conception of feorman. Action is a 
relationship of cause and effect, and it forms an eternal begin- 
ningless unending chain by which the universe and man are 
inexorably bound. The conception of Ifearman applied to the 
macrocosm (gives the cosmogonies and genetic chains, applied 
to the microcosm the theory of transmigration or metempsychosis 
or palingenesis. The essence of Barman is bondage, and bondage 
signifies suffering. The goal of human endeavour is to break the 
chain and end suffering. The preconceptions of time, space 
and cause which are so to say the media of all- thinking are 
also alike in all the systems. Time and space are not empty 
voids in which reality happens and lives, but the plastic forms 
of reality itself, the all-pervading, continuous and universal 
mediums of reality. Objectively time and space are not 
homogeneous continuums. They are relative. The time 
moments differ for different types of beings ; for example, the 
unit of earthly time is one-hundredth part of the unit of higher 
beings (gods), a millionth of the unit of still higher beings 
(BraJimo) and an infinitesimal part of that of the highest being. 
Space is gross and subtle and within the subtle are subtler spaces 
forming thus a series of space within space. Thus the sensible 
universe does not exhaust the whole of being. Time and space 
are modes of reality, hence reality is conceived as a becoming, 
a cyclic process, an eternal evolution and involution, manifesta- 
tion and reabsorption, and as an inexhaustible articulation of 
forms and a plenum of worlds upon worlds piled in unending 

The ideas of causality involve the notions of agency, 
material and product and the relation and meaning of them. 
They have various interpretations sometimes implying the deter- 
mination of a product by an agent, sometimes merely denoting 
a succession of events, and at other times asserting an identity 
between cause and effect the manifestation of the unmanifest. 
Causation is understood in different ways in different schools, 
and, according to the particular meaning attached <to it, is 
envisaged the relation of the first principle of things to created 


nature, i.e., God and the universe. Four main interpretations 
of causation may be distinguished : (I) the theistic, which holds 
that God created the universe out of nothing, but the universe 
is real ; (2) the realistic, which considers nature co-eternal with 
God and independent, God being only a demiurge ; (3) the 
pantheistic, which looks upon the universe as the manifestation 
of God, and makes God and universe synonymous ; 
(4) the idealistic, which maintains that nothing exists besides 

Besides metaphysical postulates, the methodology of Indian 
systems is the same. The first assumption is that truth is learnt 
not merely by ratiocination or faith but by direct experience, 
and that speculation must begin with these truths of intuition, 
and philosophy proceed to demonstrate them by reasoning. It 
follows that philosophical discipline must consist of the hearing 
(sravana) of truths and reflection (manana) upon them, its end 
being self-illumination. 

The presentation of philosophical truth not the realization 
of intuitive truth depends on the prepossessions, temperament 
and intelligence of the individual, hence considerations of points 
of view and of personal needs (palra) must arise and be attended 
to. Looking at things in this way the six different systems of 
Hindu philosophy constitute one series. Purva Mimamaa 
deals with the practical side of religion and explains the Vedic 
ritual and duties ; Nyaya lays down the method of reasoning ; 
Vaise&kfl gives a first analysis of metaphysical doctrines and 
reduces the universe to nine classes of ultimate factors or self- 
subsisting entities. Sdnkhya carries the analysis a step further 
and derives the whole of the universe from two ultimate 
principles Purusa and Prakfti or soul and matter ; Yoga 
accepts the exposition of Sdntyiya and proceeds to consider the 
practical method by which the truth pf the doctrines can be 
realised as direct experiences ; lastly, Veddnta reduces the two 
realities of Sdnkhya-Yoga to one absolute reality only, whose 
appearance is the multiplicity of names and forms, the 
phenomenal universe of infinite variety. 


The religious aspect of the Upanisads and the six philo- 
sophical systems may be briefly summarised. According to 
Sankhya reality is constituted of two co-eternal substances 
soul and matter. Matter in the undifferentiated state consists of 
three constituents (sativa, rajas, famaa) held in equilibrium. Its 
attribute i$ change and activity. Souls are infinite in number 
and conscious but inactive and unchangeable. The presence of 
the souls excites matter to activity, its equilibrium is disturbed 
and it enters into the process of development. From undiffer- 
entiated matter twenty-five entities are evolved and form the 
manifested universe including the physiological and psycho- 
logical vehicles of the soul, body and mind. The soul illumines 
the processes in the mind, and brings the mechanical and the 
unconscious into the plane of consciousness, itself remaining 
passive, at harmony with itself, independent. But the attach- 
ment of soul with its vehicles is a bondage and creates suffering 
and pain. It creates the illusion which involves the soul in the 
wheel of births and deaths. The ultimate destiny of the soul 
is, however, liberation and this is attained by the acquisition 
of discriminating knowledge, by the recognition of the essential 
distinction of soul from matter. After the attainment of this 
knowledge and the exhaustion of the results of the works done 
before soul is freed, mind is dissolved and body perishes. 
4 'The soul, therefore, abides eternally released from the delusion 
and suffering of this world, as a seer who no longer sees any- 
thing, a glass in which nothing is any longer reflected, as pure 
untroubled light by which nothing is illuminated." 63 

Yoga introduces into this system of two co-eternal principles 
a third eternal principle, that is, God (Uvara). God is conceived 
as a particular soul, and endowed with all good qualities. He 
is not a creator or punisher and re warder, nor a bestower of 
felicity, but ** He in His mercy aids the man who is entirely 
devoted to Him to remove the hindrances which stand in the 

Garga: EJR.E. SaAkh^ Voted few* Oidenberg. 


way of the attainment of deliverance." Yoga prescribes the 
exact discipline by means of which the knowledge which 
emancipatej may be attained. This is the famous eightfold 
discipline of interdictions (yama), injunctions (my a ma), postures 
(asana), control of breath (pronog/crma), retraction of sense 
activities (pratyahara), fixation of mind (dhdranaf, meditation 
(dhydna), and concentration (samddhi). The first two lay down 
the decalogue of the necessary virtues among which prominence 
is given to the suppression of desires, the next three the process 
of self-hypnosis and the last two the attainment of ecstasy and 
the unitive state. 

The Vedanta takes for granted the cosmogony of the 
Sdnkhya and the eightfold discipline of the Yoga, but advances 
a step further the enquiry into the nature of the soul, matter 
and God. With regard to the nature of the dtman (soul), the 
Kaise?ifcz standpoint is that it is a reality in which conscious- 
ness is sustained but of which consciousness is not an absolutely 
essential characteristic ; the Sankhya holds that the soul is 
consciousness or intelligence itself but teaches that souls are 
infinite in number ; the Vedanta comes to the conclusion that 
the soul is not only consciousness itself, but that it is one and the 
same in all experiencing beings, and that the soul (atman) is 
identical with God (brahman). But soul is overlaid with 
ignorance and enters into Samadra and undergoes suffering, from 
which release is possible only by the removal of ignorance and 
the realization of its true nature. 

Besides the orthodox schools of philosophy which prescribed 
the path of knowledge, the India of the seventh and eighth cen- 
turies knew of a number of other systems heterodox and secta- 
rian which taught liberation by knowledge. Among them 
the most important were the Buddha systems. 

Buddhism was divided into two .schools of Hinayaniste and 
Mahayanbts and each of them was further subdivided into two 
branches. The Vaibhofikfl* and Saufronirifcos belonged to the 
Hfnayana, and the Yogacaras (cff Vijfianaoadin*) and 
mt(as or (SunyaVadin*) to the Mahay ana. 


Buddhism had started its career as a protest against the 
formalism of Brahmanism and it fell foul of its essential theories 
concerning the nature of soul (atman) and God. (brahman). 
With regard to both its attitude was one of denial. The soul 
as a substance did not exist, all that existed was an aggregation 
of parts (s^andhas), the coming together of which created a 
temporary unity. The universe was a plan and it was useless 
to speculate about its beginning or end. The world as known 
was a casual order, the first link in the chain was ignorance 
which gave rise to action, consciousness, mind, body, sense, 
organs, contact, feeling, craving, grasping, becoming, birth, 
decay, death, grief, sorrow and pain. The dhamma of the eight- 
fold path trained away the suffering feid put an end to the endless 
round of births and deaths. This path consisted of right views 
(samyak df$fO. right thoughts (samyak sanfealpa), right speech 
(samyak tfaca), right actions (samyak fearman), right living 
(samyak afwa), right exertion (samyak vyayama), right recollec- 
tion (samyak smffi), right meditations (samyak samddhi). The 
follower of the eightfold path passed through four stages : first 
that of the neophyte (srotapanna) who had broken the first three 
bonds of human passion (heresy, scepticism and superstitious 
rites) ; second, that of the first-returner (sakrddgamin) who would 
be reborn once only in the world of men because he had reduced 
to a minimum affection, hatred and infatuation ; third, that of 
the never-returner (andgamin) who had freed himself from the five 
bonds (the three of the neophyte, and attachment and antipathy) 
and who would be born not among men but in a Brahmaloka ; 
and, lastly, that of the Arhat who had exhausted the fearman 
and removed all the bonds, and who would no more be subject 
to rebirth. The aim of the eightfold path and the fourfold 
stages was the attainment of Nirvana. 

" Nibbana is the highest bliss 
And of all paths the eightfold 'tis 
That unto death-less safety leads.'* 64 

64 Mr. Rhys Davids : Buddhiwn, p. 177. ' 


The Hmayana and Mahay ana schools differed on questions 
of metaphysics, on the destiny of the individual, and on ritual 
The Hmayanists were realists, acknowledging the real existence 
of the phenomenal world. The Mahdyanists were idealists ; the 
Yogdcdras denied the real existence of all except consciousness ; 
the Mddhyamikas held that the whole of the phenomenal world 
was unreal and illusory, and in this they were the teachers of 
ankara. The Hmayanists were concerned with the fate of the 
individual alone and in Arhathood formed his highest possi- 
bility of achievement, the Mahay artists aimed at universal 
salvation and promised the attainment of Buddhahood with all 
its spiritual powers. Then the first were simple in their ritual, 
while the second introduced the elaboration of temples and 
images and 1 the worship of Bodhisattvas, assimilating Buddhism 
to Hinduism. 

Jainism occupied an important position among the religio- 
philosophical systems then prevalent in India. The Jainas do 
not believe in one transcendent or absolute existence. They 
divide reality into soul and not-soul. Under the former category 
they include two kinds according to the bodies which they 
inhabit : immobile, e.g. mineral, water, fire, air, and vegetable ; 
and mobile, the highest among which are those possessed of 
five senses. The last are divided into five classes Siddhat 
(liberated), Arhats (perfect souls awaiting Nirvana), Jcaryas 
(heads of groups of ascetics), Upadhydyas (teaching saints), 
Sddhvs (ordinary saints). The soul possesses nine qualities but 
the chief among them is consciousness (cetano). The not-souU 
(afivas) are without consciousness. They are classified into five 
substances (matter, space, time, dharma the principle of 
motion, and adharma the principle of inertia). Soul comes 
into contact with Jfearm/c matter (not-soul), becomes impure and 
obscured of its four great attributes of perfect perception, perfect 
knowledge, perfect power and perfect happiness* The 
obscuration of Barman keeps the soul tied to the mundane wheel 
of existence which is the resuk of a twofold proces*-~0) the 
movement of fcormic matter towards the soul (osmtto), and 


(2) the bondage of the soul by fcarmic matter (bandha). This 
bondage is broken in two steps (1) by stopping any fresh 
material ties (samoara), and (2) by shedding the matter in which 
soul is entangled (nirjara). The end of the process is niroapa. 
The two steps consist of a discipline of vows, penances and 
austerities by means of which the impurities are gradually (in 
fourteen stages) washed away and the soul attains the state of 
pristine purity (mofesa). 

The three principal sectarian Hindu philosophical systems 
are Vaiwava (or Satvata or PancarStra or Bhagvata), Saiva 
and Tantrika. The history of the various systems included 
under the three sects goes back to very early times. It is 
necessary here briefly to give an account of them as they existed 
in the century following the break-up of Haifa's empire, without 
entering into the question of their origin and development. 

In the Pancaratra system Vi$nu is the transcendent absolute 
reality, La^sm? is the energy, residing in Him as I ness in I or 
moonshine in the moon. LafomI has a twofold aspect : as 
Kriyd&akti she represents Vi$r\u's will-to-be, and is independent 
of space and time, as Bhuti-sakii it is the matrix of the 

Creation begins when Vi$nu near the end of the night of 
absorption (lay a), awakens Lak?rrii by his command. The first 
phase of the manifestation is the appearance of six attributes 
of God, i.e., Knowledge, Lordship, Power, Strength, Vitality 
and Splendour. They are the instruments of pure creation. In 
their totality the attributes make up the body of Kastideoa, the 
highest personal God. From Vdsudeva emanate by aelf- 
diremption three vyuhas each denoted by a pair of attributes, 
i.e., Samfcor$acui by Knowledge and Lordship, Pradywnna by 
Power and Strength, Aniruddha by Vitality and Splendour. 

The second manifestation of pure creation is the vibhavas 
i.e., the incarnations of God. Two kinds are distinguished 
among them, the primary when KI>OII Himself incarnates with 
a transcendent body* and the secondary when a soul in bondage 
vri&\ a natural body is pervaded by the power of Vi^a. The 


Antarydmi as the inner ruler of all souls, and Area as the 
appearance of Vi$nu in images are two other forms of 

The vyuhas bring into play their creative activities by 
which the non-pure universe comes into existence, in several 
stages. At first the aggregate of souls (kutdstha purcifa) and 
the primitive form of matter or nature (mayo) are evolved, then 
the kutastha descends into mayd and develops the principle of 
force (takti), regulating knowledge (nryafi), time (feafa), and the 
three constituents of matter (sattoa, rajas and tamos). From the 
three constituents of matter (mula prafcrff) evolves owing to the 
proximity of soul (kutastha puruao) and the maturing influence 
of time (feo/a) the first great product called Mahat or cosmic 
breath, the unconscious. From Mahat originates A hanker a 
(maker), from Ahankara mind (manas) and the ten senses the 
five elements with their five attributes. 

In the last stage of creation the elements combine under 
the influence of Puruqa and form the egg of the universe, out 
of which come the youths Sanakadi, the Rudras and the 
Prajapatis the universe consisting of fourteen spheres surrounded 
by seven enclosures, and the five classes of individual souls 
(vyatfi), the eternally free (nitya), the liberated (mufefa), the pure 
(kevala), the seekers (mumufcsu) and the bound (baddha). 

The individual soul in the world finds itself in bondage. 
Its original nature, is obscured by the acquisition of three taints 
by association with matter, it loses its original attributes of 
absoluteness, power, knowledge and it becomes limited (anuta), 
weak (afeincfrfczra), and ignorant (ajnatva). The taints produce 
attachment and desire and these lead the soul into 5am*ara and 

The obscuration can be ended by knowledge (#Ufoo), 
attained through the grace (anugtaha) of Viwu. The method cf 
the attainment of knowledge consists of the performance of the 
duties of caste and stage (varnairama dharma), the performance 
of mystical exercises (mantra and yoga) under the direction of a 
teacher, worship (aradhana), and devotion (bhakti of nyam). 


The destiny of the emancipated is to dwell in 
enjoying eternal bliss at the feet of Vi$nu. 

The period of creation is followed by that of destruction, 
when the universe is absorbed into Vi^u from whom it began. 

The Saiva system was founded by Lakulm or Lakullsa 
about the second century B.C. Later it was divided into a 
number of schools forming two groups (1) Saivas, Pasupatas, 
Kdpdlikas and Kdldmukhas ; (2) SpanJa Sdstra, Pratyabhijnd 
Sdstra and Siva Siddhdntas, (Kashmir). 

The philosophic basis of the Saha systems of the first 
group was the recognition of three principles, the lord (fiati), 
the individual (pasu), and the fetters (pdsa). Siva is the Lord 
who is endowed with a body made of the five powers of creation, 
protection, destruction, concealment and benefaction. The 
individual soul is active, self-conscious, atonic and co-eternal 
with the Lord. It becomes bound with fourfold fetters by the 
obscuring power of the Lord. The fetters are taints (mala), 
impressions of actions (Barman), materiality (maya), obstruction 
(roaViasa^ii). The fetters may be removed with the help of 
the beneficent power of the Lord by good deeds (fern/a), 
meditation (yoga), and discipline (carycfy. Good deeds consist 
in the accomplishment of mantras, twilight adorations, worship, 
mutterings of formulas (;apa), throwing oblations into the fire, 
performance of ceremonies and anointing the preceptor and 
the disciple. Yoga or meditation is constituted by restraint of 
breath in the circles of the body beginning with the navel 
(mulddhdra), attainment of miraculous powers, abstraction, 
concentration, absorption, (samadhi). The discipline prescribes 
penances, the foundation of images or lingams, the use of the 
rosary, funeral ceremonies and other practices. The free souls 
(muktas) become identical with Sioa himself, retaining their 
individuality in Him* . 

Hie Pdlupatas aimed at a mystic union reached by pious 
mutterings, meditation and the cessation of all action, so that 
a state of mere feeling (aamoiJ) was attained. They enjoined a 
proc** (vidhi) for exciting religious emotions which consisted ' 


in besmearing the body with ashes three times a day, and 
engaging in laughter, song, dance, amorous gestures, uttering 
loud sounds, executing wild movements and repeating maudibly 
certain formulae. 

Their rule of conduct was antinomian, they were required 
to do a thing condemned by all (avitadkorana), as if one were 
devoid of the sense of discrimination between what should be 
done and what should be avoided, and to speak nonsensical 
and absurd things (avitad-bha$ana). 

The Kapalikas and Kdlamukhas carried things to disgusting 
extremes. They went about wearing garlands of skulls, armed 
with clubs and lances, carrying wine pots, eating ashes, and 
performing bloody rites. 

The second group which belonged originally to Kashmir 
spread thence to the Deccan and the extreme south (ninth to 
twelfth century A.D.). The Spanda &Q*tra teaches that the soul 
gains knowledge through intense Yogic contemplation, whereby 
the vision of Parama Siva, the Supreme Lord of the Universe, 
is realised and the individual soul is absorbed in a mystic trance 
of peace and quiet and joy. In Pratyabhijna the soul by its 
own intuition trained under the instruction of a Guru (teacher) 
recognises itself as God and so rests in the mystic bliss of one* 
ness with God. The path of knowledge common to all the sects 
led by means of the discipline of the Yoga to the goal of self- 
illumination and the realisation of the oneness of the individual 
soul with the supreme soul. 

The third path for the attainment of liberation is that of 
devotion and faith (BhakH-Marga). Bhakti has been denned as 
' the worship of a personal deity in a spirit of love * 06 ; as 
' personal faith in a personal God, love for him as for a human 
being, the dedication of everything to hi* service, and the 
attainment of " mofefa " by* th& means, rather than by 

65Baraett: Some Notes on the History of the Religion of L^ve in 
India. International Congress fcw the History of Religion., 1908. 


knowledge, or sacrifice, or works*, 66 as an affection fixed upon 
the Lord after acquiring a knowledge of the attributes of the 
adorable one. 67 Bhakti is the emotional aspect of religion, its 
roots lie in the feeling or affective side of human consciousness, 
as those of Jndna, lie in the cognitive or intellectual, and those of 
Karma in the conative or willing. Psychologically it is impossi- 
ble that any one of these three aspects should be entirely absent 
from any religious system, but it is possible that one Aspect may 
be more emphasised than another and in some period of history 
either will or intellect or feeling may dominate the mind of the 
people. In this sense, the stream of Bhakti which began as a 
little trickle in the Vedic times went out with the advance of 
history as a mighty flood sweeping over the whole land. It 
is necessary to enquire into the origin of this stream and 
the affluents which entered into it, for it is only by following 
the course of this stream that the main development of India's 
religious history can be understood. 

The earliest written text of the school of devotion is the 
Bhagavad Glta. What then is the character of its devotion? 

Kf$na teaches that it is by unswerving devotion to Him 
alone that He is reached. 68 God is so pleased that He accepts 
all that is offered to him with devotion, a leaf, a flower, a 
fruit, water. 09 "Devotion implies the dedication of all actions 
to Him, 70 for the devotees live and have their being in God." 71 
God extends His ineffable grace to His devotees, for even the 
sinful worshippers are promised that they will be accounted 
righteous provided they worship with undivided heart, 72 and 
that they will never perish. 73 In the sight of God all 

66 Sedgwick : Bhakti : Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1910. 

cnGrierson: Bhakti Mirga, E.R.E. 

8 Bhagavmdgtti : VIII, 22 (translation by Bhagvan Das). 
e Ibid.. IX, 26. 
TO Ibid., IX, 27. 
71 Ibid., IX, 29. 
DC 30. 
IX 31. 


devotees are equal whether they are born in tin or not and to 
whatever caste or sect they may belong. 74 it is by devotion 
that God may be beheld and known and entered, 75 devotion is 
the means of the mystic vision and the unitive state. The 
devotee is dear to God, surpassingly dear to him, 77 for God is 
the father, 78 the husband, 79 the mother, 78 and the friend. 79 

Here are all the elements of the religion of devotion, 
a personal God, divine grace, self -dedication and the love of the 
devotee, the promise of liberation to all, irrespective of caste 
and sect, and the mystical union. 

The Svetasvatara Upanisad adds another, that is devotion 
for the teacher (guru) as for God. 80 

The Ndrayatfiya* 1 section of the Santiparvan of Maha- 
bharata is the next important text. It describes the Efcmtin 
religion the ritual of which consisted in meditation and mental 
recitation (/apa), the burning of incense, worship with mind, 
word and deed. The result was the vision of the Adorable by 
those who possessed faith and devotion, and had won His 
grace. It declares that the religion of devotion is superior to 
that of knowledge or of Vedic ritual and enjoins adoration of 
Narayana or of one of His manifestations (cyuhaa). 

The ideas of the Ndrdyaniya were more fully stated in the 
Pancardtra Sarhhitd which, besides knowledge acquired by 
means of worship (dradhand) and meditation (yoga), recognised 
devotion (nyd&a or bhakfty as a means of emancipation. 
According to the Sam hit a, bhakti means * taking refuge in the 
praying thought : I am a receptacle of sins, naught, helpless, 

74 BhagavadglU : IX, 32. 

75 Ibid., XI, 54. 

76 Ibid., XII. 14. 

77 ibid., XII. 20. 

78 Ibid., IX, 17. 

79 Ibid., .IX, 18. 

80 Svetafvatii* UpAmfftd: VI, 23. (trantifttum by Hume). 
8lGrieron: TranJmtion of the NlriyanJyi Section of 


do Thou become my remedy (updya).' The act of taking 
refuge implies * austerities, pilgrimages, sacrifices, charities, and 
self-sacrifice than which nothing is higher.* 82 

BhakH had a parallel development in other systems besides 
the Pancaratra, but the most important contribution among 
them was that of Buddhism of the Mahay ana School. - Now 
Mahay ana Bhakti centred round Buddha and the BodhisattVas, 
but especially about Amitabha who is conceived as the eternal 
God living in Sukhavati (paradise), where the devotees go by 
His grace and by the help of holy saints. The goal of the 
devotees of Amit&bha is not Nirvana (emancipation) but 
admission into His presence in His heaven. Their devotion is 
accompanied with acts of worship of Stupas and Marujalas, 
with fasts and pilgrimages, with litanies and formulas for 
effacing sins, with the reading of Sutras and the repeating of 
Buddha's name, and so on. 

Buddhism emphasized the democratic side of religion, the 
spiritual enfranchisement of Sudras and women, and the preach- 
ing of religion through the medium of the popular languages, 
that is, the vernaculars. It also provided the examples for the 
organization of monastic orders. 

The survey of Indian religions in the pre-Musalman period 
of Indian history being completed, it now remains to estimate 
the relative importance of each of the three paths of religion in 
the life of the Indian people. The religion of ritual, whether 
of the higher type laid down in Vedic or Brahmanic or Hindu 
literature, or of the lower type as observed in magic 
performances and animistic worship, was naturally the most 
widespread of the three. The evidence need not be repeated 
sacred and secular literature, the observations of foreign tra- 
vellers, archaeological finds and the testimony of modern condi- 
tions, all confirm it. In the homes of the twice-born that is, 
the higher classes the observance of domestic rites, and among 

82 Sckrmder : Introduction to Ahirbudk&y* and Pantaritra SarfiHita. 



the mass of the lower classes, the propitiation of malignant dei- 
ties like the various forms of dread Rudra and 5dfeii, constitu- 
ted the greater part of their religion. The path of liberation for 
the large majority of the people was the religion of good deeds 
and ceremonial. For the elect it meant the transformation of the 
will in order to attain harmony with God's wishes the divine 
law ; for the common people it meant rigid formalism, and for 
the lowest class of the populace crass superstition. 

The religion of knowledge was confined to the learned* 'the 
philosophically-minded and the monks. And because it was 
the path 'which suited the disposition of those who were chiefly 
concerned with the writing of books, it naturally dominates the 
religious literautre of ancient India. The pandit and the sddha 
to whichever denomination he might belong, Buddhism, 
Jainism, Vaisnavism, aivism, &aktism, etc., had a similar 
temperament and the realisation of Afofesa or freedom through 
discriminating knowledge by deep meditation and trance 
(samadhi) made a special appeal to him. Hence the path of 
knowledge came next in importance to the path of action. Its 
hold on the intelligentsia was enormous and from them it 
percolated in a thousand forms to the classes below. 

The religion of loving devotion was apparently the least 
popular of the three. Besides) the BhagavadgTta and the 
Narayaniya section of the Mahabharata it is hardly mentioned 
in the rest of the pre-Muslim sacred literature of Northern 
Hinduism. In Mahayana Buddhist lore as well as in Siva. 
Pancaratra and the Sakta literature Bhakti occupies a very 
subordinate position to Jndna. The worship of KI'SCIU or 
Bhagavata and devotion to Amitabha and Siva have ,an 
emotional tinge, but they lack the fierce glow of passion and 
fervour which has a tendency to run riot in wild eroticism or 
incoherent ecstatism. These are later growths and it is with their 
history in either of their aspects sober and lyrical or Dionysiac 
and explosive that the following chapters will deal. It will 
suffice here to say that the trend of religious development ip 
subsequent times is in the direction of emotionalism,. of the 

i? a 


transformation of affections suffusing both will and intellect. 
The rites and ceremonies remain fixed for all time, the philoso- 
phies strike no new paths, but devotion finds multitudinous 
expression and luxuriates in exuberant form. 


THE history of commercial intercourse between India and the 
Western countries, Arabia, Palestine, and Egypt, goes back 
to very ancient times. King Solomon obtained his gold from 
Ophir (the modern Beypur), ^as well as silver, ivory, apes and 
peacocks. 1 The Phoenicians traded with India, 2 the Ptolemys 
founded ports on the Red Sea to encourage Indian commerce, 3 * 
the Saleucidae followed their example by founding ports in the 
Persian Gulf. 4 The Greeks 3 imported rice, ginger and cinnamon 
from the Malabar coast. The Greek and Roman writers were 
acquainted with Indian geography and wrote about Indian 
exports and imports, e.g., Hippalus and Pliny in the first 
century, and Periplus of the Erythrean Sea in the second, 
Cosma Indicopleustes in the sixth. Ammian Marcellani mentions 
that the Indians of Ceylon, the Maldives and the Laccadives sent 
deputations to congratulate Julian. The Peutingerian table* 
(third century) mention a Roman settlement at Caranganore, and 
there was a colony of Indian merchants at Alexandria which was 
massacred by Caracalla in the beginning of the third century. 6 
The coins of all the Roman Emperors from Augustus (d. 14 A.D.) 
to Zeno (d. 491 A.D.) are found in Southern India, attesting to 
the ample commerce which India had with the west. 

The Persians 7 manifested the same commercial activity an 
the Romans. They founded Obollah at the confluence of the 
Tigris and Euphrates near Busrah. The Sassanides made Hira, 

1 Hunter : History of British India, Vol. I, p. 25. 
* Hunter : History of British India, Vbl. I Chap. I, 
8 Ibid. 
4 Kennedy: J.R.A.S., 1898, p. 241 6. 

6 Thurston : Coins of the Madras Museum, Catalogue No. 2. 
TReinaud: Geographic d'Abovl Feda, p. 332. 


which had been built by the Arabs south-west of ancient 
Babylon, the capital of a vassal principality, and, according to 
Arab writers, citizens constantly saw from their houses during 
the fifth and sixth centuries navigators coming from India and 
China. Procopius, writing a few years later than Cosma, says 
that the Persians had become masters of the Indian markets. 
Under Khusrau Anushirvan, in the middle of the sixth century, 
Persian commerce reached its greatest activity ; he made an 
invasion of the Indus Valley, while Darius sent a fleet to 
Ceylon to avenge the murder of Persians. Tabary mentions the 
entrance of a flotilla of Indian ships up the Tigris to Obollah 
during the later days of the Sassanian empire. The use of the 
term Tajik 8 for a section of Indian Astronomy attests to the 
influence and amplitude of Persian intercourse with India. 

The Arab 9 naturally took a very active part in the commerce 
between the Orient and the Occident. 9 A number of entrepots 
were situated in their territories. Besides Aden they had the 
town of Shahr, which by its position served as the point of call 
for mariners who entered or left the Persian Gulf. The Arabs 
provided the best part of the equipment. Virgil tells us that 
the Indian and Arab sailors fought under Antony and Cleopatra 
at Actium. In the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Khan 
Bahadur Fazl Ullah Lutfullah Faridi mentions the settlement of 
pre-Muslim Arabs at Chaul, Kalyan and Supara. In the time 
of Agatharcides 10 there were so many Arabs on the Malabar 
Coast that the people had adopted the Arab religion (probably 
Sabaean). Ptolemy, in his map of India, uses the word 
Melizigeris, the latter part of which is the Arabic /aaarafi 
meaning island. Reinaud says, * everything points to the belief 

SCordier: Melange H. De*enbotirg, Notes tor le* Musulmanes de 

Bhandarkar: Search for Sanskrit MSS. Report*. 

9 Reinaud : Relation* de voyages faits par let Arabe* et let Persanes 
dirf> Hade et a la Chine, dans le IXe. s&cle, Tome J, p. 

a Seam. D. 154. 


that combined with the Persians they {the Arabs) exercised on 
those coasts up to the fourteenth century the same ascendancy 
which the Portuguese did afterwards.* 

The rise of Islam in the beginning of the seventh century 
and the unification of the Arab tribes under a centralised state 
gave a tremendous impetus to the movement of expansion which 
was going on since pre-Islamic 11 days. Muslim armies rapidly 
conquered Syria and Persia and began to hover on the outskirts 
of India. Muslim merchants immediately entered into the 
inheritance of Persian maritime trade, and Arab fleets began to 
scour the Indian seas. 

The Arab vessels started either from the coast of the Red 
Sea or from the southern coast, and their objective was to 
disembark either at the mouth of the Indus and in the Gulf of 
Cambay by sailing along the coast, or on the Malabar coast, in 
which case they profited by the monsoon to proceed to Koulam 
and other ports directly. The ahips starting from the Persian 
Gulf followed the same course, and by the help of the monsoon 
reached Koulam, the Malay Peninsula, the eastern archipelago 
and China. 

The first Muslim fleet appeared in Indian waters in 636 A.D. 
during the Caliphate of 'Umar, when 'Uaman Saklfi the Governor 
of Bahrain and Uman, sent an army across the sea to Tana. 12 
He was rebuked by the Caliph who threatened to mete out 
dire punishment to his kinsman if the experiment was repeated. 
About the same time expeditions were sent to Broach and Dabul, 
but 'Umar's opposition temporarily suspended the activities of 
the fleet and the policy of armed interference remained in 
abeyance. During the Caliphate of 'Umar the land approaches 
to India were explored and a great deal of information was 
collected, which led ultimately to the conquest of Sindh in the 
eighth century fay Muhammad bin Qasim. Meanwhile commerce * 
by sea continued, and Muslims made their settlements in three 

11 Remain! : Op. cit. 

12 Elliot: Hi*ory of IndU, Vol. 1. pp. 115-16. * 


towns along the South Indian coast and in Ceylon. 
Rowlandson 13 says that the Muslim Arabs first settled on the 
Malabar coast about the end of the seventh century. Francis 
Day 14 corroborates this from traditionary accounts, and Sturrock 15 
in his account of the Moplahs confirms it. He says: " From 
the seventh century onwards it is well known that Persian and 
Arab traders settled in large numbers at the different ports on 
the western coast of India and married women of the country 
and x these settlements were specially large and important in 
Malabar where from a very early time it seems to have been 
the policy to afford every encouragement to traders at the ports." 
That the Muslims were then living in these countries may be 
inferred from the account of the immediate causes of Muhammad 
bin Qasim's expedition given by Biladhuri 10 He relates that 
the King of Ceylon " sent as a present to Hajjaj certain 
Muhammadan girls who had been born in his country, the 
orphan daughters of. merchants who had died there.'* The 
Bawarij, i.e., the piratical tribes of Kutch, attacked the ships 
and seized the girls. Hajjaj demanded their release from Dahir 
who did not comply with the demand. Upon this Hajjaj sent 
the expedition led by Qasim. This expedition was supported 
by the fleet which assisted in the attack upon Dabul. 

The name of Hajjaj is also connected with the settlement 
of Arabs in the South. Rice 17 quotes from Wilks the account 
of the origin of the Labbes. According to him, *' in the early 
part of the eighth century, Hijaj Ben Gusaff (Hajjaj bin Yusuf) 
Governor of * Iraq, a monster abhorred for his cruelties even 
among Musalmans, drove some persons of the house of Hasham 
to the desperate resolution of abandoning for ever their native 

13 Rowlandson: Tuhfat ul Mujahidm, Preface. 

14 Day : The Land of the PemmaU, p. 365. 

15 Sturrock: South Kanara. Madra* district Manuals, p. 180. 
10 Elliot: Vol. I. p. US. 

* 17 Rice : Mytore and Coorg, Vol. 1, p. 353. 


country. Some of them landed on that part of the western coast 
of India called the Concan ; the others eastward of Cape 
Comorin. The descendants of the former are the Newayats ; of 
the latter, the Labbes." 

In the eighth century the Arab fleets attacked Broach and 
the ports on the Kathiawa^ coast. Their trade and settlements 
continued to flourish. The first direct recorded evidence of 
their establishment in India comes from this century. In the 
Mayyat Kannu, the graveyard of Kollam, there are many ancient 
tombs, some of which are inscribed. One of the tombs bears 
an inscription to the effect that * All ibn Udthorman was 
obliged to leave this world for ever in the year 166 c' Hejira, 
so called after Muhammad the Prophet left Mecca for Metxina.* 18 

Henceforth Muslim influence grew rapidly. For over a 
hundred years the Muslims had been established on the Malabar 
coast. They were welcomed as traders, and, apparently, facilities 
were given to them to settle and acquire lands and openly 
practise their religion. They must have entered upon missionary 
efforts soon after settling down, for Islam is essentially a 
missionary religion and every Musalman is a missionary of his 
faith. Many were undoubtedly held in respectful esteem. They 
came to India ; not like the Christian colonies of Syrians, driven 
and persecuted from their homelands ; but full of the ardour of 
a new-found religion and of the prestige of conquest and glory. 
Before the ninth century was far advanced they had spread over 
the whole of the western coast of India and had created a stir 
among the Hindu populace, as much by their peculiar beliefs 
and worship as by the zeal with which they professed and 
advocated them. 

The south of India was then greatly agitated by the 
conflict of religions, for Nee-Hinduism was struggling with 
Buddhism and Jainiam for the upper hand. Politically, too, it 
was a period of uo^ettlement and upheavals. 10 The Cheras 

18 limes : Malabar and Atijengo District Gazetteer, p. 436. 
9 1* Iyer : Historic*! Sketches of Ancient Dekhan. 


were losing power and new dynasties were emerging into power. 
Naturally, the minds of the people were perturbed and they 
were prone to accept new ideas from whatever quarter they 
came. Islam appeared upon the scene with a simple formula 
of faith, well-defined dogmas and rites, and democratic theories 
of social organisation. It produced a tremendous effect, and, 
before the first quarter of the ninth century was over, the last of 
the Cheraman Perumal Kings of Malabar who reigned at 
Kodungallur had become a convert to the new religion. 20 
According to traditional accounts, his conversion was due to a 
dream in which he saw the splitting of the moon. He happened 
just then to meet a party of Muslims who were returning from 
Ceylon, their leader Shaikh Sekke Uddm interpreted the dream, 
admitted him into the Muslim fold and gave him the name of 
*Abdur Rahman Samri. After his conversion the king left 
Malabar for Arabia and landed at Shahr where he died foui 
years later. He sent from there Malik ibn Dinar, Sharf ibn 
Malik, Malik ibn Habit and their family to Malabar with a 
letter of instructions regarding the government of his dominions 
and the reception of the Muslims. They were treated hospitably 
and were permitted to build mosques. As a consequence 
mosques were erected at eleven places on the Malabar coast. 

The conversion of the king must have produced a deep 
impression upon the mind of the people. The memory of the 
event is still kept fresh in Malabar. For instance, at the installa- 
tion of the Zamorin, it is the practice to have him shaved and 
dressed like a Musalman, and crowned by a Mappilla. 21 Aftei 
the coronation, the Zamorin is treated like an outcaste, he is not 
allowed to sit and dine with even the members of his own 
household and no Nayar would touch him. The Zamorin u 
supposed to occupy the throne only as a Viceroy awaiting the 
return of Cheraman Perumal from Arabia. The Maharajahs of 

20 Logan : Malabar, Vol. 1, p. 245. 

31 Qadir Husain Khan : South Indian Musalman*, Madras Ckrotiai 
College Magazine (1912-13), p. 241. 


ravancore on receiving the sword at their coronation* have still 

> declare, ** I will keep this sword until the uncle who has gone 

> Mecca returns." 22 It must, however, be pointed out that the 
:ory of the conversion of King Cheraman Perumal is based on 
;gendary accounts only ; and, as in most such stories, many 
f its details are open to serious doubts. The names of the 
arious personages which appear in it cannot be fixed historically; 
Cheraman Perumal is only a title, Sekke Uddm could not 
>ossibly be a contemporary of a ninth century king for the 
ippellation Din came into use among Muslims only in the fifth 
:entury of the Hejira, and Malik ibn Dinar was a saint whose 
ippearance in India is more than doubtful. But, as Innes 28 
Dointed out, ** We may perhaps infer from this account that the 
iynasty reigning at Caranganore came to an end with the 
abdication of a Perumal who was converted to Muham- 
mad anism, possibly in the ninth century.*' 

The Musalmans evidently had acquired great importance at 
this period. They were designated by the name of Mappillas 
which means either *' a great child " or a " bridegroom " and 
was considered a title of honour. It was bestowed on some 
Christians also, and, in order to distinguish the two communities, 
the Christians were called Nussarani Mappillas. Other privileges 
were showered upon them. A Musalman could be seated by 
the side of a Nambutiri Brahman while a Nayar could not. 
Hie religious leader of the Mappillas, the Thangal, was allowed 
to ride in a palanquin alongside of the "Zamorin. 

Under the patronage and encouragement of the Zamorin, the 
Arab merchants settled in large numbers in his dominions, and 
not only materially increased his power and wealth by their 
trade but directly supported him in his campaigns of aggrandize- 
ment. The Zamorins who originally hailed from Nediyiruppa 
in Ernad overran Palanad, the neighbouring territory of Porlattiri 
Raja, and secured the land thus won at the point of the sword 

22 Logan: Malabar, Vol. I, p. 23!. 
*23 Inncs : Malabar and Anjengo District Gaxettoer. 


by a fort at Velapuram. Here, according to tradition, a 
merchant who had been trading with Arabia settled and 
established a mart which grew into the flourishing port of 
Calicut. He became the Koya (Qazi) of Calicut and his 
successors fought on the side of the Zamorin against the Rajas 
of the surrounding Nads. The Raja Valluvakbna of Walavanada 
was defeated and the management of the Mahamakham festival 
at Tirumavayi and, with it, the predominance in Southern Mala* 
bar, passed into the Zamorin *s hands. 24 The Muslim family of 
* All Rajas (Lords of the deep) who were the admirals and 
ministers of the Kolattiri Rajas were, according to one tradition, 
the descendants of an Arab Musalman who had been invited 
from their native land by Cheraman Perumal and were installed 
as Chiefs of Kannanur (Cannanore) ; according to another 
tradition, the first chieftain of the family was a Nayar who was 
a minister of the Kolattiri and who embraced Islam but was 
retained in his post on account of his skill and ability. 25 

The Zamorin thought so highly of the Muslims that he 
definitely encouraged conversion in order to man the Arab 
ships on which he depended for his aggrandizement, he gave 
orders that in every family of fishermen (Makkuvans) in his 
dominion one 26 or more of the male members should be brought 
up as Muhammadans. 

In the following centuries the influence of Islam continued 
to wax, as the testimony of travellers and geographers 

Mas'udT 27 who visited India in the beginning of the tenth 
century (916 A.D.) found over ten thousand Muslims of Siraf, 
Oman, Basra and Baghdad at Seymore (the modern Chaul), 
besides numerous others who were children of Arabs born there. 
They had their own chief whose title was Hazama (probably 

24 Logan r Vol. I, p. 276 ff . ; Innes : p. 44. 

25 Innes : Op. Cit. 

26 Innes: Ibid,, p. 190. 

27 Elliot : Vol. i, Mms'Sdl. * 


Hunarmand) and who received his authority from the Hindu 
king. Abu Dulaf Muhalhil 28 found mosques in the port of 
Seymore. Ibn Sa'id 20 in the thirteenth century mentions that 
Musalmans were living among the inhabitants of the Indian 
littoral. Ser Marco Polo 80 noticed that the people of Ceylon got 
Saracen troops from foreign parts whenever they needed them. 
Abul Fid! 31 (1273 1331) mentions a fine Muhammadan mosque 
and a square at Koulam. Ibn Batutah 32 (fourteenth century) 
in his itinerary from Cambay along the western coast touched 
at all the ports. He met his co-religionists everywhere and he 
found them in a flourishing condition. Muslim courtiers paid 
a visit to him at Kandabar ; at Konkah he saw an 
ancient mosque attributed to Khizr and Ilya, and met a party 
of Haidari Fakirs with their Shaikh. At Sendapur there was a 
mosque which was built in the Baghdad style by the patron of 
navigators, Hasan, father of Sultan Djemal Uddm Mohammad 
AlhinourT, the ruler of Hinaour (Onore). Onore had a Muslim 
ruler, a Muslim jurisconsult and Qazi and a Muslim saint. All 
along the Malabar coast from Sendabour to Koulam, at all 
stations on the road, there were houses of Musalmans where 
their co-religionists could lodge. He notices that the Musalmans 
were the most highly considered people in that country* 
At Barcelore, Facanaour (Baccanore) there were Muslim 
communities with their, own Qazis and Muftis. Mangalore had 
a population of four thousand Musalmans, among them 
merchants from Fars and Yemen. Their mosque had a rich 
treasure and there were a number of students in the mosque, 
The three Fattans had all mosques and at Fandaraina the 
Muslims occupied three quarters, and in each of them they had 
a place of worship. The chief merchant at Calicut was a 

28 Ferrand : Relations dee voyage*, under^ Ylkut. 

29 Ibid., under Ibn Sa'id. 

30 Yule : The Book of Set Marco Polo, Vol. II, p. 314. 

31 Ibid., p. 377. 

3Defreraery and Sangumetti : Ibn Batutah, Vol. Ill, p. 55 tf. 


Musalman, Ibrahim Shah Bander of Bahrain *, and there were 
many Muslim merchants at Koulam ; there were a number of 
mosques here, and the principal one was admirable in its 
architecture. The Raja venerated the Muslims. 

Abdur-Razzak 88 (1442), who visited India on the eve of the 
Portuguese arrival, says about Calicut, " it contains a consider- 
able number of Musalmans, who are constant residents and 
have built two moafques, in which they meet every Friday to 
offer up prayer." He gives a glowing account of the busy 
harbour and its merchants from all parts of the world. 

These narratives conclusively show that on the western 
coast of India Muslims had settled early and grown in numbers, 
wealth and power. It is true that Sulaiman who visited India 
in the ninth century states that he did not find Muslims or Arabic- 
speaking individuals there, but his testimony is hardly trust- 
worthy on this point, for he fails to notice the Arab possessions 
jn Sindh, Gujarat or the Gulf of Cambay, and that his compa- 
triots were carrying on rich commerce ; and as, according to 
Reinaud, 84 his main object was a voyage to China without turn- 
ing to right or left he did not pay much attention to the condition 
of affairs on the Indian Coast. The traditions enshrined in the 
Keralolpatti and the legends of the Muslim inhabitants, the evi- 
dence of inscriptions and of Muslim historians and travellers and 
the continuity of Arab commerce with India from early times all 
lead to one conclusion, that the Muslims appeared on the Indian 
coast not long after the death of the Prophet and swiftly gained 
a status of privilege and influence among the Hindu rulers of 

The Arabs appeared on the eastern coast early. When 
Darius (519484 B.C.) dammed up the channels of the Euphrates 
and Tigris and destroyed the trade of Egypt, the merchants of 

33 Major : India in the Fifteenth Century ; Narrative of the Voyage of 
'Abdur Razzlk. 

*4 Remand : Relation dea voyager * 


Yemen entered into the inheritance of both. 35 Colonies of 
Arabs and Jews settled in the early centuries of the Christian era 
in Ceylon and Southern India. The Greeks and Romans had 
a considerable trade with the eastern coast. A large number of 
coins of the Roman Emperors have been discovered in 
Coimbatore ; the Greeks knew Kalkhoi, the modern Kayal ; 
Ptolemy mentions Uraiyur, 30 the ancient capital of the Cholas ; 
and Greek and Roman ships were mostly manned by Arabs. 
Arab merchants passed along the Coromandel coast on their 
way to China, where remains of pre-Muslim Arabs are still found 
at Canton. 37 According to Mr. Cust, ** unquestionably the 
continuous existence of a commerce between Yemen and South 
India can be asserted from a very remote period." 38 

The Muslims inherited the legacy of the pagan Arabs. The 
usual route 39 from the port* of Arabia or the Persian Gulf to 
China passed through the seven seas among which were the 
Gulf of Palk and the Bay of Bengal, known to the Arabs as 
Schelahath or Kalahabar and Kerdenj. Sulaimon and Abu Zaid 
Sirafi, in the ninth century, and Ma*udl, early in the tenth, 
describe the route arid the occurrences in these seas, as if they 
had .been perfectly well known for a long time. Numerous 
voyagers must have passed along this way and a great deal of 
commercial intercourse must have been kept up between the 
Muslim lands and India, for already in the eighth century there 
was a numerous colony of Muslims established in Canton whose 
revolt in 758 A.D. created a serious commotion. 40 

Their principal settlement on the east coast was Kayalpat- 
tanam in Tinnevelly district, near the mouth of the Tamraparni 

35 Kennedy: The Early Commerce of Babylon with India. J.R.A.S., 

36 Hemingway: Trichinopoly, Madia* District Gazetteer. 
'37dkins: Ancient Navigation in the Indian Ocean, J.R.A.S., 1886. 
38 Ibid., p. 4. 

sfReinaud: Op. cit. 4 

40 Conker : Op. cit. 


river, where still the Labbes form the majority of the popu- 
lation, and where Caldwell picked tip in large quantities broken 
pieces of pottery, and, what is more important, a number of 
Muslim coins bearing dates from the seventh century (71 A.M.) 
to the thirteenth century A.D. 

The Musalmans started their religious propaganda as soon 
as they had settled down in some numbers. Many of the Islamic 
communities of the south trace their origin to these times. The 
Ravuttans of Madura and Trichinopoly believe that they were 
persuaded to change their religion by Nathad Vali whose tomb 
exists at Trichinopoly and bears the date of his death 417 A.H. 
(1039 A.D.). 41 The tradition about Nathad is that he was a 
Sayyid prince who held territory in Turkey, but abandoned 
his state and became an ascetic and missionary of Islam. He 
wandered through Arabia, Persia and Northern India until he 
reached the city of Trisura, the modern Trichinopoly. Here he 
settled down and passed the remaining years of his life in prayer 
and works of charity, converting a large number of Hindus to 
the religion of Muhammad. His successor was Sayyid Ibrahim 
Shahfd, who was born at Medina (about 1 162 A.D.) and who 
headed a militant mission to the Pandyan kingdom in his forty- 
second year. He is said to have defeated the Pandya king and 
ruled for over twelve years, but he was at last overthrown and 
slain. He lies buried at Ervadi. The Dudekulas attribute 
their conversion to Baba Fakhr Uddln the saint of Pennukonda. 
He became a disciple of Nathad Vali, converted the Raja of 
Pennukonda and built a mosque there. The date of his death, 
according to Thurston, was 564 A. H. 

In Madura 42 the Musalmans made their entrance in 
1050 A.D. under the leadership of Malik-ul-Muluk, who was 
accompanied by a great saint, Hazrat 'Aliyar Shah Sahib, 
whose remains were buried near the Huzur Kacheri at Madura. 
At the village of Goripaleiyan there is a mosque which acquired 

41 Qfeiir Hq*ftin KKln r Op. cit., p. 294. * 

*2 Nelson: Madura, p. 86. 


six villages for its maintenance from Kun Pandya in the eleven* 
th or twelfth century. The grant was subjected to enquiry in 
the time of Virappa Nayakan and confirmed in 1573 A.D. 48 

The rulers of the eastern coast pursued an enlightened 
policy towards the merchants who visited their coasts. The 
peculiar custom of the western parts, that a vessel driven ashore 
by stress of weather became the property of the authorities, was 
not observed, and all vexatious port dues besides the regular 
custom (kupasulka) duties were removed, with the natural result 
that an extensive trade grew up and .flourishing trade settlements 
under the especial protection of the rulers came into existence. 44 
The Coromandel Coast became the Ma' bar (passage) of the 
Muslim traders. According to Wassaf, 415 it extended from 
Koulam to Nilawar (Nellore) nearly three hundred parsangs along 
the sea coast. '* In the language of that country the king is 
called Dewar, which signifies the lord of empire. The curiosities 
of Chin and Machm and the products of Hind and Sind, laden 
on large ships (which they call junks) sailing like mountains 
with the wings of winds on the surface of the water, always 
arrived there. The wealth of the islands of the Persian Gulf 
in particular and in part the beauty and adornments of other 
countries from * Iraq and Khorasan as far as Rum and Europe, 
are derived from Ma' bar which is so situated as to be the key 
of Hind." 

In the twelfth century the Muhammadans formed a well- 
estabKshed community in these parts, and they seemed to have 
acquired sufficient importance, for they are noticed along with 
Vaisyas as bringing presents to the Ceylonese General who 
invaded the Pandya Kingdom in 1171-72 A.D. 4 

In the thirteenth century the trade, especially in horses, 
had become so vast that an agency -was established at Kayal 
by Malik-ul-Ialam Jamal Uddln, ruler of Ki, and Uter the 

43Nel*on: Madura, p. 69. 

* S* 1C Aiymngmr : South IndU and Her Mukmmm^bii lova&r*. * 


farmer-general of Pars. According to Wassaf, ten thousand 
horses were annually exported from Fars to Ma* bar and the 
Indian ports, and the sum total of their value amounted to 
2,200,000 dinars. Taqf-Uddm 'Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad 
ul Tlbi, brother of Jamal Uddfn, was the agent, and he had* 
besides Kayal, the ports of Fitan and Mali Fitan under his 
control. 40 

According to Rashid Uddm, 47 on the death of the Pandya 
ruler in 1293 A.D., Jamal Uddm succeeded him, his brother 
becoming his lieutenant* Nelson 48 records a number of traditions 
relating to the Muhammadan invasion of Madura about this 
time. Marco Polo 49 describes Taqi Uddin as the deputy, 
minister and adviser of King Sundar Pandya. He was 
succeeded, by his son Siraj Uddin and by his grandson Nizam 
Uddm in the same position. The Pandya ambassador to 
Kublai Khan (in 1266 or 1267) was Fakhr Uddm Ahmad, son 
of Jamal Uddm, who stayed for four years in China and died 
on board while he was returning. He lies buried in a tomb 
near that of his uncle's. 

There were other Musalman settlements in the Tamil 
country, for Amir Khusrau, 50 in his account of the campaign of 
Malik Kafur, mentions the Musalmans of Kandur (Kannaimr) 
who '* as they could repeat the Kalfma " and ** though they 
were worthy of death, yet as they were Musalmans, they were 
pardoned/* Ibn Batutah, 51 who travelled in these parts after the 
invasion, states that Ghiyas Uddm al Damghani was the ruler of 
Madura in Ms time, that Raja Vlr Ballala had a contingent of 
20,000 Musalmans, and that the Muslim ruler of Honawar owed 
allegiance to his viceroy Hariyappa Odayar. 

* Elliot; Vol. Ul, p. 32. fc 

47 Elliot: Vol. I, pp. 69, 70. 

48 Neiton : Madura Dirtrict Manual, pp. 78, 79. 

48 Yule: Op. cit. 

50 Elliot: Op. cat. Vol. HI, p. 90. 

fit Defremery and Sangumetty . Op. cit.. Vol. Ill, p. T99. 


Thus, before the arrival of Malik Kafur's army into the 
South, Musalmans had established their settlements in the 
important centres of trade ; they had entered into relationship 
with the people living round them ; and from this intercourse 
of Arabs and Tamils a number of communities of mixed descent 
had arisen, e.g., the Ravuttans and the Labbes. 

The foregoing account shows that the Musalmans made 
their advent in South India on the western coast as early as the 
eighth century if not earlier, and in the tenth century on the 
eastern coast ; that they soon spread over the whole coast and 
in a comparatively short time acquired great influence both in 
politics and in society. On the one side their leaders became 
ministers, admirals, ambassadors and farmers of revenue and 
on the other they made many converts, propagated their religious 
ideas, established mosques and erected tombs which became 
centres of the activities of their saints and missionaries. It may, 
therefore, be premised without overstraining facts that if, in the 
development of the Hindu religions in the south, any foreign 
elements are found which make their appearance after the 
seventh century, and which cannot be accounted for by the 
natural development of Hinduism itself, they may with much 
probability be ascribed to the influence of Islam, provided, of 
course, they are not alien to its genius. 

The question of Christian influence 02 on Hinduism does not 
arise here, for this influence was exerted, if at all, from the 
north-west, earlier than the appearance of Islam in the south* 
It is known that intercourse between Southern India ami 
Alexandria practically ceased in the beginning of the third 
century, and, before the third century, Alexandria could not be 
the centre of Christian propaganda, because in the Antonine 
period the Christian religion was prohibited in Alexandria and 
the meetings of Christians were held in private. Subsequently, 
when trade was again resumed between Egypt and India and 
Christians from Syria and Persia settled in South India* it was 

* W Kennedy: J.ftA.&, 1W. f, 951. * 


not possible for them to exercise any considerable influence,, 
because the communities were small and insignificant. By the 
middle of the seventh century, Syria, Persia and Egypt had 
fallen into the hands of the Muslims ; and the Christians had 
lost their prestige and authority. Hence, although in the eighth 
century they still existed on the Malabar coast, * the historic 
conditions requisite for any real action of Christianity upon 
Hinduism are wanting/ 

In Northern India Muslims began their encroachment during 
the Caliphate of * Umar, making their earliest attempts on the 
ports of the northern coast, and when Persia and Mekran had 
been annexed to the empire they invaded Sindh. During the 
seventh century many raids were made on the borders of 
Baluchistan and Sindh and the land routes were thoroughly 
explored. At last in the time of Caliph Walid, Hajjaj, who vva* 
Governor of "Iraq, organised an expedition which was sent under 
the leadership of the young and brilliant Muhammad bin 
Qsim. 53 He overcame all difficulties, defeated the Hindu 
rulers of Sindh, overran the whole Indus Valley, and made 
the province of Multan and Sindh appanages of the empire. 
Here, however, the advance of the Muslims was checked, and 
for the next three centuries they remained confined to this corner 
of India. Their sphere of influence thus extended during this 
period over the principalities of Sindh and Multan over which 
they ruled, and the coastal towns of Sindh, Kathiawar, Gujarat 
and Konkan where they settled as traders* and till the eleventh 
century they had no opportunity to reach beyond it. In these 
parts* however, they became fully established, and it is possible 
that some of their adventurous captains made from there daring 
forays in Malwa and Kanauj. In any case. Dabul, Somnath. 
Broach, Cambay, Sindan, and Chaul became seats of small 
Muslim communities and nearly each one had its mosque. Most 
of the Hindu ruler* welcomed them in their dominions with 
open arms and treated them with great hospitality* Sulaiman, 

" S3 Elliot: Vol 1. 


Mas'udi, Ibn Haukal and Abu Zaid, all agree in praising Balhira 
(the Valabhl ruler of Gujarat) for the friendliness which he 
exhibited towards the Musalmans. Sulaiman writes, *' there 
does not exist among rulers, a prince who likes the Arabs more 
than Balhara, and his subjects follow his example.'* 54 Mas'udi 
found his co-religionists practising their religion openly every- 
where. Speaking of the King of Gujarat, he says, ** In his 
kingdom Islam is respected and protected, in all parts rise 
chapels and splendid mosques where the Muslims say their five 
daily prayers/* 55 Al IstakhrT (951 A.D.) found Muslims in the 
cities of the Kingdom of Balhara. and "none but Musalmans 
rule over them on the part of Balhara.** 56 

Ibn Haukal (968) saw Jama* Masjids at Famhal, Sindan, 
Saimur and Kambaya ; and Idrist, in the eleventh century, 
reports, ** the town of Anhilwara is frequented by a large 
number of Musalman traders who go there on business* They 
are honourably received by the king and his ministers, and 
find protection and safety.** 57 

Already, before the invasions of Mahmud of Ghaznl had 
opened the gates of India wide for the Muslims to enter* they 
had attained in Western India an influential position, arid they 
used it to disseminate their religion among the people* They 
were considerably encouraged in the persuit of their aims by 
the favour of the Hindu rulers themselves. The story that 
Muhammad *GfT relates throws a great deal of light upon the 
relations of Hindu princes and Muslim traders. 58 When the 
Hindus of Cambay attacked the Muslim merchants, Siddh R&j 
(I094_||43) held an enquiry into the whole affair, punished 
the aggressors and gave the Musalmans money to build a new 
mosque. Some Hindu Rajas seem to have employed Muslim 

54 Reinmud : Op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 26. 

55 Elliot: Vol. I p. 27. 

56 Ibid. 

67 fl>id., p. 06, 

58 Ibid. Vot, H. p. 164. 


mercenaries. The ruler of Somn&th, for instance, had a number 
of Muslim officers, and the Kasbatis of Ahmadabad trace their 
descent from the Khorasani soldiers of the Vaghela Chiefs.* 

The Muslim saints followed wherever the Muslim Army led 
or the traders settled. In the ninth century, Abu Hifs Rabi bin 
Sahib al Asadi al Basari, who was a traditionist and an ascetic, 
came to Sindh where he died in 160 A. H. 60 In the tenth century 
Mansur al Hallaj made a voyage to India by sea, and went 
back overland by way of Northern India and Turkistan. 61 In 
the eleventh century Baba Rlhan came to Broach from Baghdad 
with a company of Derwishes. 02 He is said to have converted 
the son of the Raja who attacked his father but was killed. 
About the same time (1067), the religious head of the Shi'ah 
trading community of Bohras settled in Gujarat from Yemen, 6 * 
and Nur al Din or Nur Satagar (10941143) converted the 
Kunbis, Kharwas and Koris of Gujarat. 64 

After the invasions of Mahmud, numerous Muslim men of 
learning and religion poured into India. It is impossible to 
compile a list of all of them, but some of the important ones 
may be mentioned here. Among them was 'All bin 'Usman 
Al Hujwiri the author of Kaahful Mahjub who was a native of 
Ghazna, and who after travelling extensively over Muslim lands 
came to reside in Lahore where he di^d in 465 or 469 A.H. 6 ' 
Shaikh Isma'll Bukhari early in the eleventh century, 66 and 
Farid Uddln * Attar the celebrated author of Mantiq at Tair and 

50Forbe: Rita Miii (1856), Vol. 1, p. 276, 

60 Mfr Chuiim 'All Azid ; Ma&str ul Kiram, p. 6. 

eiMawignon: Kitib al Tawi Sin, Introduction, p. v. 

2CMnpbcll: Gazetteer of Gujarat. Surat and Broach, p. 558 and 

es Fotfeea : Op. cit,. Vol. L p. 344. 
64 Arnold : Preaching of UUm. Chapter on India. 
flSNkfcoUon: KaaKful Mahjfib, Introduction. 
" ee Arnold: Op. cit. 


Tadhkiratual Auli'a in the twelfth century, visited India. 07 
Khwajah Mu'm Uddm ChisHt! 6 * came to Ajmer in 1197 and 
died there in 1234. In the thirteenth century Shaikh Jalil 
Uddin Tabriz! 69 a pupil of Shihab Uddin Suhrawardi (founder 
of the sect of the * illuminati * or eastern philosophers), visited 
Bengal. Sayyid Jalal Uddm Bokhari 70 settled in Uchh in 
Bahawalpur in 1244, and Baba Farid 71 at Pakpattan/ In the 
next century 'Abdul Karim al Jili, 72 commentator of Ibn al 
'Arab i and author of Insdn-i-Kdmil a famous treatise on Sufi 
philosophy, travelled in India (1388), and Sayyid Muhammad 
Gisudaraz 73 made conversions in Poona and Belgaum districts. 
Pir Sadr Uddin, 7 * founder of the Khojah sect,, Sayyid Yfiauf 
Uddm 75 that of the Momnahs, and ImSm Shah of Pirina 
settled in India in the fifteenth century. Other noted saints who 
visited India or came to reside there were Sayyid Shah Mir 77 son 
of 'Abdul Qadir Jilanf, founder of the Q&diri order, Qutb-ud- 
Dfn Bakhtyar Kaki 78 who is buried at Delhi and whose name is 
associated with the famous Qutb Mlnar, Baha Uddin Zakaria 70 

07 Nicholson : Tadhkiratul Auli'i of FarTd Uddin 'Atttr. 
OB Abdul H.q : Akhbar ul AkhiySr, p. 22. 

69 Ibid., p. 43. 

70 Ibid., p. 60. 

71 Mc*uli : The Sikh Religion, Vol. VI, p. 356. 

72 Nicholson : Studies in Islamic Mysticism, p. 81. 

73 Arnold; Op. cit. 

74 Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. IX. Part II, p. 40. 

75 Ibid., p. 27. 

76 Ibid., p. 76, 

77 KWt Khin : MuntftkKib til Lttbib, Vol. \l Part 2, p. 

78 * Abdul Haq : Op. cit., p. 24. 


(d. 1266) and Jalal Uddm Surkhposh 80 (d. 1291) who lived in 
Multan and Uchh, and Muhammad Ghaus (d. 1562) n the precep- 
tor of Humayun, of the Shattari order. Besides them were 
antinomian Derwishes like Shah Madar 82 (eleventh century) and 
Sakhl Sarwar 83 (twelfth or thirteenth century). 

There were men of high rank in Muslim religious 
biography 88 undoubtedly along with them a host of others of 
less renown who lived and laboured in India, ani through their 
personal contact and influence spread the idea* of Islamic philo- 
sophy and mysticism through the length and breadth of India, 
with results which will be estimated in the following chapter. 

'Abdul Huq : Op. cit., p. 60. 

*1 Abdul Qft&r Badaoni : MunUkhib ut Tawarikh, Vol. HI. p. 4. 
(BtbliotKeca Indica). 

S3 Arnold : The Saints and Martyrs of India. E.R.E. 
. Wlfeid. , * 


THE land where Islam arose is one of the least hospitable 
regions of the earth. Vast tracts in Arabia are mere empty 
plains of drifting sands. Only on the coast is it possible for 
human beings to live with moderate comfort and to create 
institutions of civilization. And here in ancient times kingdoms 
grew and cultures flourished and they partook of the ancient 
commerce of the world and were its intermediaries. But in the 
sixth century the legends of antiqu'ty had become effaced from 
the mind of the peoples and the Arabs had sunk into a life of 
barbarism. Mecca, one of the principal places in the country, 
was a materialistic commercial town ** where lust of gain and 
usury reigned supreme, where women, wine and gambling 
filled up the leisure time, where might was right and widows, 
orphans and the feeble were treated as superfluous ballast/* 1 
Religion consisted of ceremonialism without meaning, of the 
worship of stars, stones and deities, in which no cne believed. 
The notions of right and wrong were rudimentary, no moral 
guilt attached -to murder, little sanctity to marriage. Women 
had no rights ; property, loyalty and honour were held in scant 
respect, and sensuality was rampant. 2 

In this physical and moral desert there were here and there 
oases which gave shelter to high aspiration and noble thought. 
Communities of Jews and Christians were settled in scattered 
places, itinerant monks and wise men from the East travelled 
about with caravans. In some way they supplied come kind 
of nourishment to the otherwise starved souk, and from their 
contact arose the early reformers known as the Hanlfs who 

1 Huigronje : MobasmnedUuiUm. p. 28. 

2 Ibid. * 



trove to mend men's ways and to turn their hearts to the 
worship of God. 

The st'r in moral life was an echo of the stir in social life. 
Already, before the sixth century, Arab tribes, driven by econo- 
mic causes growth of population and others were moving in 
the directions of Mesopotamia and Syria, and their movements 
and contacts with the settled civilizations were reacting on the 
peoples left behind. 3 

In the midst of such conditions the Prophet of Islam was 
born. He belonged to a family whose means were small and 
he was left an orphan at an early age. He grew up to manhood 
untutored and uncared for, amid circumstances of great poverty 
and hardship. The stress of personal misery, and the sense 
of humiliation caused by the inglorious conditions of his peoples 
deeply affected his sensitive soul. The teachings of the Harufs. 
the ascetic practices and lonely self-communings on Mount Hlra 
led to a religious crisis in his highly strung and mystically 
inclined nature, and occasioned the ecstatic religious experiences 
which changed his entire outlook upon life. 

Out of the living fear of the approaching day of judgment, 
the crushing convict* on of sin, out of the hopeless emptiness of 
Meccan ritual and the utter wretchedness of social life, his soul- 
illuminating experience redeemed him. The revelation tore 
asunder the veil of illusion and ignorance and gave him that 
knowledge than which no other possesses greater certitude and 
higher coercive power for action. 

Muhammad became the recipient of God's commands. 
His messenger on earth and His apostle to the people of 
Arabia. In him, a* in other deep religious mystics, religious 
fervour was combined with intense practical sense, and hs 
became not only the prophet of a new religion but also the 
leader and creator of a new nation. 4 

8 Cambridge Medieval History : Chapter on Islam. 
4 Hmgronje : Op. cit. 


The religion which he preached was exceedingly simple. 
It possessed the minimum of doctrine and ritual, for, according 
to the Qorcn, God wanted to rrake the burden of men light and 
easy. His central doctrine was the unity of God, and his most 
important ritual the daily prayers. Fasts, alms, pilgrimage and 
belief in Muhammad as the Prophet of God were the main 
pillars of the faith. On the social side its most impressive 
feature was the assertion of the equality and brotherhood of 
Muslims and hence the absence of a priestly class. The 
doctrine of the unity of God implied complete rejection of 
the worship of deities or the adoration of idols. The charac- 
teristics of the Muslim religious consciousness were vivid 
realisation of the ever present nearness and all-encompassing 
power of God, lively dread of the awful consequences of dis- 
obedience to His will, and a feeling of profound submission 
and entire dependence on His mercy and grace ; altogether* 
a consciousness of calm and stern resignation. 

Within a short period after the death of the Prophet his 
simple faith had begun to branch out into sects and systems 
under the pressure of life and logic. Politics was the cause of 
the first divisions. The sects of the Kharijia, Shi 1 ah, Murjia and 
Qddiriya were the earliest to make their appearance. The 
Shi* ah* who soon spread into Persia had a most luxuriant 
growth of fantastic systems of great interest. The extreme 
Shi' ah* known as the Ghulat* had doctrines curiously resemblirg 
those found in Hinduism. For example, they believed in excess 
(ghuluv) and defect (taqsir), by the former of which they meant 
that man might be raised to the position of God and by the 
latter that God might be reduced to the status of man. As a 
consequence of these doctrines they raised their leader and 
preceptor to the position of divinity. Then they believed that 
God could pass into human form (hulal) and also in the doctrine 
of metempsychosis (fanasufen), of an anthropomorphic God 

E. C. Browne: Literary Kbtory of Per*, Vol. I. p. 310 j Vol. II, 


(taahbih), of change in divine purpose (bida) t and of 'the return 
of the Imam (raja 4 ). These extreme sects were known by 
various names, Khurttmiyah in Isfahan, Qadiyyah in Ray, 
Mazdaqiyah and Sindbddiyah in Azarbaijan, Mahammirah (red- 
robed ones) and Mubayyazah (white-robed ones) in 
Transoxana. But of peculiar interest among them were the 
* Ati-Ilahiyas Q who seemed to have come into existence early 
in Islamic history. They were settled in Persia and India 
and came under the notice of the author of DabUtani-M.azabib . 

The ' Afalldhtyaa were an extreme Shi' ah sect who believed 
in the divinity of 'All. They did not go to mosques, did not 
recognize ritual uncleanliness, did not permit polygamy or 
divorce, and allowed men and women to dance together in 
weddings. They believed in five emanations from God which 
took part in the creation of the universe. They held a communion 
(kh'dmat) which consisted in sharing and eating in common 
sugar-candy or a sacrificed sheep or, on solemn occasions, a 
bull. According to them man was swayed by two forces, reason 
('aql) and lust (na/s). Their order had a hereditary head (pf'r), 
who was assisted by a conductor of ritual ceremonies (kjhadim 
or dctit) and by a representative (khalifa) who distributed 
portions of the meal of communion. The poet Al Sayyid al 
Himyari 7 (723 789 A.D.) was claimed by them as belonging to 
their sect. 

There were others among Shi'ahs who refused to believe 
in the open meaning of the Qoran and who interpreted it 
allegorically, To them prayer meant supplication to the Imam, 
charity (zakat) donation to the Imam, and pilgrimage (haft visit 
to the /mom. 8 

The Shi'aha, whether of extreme or moderate parties* held 
one cardinal tenet, that of the Imamate ; for Shiism centres 

Fatten: SnfaHt, JftE. Encyclopedia of Islam: 'Ait Ilahiya. 

Colebrooke : On the Origin and Peculiar Tenet, of Certain 
Muhammadan Sects. Asiatic Researches, Vol. 01, p. 33ft ft. 
? Brockelmann : Getchidite der Arabiachen Uttecatur, p. 75* 

Heterodoxies of Shiites, J.A.O.S., No., viu. and Ujtix. 


religious authority in an inspired person whose presence is the 
only true guarantee of right guidance. The Imam orig'nally had 
two functions, the one of leading in prayer and the second of 
ruling the Muslim community ; but the death of "All and hh 
sons Hasan and Husain extinguished the hope of political 
dominion. ** The Shi'ahs made the best of necessity and ga e 
themselves now to an ambition for religious leadership* The 
representatives of the house of 'All became the indispensable 
heads of Islam, the Imams of the believers/' 9 His claim was 
twofold, the right by virtue of inheritance, and " the further 
claim that the celestial light substance which was lodged in 
Muhammad was likewise received into the souls of the Imams 
in succession.** 10 The Imams were infallible and sinless, and, 
because of the light within them, incorruptible and immortal. 
'* The extreme sect of the Shi'ahs exaggerated the enduement 
of the Imams and claimed that gome or all of them were of 
divine nature or incarnate manifestations of God. On this 
belief they offered to them divine honours/* 11 According to 
Nicholson, " the notion of Theios anthropos (of the Hellenists) 
passed over into Islam through the Shiites and became 
embodied in the Imam, regarded as the living representative of 
God and as a semi-divine personality on whom the world 
depends for its existence/* 12 

From such early Sfiiife sects grew the later Seveners 13 and 
Twelvers. 14 The founder of the. first was * Abd allah ibn 
Maymun, a refined Persian sceptic whose aim was the overthrow 
of Arab supremacy. The number seven had a mystic significance 
in his System. He taught tnat there were seven prophet* who 

OPatton: Op. cit. 
10 Ibid. 

11 Ibid. 

12 Nicholson : Studies in Islamic Mysticism, Preface, vi. 

i*E. G. Browne: Op. cit., Vol. I. p. 130 f. ; Vol. H, p< 194 & 

14 Ibid, 
filocbet : Le inessts*itsme dmn f feet&odbxk imwulmane. 


had seven helpers, and that between each prophet and his sue* 
cessor there were seven Imams, he himself being the last and 
greatest* of all. In his metaphysics God was an absolute being 
who had no attributes and no name. He was the Pre-existent 
One, and from His thought emanated the second being or God 
who created and governed the world. In these two beings, one 
without attribute and the other with attributes, there is close 
analogy to the Brahman and l&ara of the Hindu systems. 

The Prophet was the hypostasis of the Divinity, an 
emanation some degrees removed from the Creator ; in fact all 
living beings formed a chain of such emanations from the 
Pre-existent, their only difference being their distance from Him. 
Hence all would ultimately return to Him after an indefinite 
number of hypostases. The initiate in the order passed through 
various stages with the help of his teacher till he attained the 
station of the Prophet. 

The Karmathians were a branch of the Ismailians 
(Seveners) who separated from the parent sect in 890 A.D. 

The Twelvers (A*na ' Aahariga) believe in twelve /moms, 
descendants of 'All, the last of whom was Muhammad ibn 
Hasan who disappeared in 873 A.D. and whose return is 
expected. The Safvids who conquered Persia in 1502 A.D. 
belonged to this sect. 

Besides these were the Assassins whose stronghold was 
Alamut and Masyaf in SyKa and who were stamped out by 
Hulau ; also the Fatimides, the Druzes and the Nutairis. 

Of still greater importance were the developments in other 
sects, which were mainly divided oh theological grounds. The 
questions which agitated the minds of Muslim theologians 
related principally to the nature of God, His relation to creation. 
His relation to man, the nature of soul and the nature of the 
knowledge of God. The most influential among the early sects 
were the Mu'tazalite*, the rationalists of Islam. 15 

Forfemneea aber drm Ufoa. trwuUtod by Fell* Ann. 
* CKmpter HI. * 


They were the successors of the Qddiritcs who believed in 
the freedom of will, and the first to employ philosophy in 
religious discussions. The Mutazalitea were originally a group 
of ascetics who lived in retirement and who gave an impetus to 
the movement which gathered round itself the rationalists of 
Islam. They also had a close connection with the Shiife* who 
had an intellectual affinity with them. 10 

The founder of the school was Wasil bin *Ata, a pupil of 
the famous teacher Abul Hasan Basri who seceded from his 
master and earned the name by which his followers became 
famous. The other noted leaders were Amir ibn Ulbaid 
(d. 144 A.H.). Abul Hudhail (d. 226 A.H.), An-Na**am 
(d. 231 A.H.), Bishr ibn Mu'tamir (contemporary of Al Rashid), 
Abu ' Ubaida Ma'mar (d. 210 A.M.), Thumama ibn Ashras (d. 
213 A.H.), Al Jahiz (d. 255 A.K). Al Khaiyat (d. 230 A.H.), 
Al Zubair (d. 303 A.H.). 

The general tendency of the Matazc^itcs was to turn from 
the objective and external standards of truth to a subjective, 
critical, even sceptical attitude of mind. Naturally they made 
reason ('aql) the chief source of religious knowledge. The 
point of view which dominated their theological reasoning was 
to purify the monotheistic idea of all the obscurities and defornv 
ations which it had acquired in popular belief, both in ethCcs 
and in metaphysics. Like Sankara they combated vigorously for 
the monistic conception of God. In this they had to fight 
against the anthropomorphists who pointed to the passages of 
the Qoron and the Hadis which have anthropomorphic 
tendencies. These passages were explained by them according 
to their own methods of interpretation (t'awit). Then they had 
to fight those who held that God possessed the attributes of 
knowledge, power and so forth. The attribution of eternal 
qualities to God was to admit plurality, to admit die existence 
of other eternal* besides the one eternal God. Uke the Hindu 
nxmists, Abul Hudhail held that God was knowing, powerful, 


'Aft: MuhmmAm Uwr, Vol. II, 


loving, but his knowledge, power and love constituted His very 
essence (dhdt), that God's qualities could only be described in 
negatives, and that they existed only as hypostases of the divine 
essence. In the hands of Ma 'mar ibn 'Abbad this unity of God 
became merely an abstract possibility of which nothing could 
be predicated, hence God became unknowable. The disciples 
of Nazzam took the next step forward and recognized besides 
the absolute God who was unpred: cable, the contingent God 
who was creator and ruler. 

With regard to creation Abul Hudhail taught that creation 
meant change, and annihilation repose, and that they alternated 
eternally. Others held that creation was the actualisation of pre- 
existing potentialities or the manifestation of what was hidden. 
An-Nazzam established the idea of law, and of the gradual 
evolution of the world from the pre-existent unmanifest state in 
accordance with an internal necessity. Thus, in relation to the 
universe, God was % an efficient cause only ; the universe 
followed its own immutable law. 

The outstanding characteristic of Mutazald metaphysics 
was unity and that of their ethics, justice. The idea of justice 
for them was all-comprehensive, so that even God could not 
conceivably transcend it ; even His power was limited by the 
exigencies of justice. It followed from this that as God had 
created man for his good, Ct was necessary for Him to send 
His prophets to guide man and instruct him in His ways, so 
that divine grace was obPgatory (lutj wdjib) ; human welfare 
demanded that it should be necessary. Another important 
consequence of the principle was that good and evil were 
determined not by the arbitrary will of God, but according to 
an absolute standard the law of the categorical imperative 
which bound God Himself. 

Man's will was free and hence the responsibility of choosing 

good or evil rested on him, and, according as he chose one or 

the other* he merited punishment or reward. The Mutozalitc* 

view of life was tinged with asceticism. MvjUdi in praising 

* their ideas quotes 'Amir ibn OJbaid's wordb. He taid, " Desire 


blinds man, and death separates him from his hopes. The world 
is a station where the voyager camps but for a moment and 
then goes away. Its pleasures are woes, its snares are fatal, 
its serenity agitation and its kingdom revolution. The quiet of 
man is disturbed by perpetual alarms, both peace and unrest 
are unreal, for death is man's end, who is the plaything of 
adversity, the offspring of destiny. Let one fly to save himself 
and there death is in ambuscade, let there be one false step and 
there is a fall. Man exhausts himself, but his efforts benefit 
only his inheritors and the tomb gathers the fruits of his 
exertions.'* 17 

Lastly, in regard to revelation they held that the Qordn was 
not the eternal, uncreate, infallible word of God. Thus they 
were upholders of a progressive revelation which Is in consonance 
with the growing needs of humanity. 

The vigorous application of logic to theology led to the 
formulation of an abstract, impersonal, absolute God, which 
hardly fulfilled the two universal needs of man dependence on 
a power greater than his own, and devotion to a person or ideal 
which evokes the deepest emotions of love. As a reaction 
against Mu'tazalism these two tendencies already in existence 
made vigorous headway, while two other tendencies both 
results of rationalism made their appearance : that is, philoso- 
phic speculation and agnosticism or downright atheism. Of the 
first set of these tendencies the traditionalists and the jurists 
were the chief representatives : the six celebrated collectors of 
the sayings of the Prophet, and the four great /mam* who 
compiled the codes of laws. The ascendancy of the liberals 
(Mutazdites) did not mean the triumph of liberty, for their 
hand had fallen heavily upon their rivals and one of the most 
respected of the jurists, Ibn Hanbal, had to suffer the conse- 
quences of his honesty and independence. It was only in the 
reign of Mutwakkil (64761 A.D.) that the adherents of the 
old regime were able to raise their head* 

' * 

t Can* 4e V*u* : AvicMiw, p, 20, * 


Abul Hasan AI Ash 'an 1 8 was the leader of this movement. 
He was born in 873 A.D. (260 A,H.) and was descended from 
Abu Musa, a respected companion of the Prophet. He spent 
the larger part of his life in Baghdad. He began as an adherent 
of the Mutazalitcs and for forty years remained with them. In 
the end he quarrelled with his teacher Jubbai on the question 
of necessary grace, and after a short but sharp internal struggle 
became a convert to traditionalist ideas. He publicly abjured 
Mu'tazala and henceforth spent his whole energy in combating 
heterodox views by public lectures and books. He died some 
time between 931 and 941 A.D. 

Ash'ari occupied a position midway between the extreme 
absolutists, the Mu'tazalites, and the extreme anthropomor- 
phists, the Mushabbihites and Khdrijites. He utilised the 
dialectics of the Mu'tazala but combined it with ancient 
traditions and thus established a new school of theology. His 
view of God's nature was different both from the impersonal 
abstraction of the rationalists and from the gross realism of 
the materialists. According to him, God possessed all good 
qualities, but they did not bear any resemblance with human 
qualities. Similarly, with regard to matter, he conceded 
existence to it and did not hold that existence was conferred 
upon it by God, and with regard to human destiny and con- 
duct he believed in the acquisition of grace by man's own 
effort* and in the intercession of the Prophet with God's 

Ash'ari's ideas were developed a century latex by Baqillani 
who died in 1012 A.D. and by the latter** successor a hundred 
years after, AI GhazalT 19 (10571112) who set the seal upon 
Muslim theology. He is regarded by the Muslims as their 

18 Mehren ; Expect die U reforme de ndamitme commence* au 
Illieme ecle de rrttgire par Abou-1-Hmwn 'AH 1 AsVwT. Third 
International Oriental Congrew, St. Petewbarg, 

leCarra & Vans, GKaii)!. 

Macdonald: GH**ft& J.A.O.S., Vol. . 
Claude Reid : The Alchemy ol 


greatest authority in theology, the Proof of Islam (Hujjat-al 
Islam) ; Renan considered him " the most original mind among 
Arabian philosophers/' and Tholuck's opinion of him was, 
** this man, if ever any have deserved the name* was truly a 
* divine/ 

Ghazali was born tf Tus. He early lost his father and 
was brought up by a Su/F friend. He studied theology and 
canon law, but soon broke away from authority and tradition 
and then devoted himself to dialectics, logic, science, philosophy 
and Sufism. The fame of his learning spread widely and in 
1085 he was appointed, by Nizam-ul-Mulk to the Nizamia 
academy at Baghdad. Ten years later he was struck with a 
mental malady and was obliged to leave Baghdad. He became 
a sceptic and lost all faith in religion. Out of his doubts he 
was lifted by his mystic experiences, and then abandoning 
reason he came to rely upon mysticism. He rejected the 
teaching of the traditionists because it appeared to him childish, 
but he found no satisfaction in scholasticism (Warn), nor in 
science or philosophy. The only true way of knowledge was 
through ecstasy and direct intuition. Therefore he devoted 
himself to mystical exercises in retirement from the world and 
at last acquired the peace of mind which he desired. In 1106, 
he was appointed to the academy of Nlshapur, but he soon 
left it, and went back to Tus where he established a school 
and a monastery (khanqdh). Here he wrote his book in 
refutation of philosophy (Tihafatul Filsafa). and here in 1112 
he died. 

Ghazali made important contributions to Islamic theology* 
In the theory of knowledge he discarded, as above stated, the 
ultimate authority of reason, and made direct realisation (the 
Samadhi of Hindus) the proof of religion. Like the Hindu 
philosophers, he, argued that through ordinary means of know- 
ledge man can know only the relative, and, a God is Absolute, 
he cannot gain any positive knowledge of His qualities or 
nature. He must therefore depend upon revelation prophetic 
or personal to obtain that knowledge. He further taught* 


that it was possible to know God because God's nature was 
not different in essence from that of man, and that the human 
soul partook of the divine and would after death return to its 
divine source. 

On the plane of the relative he accepted the teaching of 
science concerning the universe, although he maintained that 
behind the order of nature lay the Absolute Being whose will 
dominated all. The universe existed in three modes the world 
of sense or change ('alam-ul-mulk), the world of power (a/am* 
ul-jabrut), and the world of eternal repose ('o7am-u/-ma/afeuf). 
The three worlds were not discrete in time and space but were 
modes of existence like the ideas of Plato. 

Ghazali completed the circle in which philosophic specula* 
tion ever moves. The Mu'tazala had started the circle by 
making reason the arbiter in religion, but the pitiless course of 
their own logic led to its final dethronement at the hands of 
Ash *arT and Ghazali. Outside the ranks of the dialecticians 
the movement of speculation ran into several channels. 
Scholastic rationalism branched off into atheism, or rather 
scepticism, into pure philosophy, and into a complete denial 
of intellectualism, that is, mysticism. 

The sceptics and atheists were usually found among the 
poets, the scientists and others who had all come under the 
influence of Persian and Indian thought. The names of the 
early sceptics have been enumerated by Jahiz (869 A.D.) and 
their doctrines noted by Tabarl. Ibn Hazm (d. 1064 A.D.) 
and Ghazali have attempted to classify them. They generally 
deny the existence of a personal God, and an immortal soul, 
show contempt for the prophets and for religious ordinances, 
and believe in the eternity of the universe, or in the eternity 
of two or three principles. 20 

The Caliph Yazld (d. 744 A.D.) was reckoned among them, 
the poets Abu Tammam (d. 846 A.D.) and Mutnabbl (d. 965 
A.D.) were suspected of sceptic leanings, but of course the 

*> MvgolioutH : AcKeUte of UUm. E.R.E. 


greatest of them all were Abu] "Ala al Ma'am (d. 1057) and 
'Umar Khayyam. 

Regarding Abul 'Ala, the translator of his Diwan, Henry 
Baerlein, stays, he " was not merely saddened by the 
politics and the religion of the period ; his meditations had been 
most profound ; they had been influenced by Buddha/' 21 Abul 
"Ala was a believer in trasmigration, a rigid vegetarian who 
disapproved of the use of milk, honey and leather, and had a 
tender regard for animal life, an abstemious ascetic in his 
clothing and food, a recluse, an upholder of celibacy. Yet he 
was one of the greatest of Arab poets, a deeply learned scholar 
who gathered round him hundreds of students from all lands, 
and a kindly helper to those who stood in need of his aid, 
Abul 'Ala was a foe of external piety and formal religion, for 
he sang: 

Abandon worship in the mosque and shrink 
From idle prayer, from sacrificial sheep, 
For Destiny will bring the bowl of sleep 
Or bowl of tribulation you shall drink.* 2 
and again. 

So, there are many ways and many traps 

And many guides, and which of them is lord) 

For verily Mahomet has the sword, 

And he may have the truth perhaps ! perhaps ! 23 

and with regard to prophets and paradise, 

** There is no God save Allah ) " that is true. 
Nor is there any prophet save the mind 
Of man who wanders through the dark to find 
The paradise that is in me and you/ 24 

21 Baerfetn : Abul *AttU the Syrian, p. 19. 

ssBaerlem : Dfwia of Abu! 'All, Poem No* 1. 

23 fbid. Poem No. 35. 

54 Ibid., Poem No. SI, 


His view of the world is that it is illusory, 

Perchance the world is nothing, is a place 
Of dream, and what the dreamland people say 
We sedulously note, and we and they 
May be the shadows of a shining race. 25 

And he is a confirmed pessimist, who revels in pain and finds 
in it man's opportunity to live nobly. 

We suffer that we know, and that is all 

Our knowledge. If we recklessly should strain 

To sweep aside the solid rocks of pain, 

Then would the domes of love and courage fall. 26 

4 Umar Khayyam is so well known that it is hardly necessary 
to do more than just mention him. 

The philosophers of Islam 27 Al-Kindl, Farabl (d. 950 A.D.), 
the Brothers of Purity (Ikhwan-us-Safa), Ibn Maskawaih and 
Ibn STna (d. 1036 A.D.) in the east, and Ibn Baja (d. 1 138 A.D.), 
Ibn Tufail (d. 1185) and Ibn Rushd (d. 1198) in the west, do 
not need extended notice. Their metaphysical systems were 
largely based on Greek philosophy and exerted influence in 
India only in so far as they became part of Sufi thought. It is, 
however, interesting to note that Al-Nadim obtained information 
about Indian religious sects for his Fihrist from a treatise compil- 
ed by Al-Kindi, who in. his turn depended on the account of an 
envoy sent by Yahiya ibn Khalid, the Barmekide, to India. 
Farabl was an encyclopaedic writer, for besides logic and 
metaphysics he wrote on ethics, politics, and music. He 
attempted to combine the systems of Plato and Aristotle, and 
his logic became the basis of Ibn Sfna's philosophy. Ibn Slna 
shares with Ghazali and Ibn Rushd the premier position among 
the Muslim thinkers. His canon is almost die last word on 

*&Beer!ein : Dfwin of Abul 'Ali. Poem No, %. 

26 Ibid., Poem No, 71. 

27 Boer : History of Muslim Philosophy. 

Iqbil : Development of Metaphysics in Persia. 


Muslim medicine, and in philosophy he is unsurpassed for the 
penetrating keenness of his mind and the subtlety of his thought. 

The philosophers introduced neo-Platonic ideas of emana- 
tion into Muslim thought and sowed the seeds whose intellectual 
harvest was gathered by the Sufis. If Ghazall starting from 
dogma landed into mysticism, Ibn Slna whose point of departure 
was Greek philosophy reached the same destination. He held 
that reason was of value in science only, but beyond reason 
was intuition which gave a simpler, more direct, and more 
adequate knowledge of the absolute truth. His metaphysics 
served as grist to the Sufistic mill, for he conceived of the ultimate 
reality as eternal beauty, whose nature being self-expression, it 
saw itself reflected in the universe-mirror. This self-expression 
is love, for love is appreciation of the beauty which is perfec- 
tion. Love is thus the moving energy of the world, it makes 
beings strive after their original perfection from which in creation 
they have travelled away, and it is by love that the human soul 
realises its unity with the ultimate reality. 

Every avenue of thought thus led to Sufiam, whether it was 
Mutazalah dialectics, orthodox scholasticism or pure philosophy. 
Apparently the causes of such a convergence were not merely 
logical necessity, there were deeper social causes among others 
the exhaustion of the energy which had led to the establishment 
of a world- wide empire, and the rise of the nationalistic spirit 
which brought about the downfall of the Abbaside Caliphate. 
Their result in the domain of thought is clear : from the twelfth 
century onwards the sway of Sufitm becomes increasingly 
dominant over the Muslim mind ; literature, philosophy and 
religion become all subject to its sovereign power. 

It is time then to turn back and trace the beginning and 
gradual development of Sufi tendencies itt Islam. 

Sufi$m is a complex phenomenon ; it is like a stream which 
gathers volume by the joining of tributaries from many lands. 
Its original source is the Qoran and the life of Muhammad. 
ChrUfcanity and neo-Ratonism swelled it by a large contribu- 
tion. Hinduism and Buddhism supplied a number of ideas, and 


the religions of ancient Persia Zoroastrianism, Monism, etc., 
brought to it their share. 

Muhammad was a mystic, and the mystical note sounds 
clearly in the utterances of the Qordn. 28 The Mecca Suras 
mainly and the Medina Suras occasionally are charged with deep 
religious devotion and ascetic feeling. They teach absolute 
dependence and renunciation. God is spoken of as the light 
of the heavens and earth. 20 God says concerning the believers, 
** He loves them and they love Him " 30 and therefore He 
bears the beautiful name of lover (wudud). 31 Again, the Qoron 
says, ** Those who walk meekly on the earth, and when the 
ignorant speak to them answer * Peace ' shall be rewarded 
with the highest place in Paradise." 32 Then from the earliest 
times there were among Muslims the devotees who were 
continually engaged in reading the Qoran, and the penitents 
(BafcVaun) 88 who kept fasts and made orisons. In spite of 
Muhammad* s insistence upon moderation, asceticism and 
abstinence were regarded as specially commendable by those 
called ZahiJ (abstainers) and 'Ubbad (servants), whose motto 
was * flee from the world * (al-firar min al-duniya). These 
ascetics developed the ordinary rites by works of supereroga- 
tion, their prayers were more numerous and more highly 
spiritualised, their fasts more continuous and severer. Natur- 
ally their ethics and mode of living were held up as an example 
of saintly life, and their services utilised in roles of preachers, 
arbiters, ambassadors and leaders. 34 

When the Muslims came into contact with the Christians 
these tendencies were accentuated in liturgical matters, 

n, xxiv, 35 (Rodwell't translation, p. 446). 
29 Ibid., I. 15 (Ibid,, p. 92). 
ao Ibid., v. 59 (Ibid., p. 492). 
81 Ibid., bootv. 14 (Ibid., P . 43). 
a Ibid., sxv, 64 (Ibid., p. 163). 

** GokbiW : Op. cit, Chap. IV. , 

,S4 MargoikKitH : Early Development ot Mnhmmdanim, Lecture V. 


meditation and repetition of God's name and player (dfcifcr) I 
and in ethical, complete detachment from affairs of personal 
interest, utter dependence upon God (tau>akh*l), rejection of 
material goods (fuqr), indifference towards suffering or sick- 
ness, praise or blame. Abu 'Abdullah al Harith al-Muhasibi 
(d. 857-58), who is the earliest Sufi author whose work is pre- 
served, shows evident traces of the use of the Christian 
Gospels, one of his works beginning with the Parable of the 
Sower and another being an expansion of the Sermon on the 
Mount. 85 

The neo-Platonists strengthened the feeling of contempt for 
the world and supported the leanings towards divine life by 
their doctrines of emanation and of dynamic pantheism. The 
neo-Platonic ideas passed into Islam when, in the beginning of 
the ninth century, Greek works were translated into Arabic. 86 

The third foreign source of Muslim mysticism was Indian. 
It has been pointed out in an earlier chapter that India and the 
Persian Gulf had a close commercial intercourse ; with trade, 
undoubtedly, ideas were exchanged. It stands to reason that if 
things of material use like Indian steel and sword* 7 and Indian 
gold and precious stones, 38 and if things of artistic value like the 
pointed arch and the bulbous dome, 30 reached Persia and Iraq, 
Indian philosophical ideas should have travelled there too. Many 
Indians held posts in the financial department at Basra under ^ 
the early Umayyada 40 ; the Caliph Muawiya is reported to have 

33 Margoliouth : Notice of the Writing! of Abu 'AW all ah al Hlrtth 
Bin Asad al-Muhaaibt Transactions of the Third International Congress 
for the History of Religions, 1908. 

86 Nicholson : A Historical Enquiry Concerning the Origin and 
Development of Sufism, J.R.A.S., 1906. 

37 Brockelmann : *Uyun al Akhb&r, p. 119, I. 3. 

38 Margoliouth : Table Talk of a Mesopotamia Judge, p. 189. 
SoRivoira: Muslim Architecture, pp. 152* 153. 

Choisy : Histoire de i'architecture. Vol. II, pp. 92. 102. 
<0*Jean Perier: Vie d'al Hadjdjadj ibn YOsuf, p, 249. . * 


planted a colony of them in Syria specially Antioch, 41 and Hajjaj 
to have established them in Kashgar. 42 ** The black-eyed and 
olive-complexioned Hindus were brushing their shoulders 43 
against those of the Muslims in the cities of the Caliphate. The 
eastern dominions of the empire, that is, Khorasan, Afghanistan, 
Slstan and Baluchistan were Buddhist or Hindu before they 
were converted. Balkh had a large monastery (Vihara) whose 
superintendent was known as the Baramak. His descendants 
became the famous Barmakide Vizirs of the Abbaside Caliphs. 44 

Then the Arabs familiarised themselves from early times 
with Indian literature and sciences. They translated Buddhist 
works in the second century of the Hijra, for instance, Kitabcd- 
Bud, and ' Bildwhar wa Budasif Mri ; treatises on astronomy and 
medicine called ' Sindhind ' (Siddhdnta) and ' Shushrud * 
(Susruta) and Sirak (C/iara^a) 46 ; story books like Kalilah Damnah 
(Panchatantra) and Kitab SiWbtfd 47 ; ethical books of Shanaq 
(Chdriakya) and Btdpa (Hitopadesa) 4 *; and treatises on logic 49 
and military science. 50 

They were exceedingly keen on informing themselves of the 
customs, manners, sciences and religions of the people with 
whom they came into contact. Al-Kindl wrote a book on Indian 
religions, Sulaiman and Mas'udi collected information in their 
travels which they used in their writings. Al-Nadim, w 

41 Jean Perier : Op. cit. 

42 ibid., p. 249. 

43 Ibid., P . 252. 

44 Nicholson : A Literary History of the Arabs, p. 259. 

45 Duka : Influence of Buddhism upon Islam, a Summary of Goldziher's 
Paper, J.R.A.S.. 1904. 

4Fluegel: Fihrist. 

47 Ibid. 

48 Ibid. 
4 Ibid. 
$0 Ibid. 
51 ibid. 


Al-Ash'ari, 52 Al-Biruni, 58 Shahrastan! 54 and many others devot- 
ed chapters in their books to describe and discuss Indian 
religious and philosophic systems. 

The legend of Buddha entered into Muslim literature as the 
type of the saintly man, and Muslim hagiologists assimilated the 
stories of Ibn Ad ham to the Buddhist legend. 55 Indian ascetics 
travelling in pairs and staying not more than two nights at one 
place were directly known to the Muslim adepts, who took from 
them their fourfold vows of cleanliness, purity, truth and 
poverty and the use of the rosary. 56 

What wonder then that the conception of Nirvltya, the 
discipline of the eightfold path, the practice of Yoga and the 
acquaintance of miraculous powers were appropriated in Islam 
under the names of Fana, Tarlqa or Saluk* Maraqabah and 
Karamat or Af'u;*ird. 57 

Two periods may be distinguished in the history of SufUm, 
The first from the earliest times to the beginning of the ninth 
century, and the second from the ninth century onwards ; during 
the first period, Sufism was merely tendencious and possessed 
no system ; during the second, it developed metaphysical 
systems and the organization of monastic orders. 

The leaders of saintly life in the first period were ascetics, 
quietists and recluses, Kufa and Basra were their two 
main centres. The name Sufi was first applied to Abu Hashint 
of Kufa who died in 778 A.D. But the Sufi writers include 

62 Mehren : Op. cit.. p. 192. 

53 Sachau : Al-Birum'i India. 

54 Rehataek : Op. cit. 

55 Goldziher : Op. cit., Chap. IV. 

56 Ibid. 

57 Ibid. 

Duka : Op. cit. 
58 . G, Browne : Uterory Hittory of Pertim, Vd I, p. 296 m 


among the early mystics 50 Imam Ja'far Sadiq (d. 765 A.D.), 
Hasan al Basri (d. 728 A.D.). Uwais al Qarani (fl. 1st cent. A.D.), 
Daud al-Tal (d. 781 A.D.); Shaqiq Balkhi (d. 810 A.D.), Ibrahim 
ibn Adham (d. 777 A.D.); Rabi'a al * Adawiya (d. 753 A.D.), 
HabTb 'Ajmi (d. 899 A.D.), Abu Hanlfa N'uman (d. 768 A.D.), 
al-Kharraz (pupil of Hasan), Futfayl ibn 'Ayaz (d. 803 A.D.). 

The chief characteristic of their belief was the submission 
of human will to God. They were seekers more of piety and 
other- worldliness than of divine knowledge, they had an 
exaggerated consciousness of sin and an overwhelming dread of 
divine retribution, yet they had early developed emotional and 
ecstatic features and they negated the externalia of religion. 

Among Rabi'a al 'Adawiya's sayings there are many which 
show emotional tendencies. For instance, ** Consume with fare, 
O God, a (presumptuous) heart which loveth Thee.*' 00 '* I 
reserve my heart for Thy converse, (O Lord !) and leave my 
body to keep company with those who desire my society. My 
body is thus the companion of the visitor, but my dearly 
beloved is the companion of my heart.'* 01 She is reported 
to have said that the love of God had so taken possession of 
her soul that there was no room left even for the love of the 
Prophet, much less of hatred for the devil. 62 The fear of 
death and of the day of judgement was expressed in many 
ways. Rabi'a says, ** O my soul I how long wilt thou 
sleep to rise no more, till the call shall summon thee on the day 
of resurrection." 68 

89 Nicholson : A Historical Enquiry. 

. G. Browne : Literary History, Vol. I. 

Q De Slane : Ibn Khallikan, Vol. !, p. 515. 

61 Ibid., p. 516. 

62 . G. Browne : Literary History, Vol. I, p. 299. 

63 Nicholson : KasHful Manj&b. p. 9). 


Uwais QaranI speaking to Harun ibn Hayyan said, ** my 
father died, Adam and Eve died, Noah and Abraham died, 
Moses, son of Amran died, David, Caliph of God, died, Muham- 
mad, the prophet of God, died, Abu Baler, his Caliph, died, my 
brother 'Urnar died, and my friend died . . . and this is my last 
advice to thee, keep always before thee the Book of God and 
the path of the righteous, and do not for a moment allow thy- 
self to become heedless of death/' 84 

The second period of Sufism began in the ninth century ; 
the calm monotheistic quietism of the first, having absorbed 
Sht' ah theories and foreign notions, blossomed out in surpris- 
ingly short time into full-fledged pantheistic mysticism. The 
Sufis of the period fall into several groups, men of similar tem- 
peraments clustering together round some pious leader. These 
groups eventually evolved several orders and different systems, 
according to the differences of emphasis on particular doctrines, 
details of organization, and philosophical schemes. In this 
manner arose the early schools 09 which Hujwiri has described 
fully. Among them were the followers of Muhasibf who has 
been mentioned above as a writer of Christian tendencies ; 
opposed to them were the Qassdri* or Malamatia who pushed 
detachment from the world to extremes and voluntarily sought 
the contempt of men. The followers of Junaid of Baghdad 
were prudent and sober ; they condemned formalism and 
preached a religion of sincerity. The Sahtis laid emphasis on 
self-mortification. Abu Sa'id Kharraz was the first to explain 
the states of annihilation (/ana) and subsistence (baqa). Lastly, 
there were the extreme Sufis who held the doctrines of incarna- 
tion (hulul), commixture (imftza;) and transmigration of spirits 

But the man who produced the greatest stir in the Islamic 
world by the boldness of his doctrines was Husain bin Mantui 

<uNichoUon: TadKkiwml-Auliyi, pp. 20, 21. 
es Nichoboo : KasHfat Mmhjub, 


al-Hallaj. 60 His theories were later worked up in the systems 
of Ibn al Arabl and 'Abdul Karim Jili and in the poetry of Ibn al 
Faridh and Abu Sa'id Ibn Abul Khair and their influence spread 
to far off countries including India. Ghazali, Hujwiri and 
'Attar attempted to reconcile him to orthodoxy. TKe story of 
Mansur's life is well known. He started his career as an ordi- 
nary Sufi under the guidance of such well-known Shaikhs (pre~ 
ceptore) as Tushtari and Junaid. But afterwards he threw away 
the Sufi garments and put on worldly clothes. He began to 
preach as an apostle of God and offended the Jurists for 
apostleship was a breach of traditions and the government, 
because it savoured of Shi* ah legitimism.. He travelled about 
in many lands, among them India, and thrice visited Mecca. At 
last his activities became so obnoxious that he was arrested. 
He was kept in prison for a long time, was tortured and at last 
executed in 922 A.D. As Kablr, Dadu, Nanak and other 
Indian saints used the language of Muslim Sufism, it is necessary 
to briefly explain Mansur's mystical system, for his terms be- 
came the current coinage of Sufism. 

Before creation, God was in. His unity, holding ineffable 
discourse with Himself and contemplating the splendour of His 
own essence, and this radical simplicity of His admiration is 
Love, "which in His essence is the essence of essence," beyond 
all modelisations in attributes. In His perfect isolation (infirad) 
God was illuminated by Love, and from this illumination came 
the multiplicity of His attributes and names. Then in order to 
see His supreme joy He projected out of the pre-eternal (ozo/) 
an image of Himself, that is, of His attributes and names. This 
was Adam. Thus the absolute God in His divinity (Idhat) became 
in Adam God in Humanity (ndsui). Mansur conceived of the 
relation of God with man as the infusion of the divine into the 

Mawignon : Kttib Tiwml Sin. 

Msignon : U ptwion d'Al-Hftlkcij et I'ordre dc. 
H. Derenbourg. 1909. 


human soul ; in Hindu terms, the illumination of buddhi by 
Puruaa. The divine spirit produces the illumination where* ** I 
become that which I love, and that which I love becomes mine. 
We are two spirits, infused in one body, to see me is to see Him, 
to see Him is to see us." U7 Apparently Mansur was not a 
thorough-going monist in spite of his declaration " 1 am God *' 
(anal Hag), for according to him there was still some difference 
of level or potential between the Absolute and His image. 

Qushair! (d. 1072) introduced into Sufi thought the neo~ 
Platonic idea of creation by intermediary agencies, and Ibn Sina 
the conception of ultimate reality as eternal beauty, seeing its 
reflection in the universe-mirror. Thus the idea that God was 
both transcendent and immanent grew, and from the pantheistic 
view it followed that all * otherness ' was mere illusion, and the 
feeling of separateness was due to ignorance, which could only 
be dissipated by knowledge. This school 08 had three basic 
ideas in the first place, the ultimate reality was knowledge 
through a supersensual state of consciousness ; secondly, the 
ultimate reality was impersonal ; and thirdly, the ultimate reality 
was one. 

There were many other schools of mystic speculation, but 
two are of special importance : those who regarded the ultimate 
reality as light (nur) t and those who regarded it as thought. The 
chief exponent of the first was Shaikh Shahab uddin Suhrawardi 
(d. 1209), and of the second Ibn al 'Arab! (d. 1241) and his 
commentator 'Abdul Karim Jill (d. 1406). Shahab*Uddin* 
began his studies at Maragha and then migrated to Aleppo 
The independence of his thought made him suspect in the eyes 
of the authorities. He was denounced by the QOZJ* and executed 
by the order of Saladin. He wrote a number of works on what 
is called Hikmat al hhraq (illuminative philosophy). The chain 

67 MttMignon : Op. cit. 
OS Iqbil : Qp. cit. 

*Cft*i Ac Vftttn: U philosophic lllumbttv* a*pffe 
Mmqtfil. J. A.. 1902. 


of ideas links him with Plotinus, M'anf, and Zoroaster. In his 
philosophy the ultimate principle of all existense is Light (Nur-f- 
Qdhir), whose essential nature consists in perpetual illumination. 
This light is self -existent, self -manifesting, indefinable. Not- 
light is its negation and is necessary for its manifestation. Not- 
light like the Indian Maya is non-existent. Light is the source of 
existence. It has two kinds of illuminations. First, the abstract, 
which is without form or limitation and is not an attribute of any 
other substance. Its essence is consciousness or knowledge. It 
is the principle of universal intellect and of its distant reflection, 
the individual intellect. Secondly, the accidental, which has 
form and which is capable of becoming an attribute. It is a 
reflection of the abstract light and is contingent upon it. 

To not-light, which is the principle of absolute matter, two 
kinds of material beings belong (I) the obscure substance or 
atom which is beyond space, and (2) the forms which are 
necessarily in space. These two give rise to all material bodies. 

From the abstract Light to material bodies the whole universe 
is a continuous series of circles of substance all depending on 
the Original Light. Those near the source receive more light 
than those that are distant, and all strive to move towards the 
original fountain of Light with the intense passion arid eternal 
attraction of Love. Thus the universe lives in and moves by 

The human soul is the highest dwelling place of the abstract 
illumination, which enters the body of man which is composed 
of not-light, through the medium of the animal soul which is 
midway between not-light and light. The human soul longs for 
greater and greater illumination in order to gain complete 
freedom from the world 1 of form or not-light; this is realised 
through knowledge and action. 

The human soul has five external and five internal senses 

which belong to the power of light ; and it has faculties or 

functions like growth, assimilation, digestion, which belong to 

*the power of not-light. They together form the unity of the 

organism, they are associated with abstract illumination as the 


enlightened but passive Puruaa is associated with the blind but 
active manas. There are three constituents of the human soul 
(manaa='aq/) (I) reason or intelligence (sattoa), (2) courage 
and ambition (rajas), and (3) lust, hunger and passion (famos). 
The harmonisation of the three results in justice which is the 
highest virtue. 

The individual soul is ever progressive. It strives unceasing- 
ly for total illumination and final absorption. Death does not end 
its strivings. When the material machinery which it adopts in 
one life is exhausted it takes up another body and rises higher 
and higher in different spheres of Being until it reaches its 
destination, which is the state of absolute annihilation (/and). 

When all the souls which are journeying towards their 
common source have reached their goal the universe is dissolved 
and then another cycle of creation follows, similar to the first 
one ; and so cycles of absorption and evolution continue. 

The spiritual goal of man is enlightenment. He has to tread 
the path of saintship in order to attain it. On the path are 
stations, five of which may be distinguished. First is the stage 
of ' /,' feeling of personality and selfishness ; second of ' Thou 
art nor/ complete absorption in self ; third of * / am not, 9 a 
reaction of the second ; fourth of ' Thou art/ complete resig- 
nation to God ; and the fifth of ' / am nor, and thou art not/ 
cosmic consciousness, annihilation of distinctions of subject 
and object. 

Ibn al 'Arab? (d. 1 24 1) 70 is one of the greatest authorities on 
Sufi philosophy. He regarded both nature and man as the 
mirrors which displayed Cod Himself. ** God manifests Himself 
in every atom of creation ; He is revealed in every intelligible 
object and concealed from every intelligence except the 
intelligence of those who say that the universe is His form and 
fpsefty (sura/i wa huwayah), inasmuch as He stands in the same 
relation to phenomenal objects as the spirit to the body. 71 

70 NicKoUon : Trjttmin-l-Ahwiq. 

71 Ibid, 


Regarding the relation of God and man he says, *' man is the 
form of God, and God is the spirit of man/* 72 By means of 
man God beholds the objects which He has created. '* Man 
is the substance of every attribute wherewith he endows God ; 
when he contemplates God he contemplates himself, and God 
contemplates Himself when He contemplates man/* 73 

Attainment of the knowledge of God was the only end of 
man, for complete union with Him was not possible as long as 
the body lasted. The knowledge is gained by faith and 
contemplation, in which human reason divests itself of its 
discursive or reflective faculty. The end of knowledge is 
transcendental unconsciousness, where the phenomenal vanishes 
in the presence of the eternal. 

The practical inference from this pantheism was that God 
could be worshipped in inumerable ways, and that all religions 
contained truth. For if all things are a manifestation of the 
Divine substance God may be worshipped in a star or a calf or 
any other object, and consequently there should be complete 
tolerance towards all creeds. He says, " every one praises what 
he believes, his God is His own creature, and in praising it he 
praises himself. Consequently he blames the beliefs of others, 
which he would not do if he were just, but his dislike is based 
on ignorance. If he knew Junaid's saying, * the water takes 
its colour from the vessel containing it/ he would not interfere 
with the beliefs of others, but would perceive God in every 
form and every belief/' 74 

About a century and a half later than Ibn al *Arabi ived 
'Abdul Karim Al Jifi 75 (d. 140617), who wrote a commentary 
on his predecessor's work, Futuhdt ai-M<zfefe:ya/i and an inde- 
pendent treatise on Su/fam called * the Perfect Man ' (Insan al 
KdmiT). Jili does not rank in intellectual power or philosophical 
insight as an equal of * Arabi. His treatise is full of digressions 

T2 Nicholson: TnumXn-ml-A*hwIq. 

73 Ibid. 

74 {bid. 

* 75 ; Studies in Islamic Mysticism. 
Op. eit. 


on all kinds of occult subjects and his philosophy can only be 
pieced together with such patient labour as has been bestowed 
upon it by Nicholson and iqbal. From their accounts the 
following abstract of his system is drawn. 

There is one Being which exists in two modes, the absolute 
or unmanifest and the qualified or manifest. The absolute is 
unknowable per se, for it is beyond all relation, beyond being 
and not-being, a sum of contradictions. This absolute (wujud 
mutlaq) which is devoid of all qualities and relations exists 
enveloped in cecity ('ama). The first step in its manifestation is 
when it emerges from the darkness without becoming externally 
manifest ; it is still free from name and attributes and is a unity 
comprehending diversity. The external aspect of this bare 
potentiality is abstract oneness (ahadiya), when Being is conscious 
of itself as a unity. The second step is taken when the abstract 
unity (ahadiya) manifests itself in two aspects of He-ness (huu) ; ya) 
and I -ness ('anniya). In the first or inward state the Being is 
conscious of Itself as negativing the many (attributes), in the 
second or outward state as the truth of the many. The third 
step is that of Unity in Plurality (wahidiya), when Being identifies 
itself as one with Itself as many. The last step brings the ab- 
solute out of darkness into light, out of the unconscious into the 
conscious, out of nirguna into saguna, into the sphere of Divinity 
with distinctive attributes embracing the whole series of 
existence. At last the absolute has . become the subject and 
object of all thought, the noumenal has become the 

The Divinity ( : ldhiya) is the highest manifestation of the 
absolute. It is a name for the sum of the individualitations of 
Being, for the sum of all the attributes, it is revealed in two 
aspects of mercy and lordship ; in the first it is in the relation of 
creator (al-hoqq) to the created things (al-k^alq)-, and in the 
second it is as the preserver and roaintainer in their respective 
order of the created things, 

The Divinity is known through its names and attributes. The 
names appertain to its essence (dhat). beauty Gamoft* arandeHir 


(jalal) and perfection (kamal). The principal attributes are life, 
knowledge, will, power, speech, hearing and sight. 

The universe is the embodiment of the Divine idea, the 
objectification of the absolute. The universe is ice, God, wateL 
God is the substance (hayula) of the cosmos. The sensible 
world is idea, thought or dream, but not unreal, it is reality as 
presented to itself through and in the cosmic consciousness of 
the perfect man which holds all the attributes of reality together. 
The thintg-in-itself is the collection of attributes, it is built of 
idea and has no other existence. In Jill's cosmological myth, the 
idea of ideas (haq'tqat al haqa'iq) existed as a white chrysolite 
(ydqut-al-baidha) in which dwelt God before He created the 
creatures. 1 !e looked at it with the eye of perfection and it 
became water, and then with the eye of grandeur (jalal) and it 
surged into waves, and from its grosser elements seven earths 
were created and from its subtle elements seven heavens and 
from the water seven seas with their presiding angels and 

Man in perfection is the image (nus^ha) of God. He is a 
mirror to God reflecting His names and attributes. He is the 
archetype of nature, the link between God and the universe. He 
is the microcosm in which the absolute becomes conscious of 
itself in all its diverse parts. He is the unifying principle 
between reality and appearance, the axis (qutb) round which the 
spheres of existence revolve. He is the first created spirit (rufi) 
in which God first manifests Himself in His essence. He is the 
archetypal spirit of Muhammad (Haqlqat al-Muhammadiyah) t 
and one of his names is the Word of God (canri- Allah). Regard- 
ing this spirit (ru/i), Jill says, ** I (i.e., spirit) am the child whose 
father is his son and the wine whose vine is its jar .... I met 
the mothers who bore me, and I asked them in marriage, and 
they let me marry them.** 76 These phrases bear curious resem- 
blance to the Vedic cosmologies where the Aditis are spoken 
of as mothers as well as wives of their sons.'* 7 

v 76 NichoUon : Stttdie* in bUmic Mysticum, pp. 112, 113. 
TT Macdonnel : History of S*n*bit Utarmture. 


The first theatre of the manifestation of the spirit was Adam, 
then there were angels of light and darkness, and then five 
kinds of souls, animal, passionate, active or good, penitent and 
tranquil. All souls are potentially perfect, some are actually so. 
Among the latter, one stands above all, namely, Muhammad. 
In every age there are perfect men who are an outward manifes- 
tation of the essence of Muhammad, the Logos of Cod. 

The absolute descends by many stages into man ; in man 
the mystical ascent takes place by which man returns to the 
Divine. The process of ascent or spiritual perfection has four 
stages. In the first stage man completely surrenders himself to 
the will of Cod. In the second, he meditates on the names of 
Cod and is illuminated by the splendour of the name, the 
individual will is destroyed. In the third stage takes place the 
illumination of the attributes ; man participates in the divine 
attributes and acquires miraculous powers. He hears the ring- 
ing of bells (ailsilat-al jar as), experiences the dissolution of the 
bodily frame, and beholds " lightning and thunder and clouds 
raining lights and seas surging with fire.'* In the fourth statfe 
he crosses the domain of name and attribute and enters into 
that of Essence and becomes perfect (/nsan-i'-/Cami/), Cod-man. 

Jil! was an idealistic mon.'st. For him all beliefs were 
thoughts about one reality, and all modes of worship expressive 
of some aspect of that reality. The differences were due to the 
variety of names and attributes and all together contributed to 
the perfection of the whole. Jtlf was acquainted with Hindu 
religion, for among the ten principal sects he noted the Brafiimo 79 
(Brahman). About them he says that they worship Cod in His 
absolute aspect, without reference to prophet or 
scriptures of the Brahm : nd, according to him, 
them not by God but by Abrahcan (Brahr 
five books, the fifth on account of its 
to most of the Brahmans, but those , 

became Moslems. Apparently Jill's fifth ( is &eBf Jftifc* 

7NicHolon : Sttxiie* in UUmic MytticUm, p. 
79 Ibid., pp. 132* 133 note. 


whose monistic philosophy in the eyes of Jill made it indistin- 
guishable from Islam. 

Theoretical Sufism had reached the highest point of its 
growth ; the writers of subsequent times wrote text-books for 
students and popular treatises without adding much of original 
value. Of these Jami's Lawaih in Persian is the best summary 
of Sufi philosophy and deservingly attained the widest repute. 
Arabic and Persian poets who became increasingly imbued with 
Sufism made it more than the philosophers the religion of the 
high and the low. Among the former Abu Sa'id ibn A bul Khair 
(d. 1048) and 'Umar ibn al Faridh, and among the latter Hakim 
Sana*! (d. 1150 A.D.), Farid-ud-Dm 'Attar (d. 1229-30), Jalal- 
ud-Dln Ruml (d. 1273). Shabistari (d. 1317 or 1320) give the 
best exposition of Sufi doctrines. 

Besides the philosophical and the poetical, and of equal 
importance with them, is the practical 80 aspect of Sufism. The 
practical aim of the Sufi is absorption in Cod. According to the 
orthodox (ba Shara) school there are three stages in the attain- 
ment of this goal. The first is the stage of good actions, the 
surrender of will to the commands of Cod, the obedience of law 
(sharl'at). As a preliminary step to the first stage the seeker 
(talib or salik) has to repent of his sins (taubah) and to acquire 
faith (rrnon). Then he has to carry out scrupulously all the in- 
junctions regarding cleanliness (taharat), prayer (saldt), fas'. ing 
(saum), almsgiving or charity (zafeat), and pilgrimage (Haj). By 
ascetic practices, fasting, silence and solitude the evil propensi- 
ties of the self (na/a), that is, ignorance, pride, envy, uncharitable- 
ness, anger and others are mortified, for it is absolutely essential 
Kat,tKe lower self should die ,.n order that the higher should 
V*e in Gad.; The inward or spiritual aspect of obedience to law 
designated rhfr path (tariqat). The second stage is that of 
gnosis (m'ari/H^tK^ attainment of spiritual knowledge. In this 
rtage logical .reasoning is discarded because its inadequacy to 
gain the knowle<Jge of God is realised. Intellect ('<?Q 

&>). P. BrowniTh* DerwUHet 
Malcolm ; Hhtary of Pent*. 


demonstration ('stidlaJ) are abandoned, and the restless soul 
seeks relief only in the mercy of God, for it is only by His grace 
(faidh) and favour ('inayat) that gnosis takes place. Then the 
Sufi finds out that otherness is an illusion and therefore 
attachment to created things and fruits of good actions 
utterly vain. With Abul Hasan Khirqanl he holds. 
** 1 do not say that paradise and hell are non-existent, but 
I say that they are nothing to me, because God created them 
both, and -there is no room for any created object in the place 
where I am." Hl To the gnostic the following of law is relatively 
insignificant. Inward light transforms his intellect and will, and 
he no longer stands in need of outward action ; for instance, the 
object of mysticism ',n traversing wilderness and deserts is not 
the sanctuary (fc'aoa) itself, for to a lover of God it is unlawful 
to look upon His sanctuary. No ; their object is mortification in 
a longing that leaves them no rest, and eager dissolution in a 
love that has no end.** 8 - Junaid pointed out how outward 
pilgrimage without spiritual progress was futile. KH 

But gnosis is not enough. It must lead to the next and the 
highest stage : complete union with the Divinity (haqiqat), the 
transformation of the whole of man, will, intellect and emotions, 
and the attainment of the unitive state. In this state the 
mystic passes away from the self (/ana) and lives in essential 
unity with God (baqa). The illusion of subject and object 
vanishes, the sense of individuality dies and law and religion 
lose their meaning ; but this is only the negative aspect of the 
cosmic consciousness which has a rich, positive content. The 
sanctified mystic comprehends both the inward and the outward 
aspects of Reality, the one and the many, the truth and law, in 
the unitive state he becomes one with God, he exclaims with 
iMansur ** I am God " (anal Haq). " 1 am He whom I love, 
and He whom I love is I."* 4 

*l Nicholson : The Myrtics of Islam, Chap. ill. 

*2NicHoUon: Kahf-ul-Mahjuh. p. 327. 

3 ifeid., p. 328, t 

* Nicholson: The Myttic* of Warn, Chap. VL 


The stages by which a novice rises to union with God have 
many stations (maqdmdt) and their corresponding states (haft. 
The seven stations 85 usually recognised are (1) repentance 
(taubah), (2) abstinence (war a), (3) renunciation (zuhJ), (4) poverty 
(/uqr), (5) patience (safer), (6) trust (tawakkd)* (?) satisfaction 
(radha). The states 80 are meditation (muraqaba), nearness to 
Cod (qurfe), love (muhabbat), fear (fehau/), hope (rija), longing 
(shauq), intimacy (uns) f tranquillity (itmindn), contemplation 
(mushahada), certainty (yaq'in). The stations are self -acquired, 
but the states are given by* God. 

In the copious literature of Sufism all the stages, stations and 
states have been described with superabundant zest and consum- 
mate resourcefulness. The legends of saints overflow with 
stories illustrating ascetic, contemplative and unitive states, and 
the language of poetry and symbolism has been exhausted in 
giving expression to all the emotions of fear, hope, longing 
and love which the mystic experiences. For a student of mysti- 
cism and of varieties of religious experiences no richer mine of 
information exists than the lives of Muslim saints and the poetry 
of Muslim mysticism. Sobriety and intoxication, quiet piety and 
frenzied love bordering on insanity, profound thinking and 
fantastic occultism, writhing anguish, abject humility, joyous 
elation and exuberant hope ; there is not a note in the whole 
gamut of human feeling and thought which has not been touched 
and made to yield its rich and hidden music. All kinds of 
physico-psychical phenomena, the hearing of sounds and voices 
and the seeing of visions and colours, the melting of sound into 
sight and of colours into music, the ravishing scents of flower* 
and musk and the soft touch of morning zephyrs, the trance pro- 
duced by song and dance and death caused by the reciting ol 
a line of poetry all of them are there, offering an endless feasl 
to the psychological gourmand hungry for esoteric facts. 

S5 NicHoUon : The Mystics of Islam. Chap. I. 
6<3 Ibid. 


The Muslim mystic who sets out upon the path of union 
). of absorption (/ana) always needs a spiritual guide, for 
" if a man has no teacher, his imam is Satan.*' 87 The guide or 
the preceptor (pir or Shaikh) is the pivot round which the whole 
machinery of Sufi monachism moves. His authority is divine, 
for the Sufi preceptor has inherited the whole significance of 
Shla'h Imam. 8S In the order to which the Sufi belongs he is 
sovereign. The order provides the companionship of saints which 
is necessary for spiritual welfare, the Shaikh regulates the conduct 
of the companions and watches over their spiritual progress. 
He is a saint who has completed the journey and reached the 
goal. He has become one with God and therefore his position 
and status are divine. Ma'ruf Karkhi* 9 Basked his disciples to 
swear to God by him, and Dhul Nun 00 asserted that a true dis- 
ciple should be more obedient to his master than to God Him- 
self. Jalal-ud-Dln Rum? spoke of his master Shams- i-Tabr!z f as 
* that monarch supreme who had come out from behind the 
door clothed in the garment of mortality/ 91 In this way the 
Sufi professing to adore a universal abstraction makes individual 
men the object of his real worship. 1 *- The disciple is advised 
to keep his Murshid constantly in mind, to become mentally 
absorbed in him through constant meditation and contemplation 
of him. to see him in all men and in all things, and to annihilate 
his self in the Murshid. From this state of self-absorption in 
the Murshid, the master leads him on through several stages at 
last to absorption in the Deity/* 3 Muhammad taught surrender 

87 Nicholson : A Historical Enquiry, etc., etc. 
ft* Patton : ShTa'hs, E. R. E. 

Nicholson : Studies in Islamic Mysticism, Preface. 
K Nicholson : A Historical Enquiry, etd. .etc. 
91 Nicholson : Diwan-i-Sham-t-TabrIz, introduction, xxii. 


-' Nicholson : A Historical Enquiry, etc. etc. 
e^J. P. Brown : The Dcrwishes. 


to God (is/am), Sufism surrender to the teacher who is the 
representative of God upon earth. 

The discipline of the seeker is dhikr, which ordinarily means 
remembering God and repeating His name, but which includes 
all the devotional practices which induce ecstasy and trance. 
There are two kinds of it, J/iifer i jatl or reciting aloud and 
dhikr i khafi or reciting mentally. Malcolm 94 and Brown 95 have 
described the processes. They are very similar to the meditation 
and the breathing exercises (proipayama) of the Indian Yoga. 
Shiblt pointedly brings out this feature of Sufism in his definition. 
*Tasau)u>u/" (Sufism) is control of the faculties and observance 
of the breaths. 90 In the Naqshbandi order, the Murid (disciple) 
closes his eyes, shuts 1iis mouth, presses his tongue against the 
roof of his mouth, holds his breath and recites in his heart. The 
" Id " goes upward, the '* illaha " to the right, the whole phrase 
" Id illaha " is formed upon the cone of the heart and through 
it passed to all the members of the whole frame. The breath is 
drawn from the navel to the breast, from the breast to the brain, 
from the brain up to the heavens and then again repeated 
stage by stage backwards and forwards. 

Another method of bringing about trance is by song and 
dance (sama'). There has been much dispute among theologians 
as to the lawfulness of music and dancing regarded as religious 
exercises. Ghazali speaks of them as novelties which had not 
been received in Islam from the first followers of the Prophet, 
but which were therefore not forbidden. He himself approves 
of them for by their means the Sufis " stir up in themselves 
greater love towards God, and by means of music, often obtain 
spiritual visions and ecstasies, their heart becoming in this con- 
dition as clean as silver in the flame of a furnace, and attaining 
a degree of purity which could never be attained by any amount 
of mere outward austerities. The Sufi then becomes so keenly 

04 Malcolm: Op. cit., p. 146. % 

95 J. P. Brown : Op. cit,, p. 127. 

e Hadland Davis : The Persian Mystics, p. 28. * 


aware of his relationship to the spiritual world that he loses all 
consciousness of this world, and often fails down senseless/ i<>7 
HujwTrl quotes traditions and the opinion of early Sufi$ to show 
that audition is lawful, and fulfills a necessary function* and 
although footplay (pay b&l) was bad in law and reason, the 
ecstatic condition " when the heart throbs with exhilaration and 
rapture becomes intense and the agitation of ecstasy is mani- 
fested and conventional forms are gone, that agitation is neither 
dancing nor footplay nor bodily indulgence but a dissolution of 
the soul/' 08 Jalal-ud-Dm Ruml laid great emphasis upon music 
and dance, so much so that his order, the MaulaVis, has become 
known as the * dancing Derwishes.' 01 * Both the Chishti and 
SuhrawardT orders included them as essential features of their 
dhikr. Of Shaikh Badr-ud-Din (a saint settled in India in the 
thirteenth century) it is related that " in his old age when he was 
unable to move, the sound of a hymn would excite him to 
ecstasy and he would dance like a youth. When asked how 
it was that the Shaikh could dance notwithstanding his decrepi- 
tude, he replied, * where is the Shaikh? It is Love that 
dances/ " 10 

Sufism indeed was a religion of intense devotion, love was 
its passion ; poetry, song and dance its worship ; and passing 
away in God its ideal. 

07 Field : Ghazlii's The Alchemy of Happiness, p. 67. 
0* Nicholson : Kaahful Mahjub, p. 416. 
99 J. P. Brown : Op. cit, 
100 Blochmann and Jarrett . A'in-i-Akbarl, Vol. Ill, p. 366. 


THE history of the Hindu religion sketched in a previous chapter 
shows a continuity in development from the earliest times to the 
beginning of the eighth century. This development took place 
principally in Northern India where all the great movements 
originated and from where they spread to the south. All through 
this period the north was the leader in culture, for there all the 
scriptures were written, and most of the heterodox faiths, Bud- 
dhism and Jainism, philosophical schools and sects arose. But 
after the eighth century came a change ; the north lost its leader- 
ship and the initiative passed to the south. From the eighth 
century to the fifteenth the south is the home of religious reform; 
it is there that the Vaisnava and Saivite saints start the schools of 
Bhakti, and Sankara and Ramanuja, Nimbaditya, Basava, 
Vallabhacharya and Madhava expounded their philosophical 
systems. From the south the impulse was transmitted to the 
north through Ramananda, a pupil of Ramanuja. This sudden 
shifting of the scene of activity from the north to the south was 
the result of the political and social changes that came over India 
at this time. In the north the empire of Harsa broke up ; poli- 
tical unity disappeared and a number of principalities were 
established which were engaged in unending internecine wars 
with one another ; Buddhism became decadent and by gradual 
steps merged into ii>a and Saferi cults, and was displaced by 
Pauranic Hinduism. The establishment of Rajput kingdoms did 
not infuse new life into the old systems and when they were 
overthrown by Muslim invasions Hindu society was thoroughly 
enfeebled. , In the south, on the other hand, Hinduism was a 
conquering faith. It had entered into conflict with Buddhism 
and Jainism and emerged victorious, and triumph had given it 
fresh inspiration. Again, the Hindu kingdoms in the south 
enjoyed a long lease of prosperity and power under the rule of 
the Cholas and the Vijayanagar kings ; and above all it was there 



in the south that Islam first came into contact with Hinduism 
and leavened the growing mass of Hindu thought. 

From the earliest times in spite of geographical difficulties, 
of the barriers of rivers and mountains, the northern peoples 
had communications with the inhabitants of the Deccan and the 
extreme south* Currents of culture had passed continuously and 
affected their beliefs and customs. The deities of hills and 
forests in Tamil lands were assimilated to Aryan gods and 
goddesses. Small colonies of Brahmin pioneers had settled 
down in the Dravida kingdoms bringing with them the Vedic 
religion and Sanskrit learning, and modifying the life of the 
Southern peoples. 1 Buddhist and Jain missionaries had arrived 
soon after the promulgation of these religions in the north, and 
converted thousands to their faiths. Thus in the early centuries 
of the Christian era there was a mixture of religions in the south. 
Animism, devil worship, Saivism, Vis^uism, Buddhism, Ja,n- 
ism and other persuasions all existed side by side in happy 
confusion, in perfect neighbourliness.^ 

In the fifth century the establishment of the Gupta Empire 
gave a strong impetus to the process of cultural conquest. Fresh 
waves of the missionaries of rejuvenated Hinduism overran the 
country ; Brahmin emigrants settled in Kerala lands, poured new 
life into faiths and prepared them to enter upon a deadly conflict 
with heterodox systems. In the seventh century Hiuen-Tsang 
still found Buddhism and Jainism strongly entrenched, but 
Saivism rising swiftly as a formidable antagonist. Of the Saiva 
uprise the Pallavas were the great protagonists ; while Harsa was 
holding tolerant sway over the north encouraging equally Hindu- 
ism and Buddhism ; and Pulakesin II celebrated his Aivamedha 
sacrifice which indicated the revival of Brahmanism. Narsing 1 ! 
Varma Pallava, their southern contemporary, was vigorous!) 

l A GovJndicharya : The Coming of the Brahman* to the South o 
India* J.R.A.S., 19)2. 

innes : Malabar and Anjengo, Madras. District Gazetteer. 
*S. K. iyengar: South Indian History. 


advancing the cause of Pauranic Hinduism by building the 
great pagodas of Mahamallapuram. During the seventh and 
eighth centuries the Chalukyas and Pallavas, the two dominant 
powers south of the Nerbudda, were engaged in. two common 
aims to revive Hinduism and to destroy one another. Before 
the end of the eighth century they had succeeded in both 
aims. They had given a mortal blow to Buddhist ascendancy 
and thus secured the triumph of Hinduism ; and they had so 
worn themselves out as to allow the Cholas from the south 
and the Rastrakutas from the north to usurp their dominions. 3 

The eighth century was thus a period of revolutionary activity 
in religion and politics, of ceaseless conflict of ideas, of peoples, 
of dramatic rise and overthrow of dynasties, of philosophical 
debate in schools and sectarian dispute in temples. Such an 
atmosphere gave a tremendous impulse to thought and feeling. 
Men's minds were for the time being freed from the tyranny of 
old traditional ways and thrown open to receive suggestions from 
unfamiliar quarters. 

It was during this period of strenuous activity that the foun- 
dations of later religious development in the south were laid. 
The Saioa and Vaianava saints combined to wean the people 
from their allegiance to Buddhism and Jainism to Siva and Visna 
worship. They sought to attain their aim by making an appeal 
to the heart, and so m affecting verse they sang of devotion and 
of the happiness of dwelling in the presence of God and of 
seeking of His grace. Their poems were all in the language of 
the people, and in this as in other matters they were indebted 
deeply to the religions which they attempted to supplant. For 
they took over from Buddhism its devotionalism, its sense of the 
transitoriness of the world, its conceptions of human worthless- 
ness, its suppression of desires and asceticism as also its ritual, 
the worship of idols and stupas or lingams, temples, pilgrim- 
ages, fasts and monastic rules and its idea of the spiritual 

3K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyer ; Historical Sketches of the Deccarf, 
Bex*. 1! *d Hi. 


equality of all castes ; from Ja/nism they took its ethical tone 
and its respect for animal life* 

The assimilation of these ideas into Pauratf.c theology and 
the pervasion of the whole with warm human feeling was the 
achievement of the saintly hymn-makers of Tamil land, the cele- 
brated Adiyars (the Saiva saints) and the Alvars (VaiaqaOQ 
saints), who flourished between the seventh and the twelfth 

These devotees of Siva and VISQU developed the cult of 
Bhakti, and their works are looked upon as those of the highest 
authority by the followers of the two creeds. The Saiva litera- 
ture 4 was arranged into eleven groups, called Tiru-murai by 
Nambiandar-Nambi of Tanjore in the time of Rajaraja KuUekhara 
Chola (985 1013 A.D.). Of these eleven groups, the first three 
are the works of Tirujnana Sambandamurti Swami, the next 
three of Tiru-nawukkarasu (Appar) and the seventh of Sundarar, 
These seven together form the Deodrdm. They contain hymns 
offering praise and prayer to God. and are used on ceremonial 
and religious occasions like the Vedas. The eighth book which 
corresponds to the Upanisads is the TiruVachakarn of Manikka 
Vasahar, the ninth is the Tiru-lsaippa, a compilation of minor 
poets, the tenth contains songs of Tiru-mular, and the eleventh 
consists of miscellaneous writings of Nakkfrar, Nambi-andar and 
others. These eleven books with the Periya Parana (a Saioa 
hagiology) constitute the sacred lore of the Saivas. 

The Vaisnavas r * have a parallel collection of their hymns. 
This collection was compiled and arranged by Nathmuni (tenth 
century) probably under the editorship of Nammalvar. This is 
known as Ndldyira-Prabandham, and is considered as sacred as 
the VedaB. The number of the Alvars is reckoned as twelve. 
Four of them, Poygaiar, Pudattar (Bhutattu), Peyar, Tmimaltsai 
were Pallavas and were the most ancient ; three were CHolas 

4*5 Barnett : BritifK Museum Catalogue of the Tamil Book*. 
Srimvaam Aiyangar: Tamil Studies. 

Sundaram Pillai : Some MiUtone. in the History of Tarn? 
Literature. * 


Tiruppanar, Tondarad'ippodi, and Tirumangai ; one was a 
Chera Kulasekhara ; and the remaining four came from the 
Pandya country Periyar, Andal, Nammalvar, Madhurakavi. 

Their history is of importance in the evolution of Hindu 
religions and it is necessary to give an account of the areers 
and achievements of the most important among them. 

Tirujnana Sambandhar" was born of Brahmin parents at 
SHiyali in the Tanjore district in the seventh century. According 
to legend he began to compose hymns while he was only three 
years of age. When he grew up he wandered as a pilgrim to all 
the Saivite shrines in Southern India singing Siva's praises. His 
fame as a saint reached the court of Kun Pandya (Nedumaran) 
who ruled at Madura. The king professed the Jaina faith, but 
the queen Mangaiyarkkarasi and the chief minister Kulachchirai 
Nayanar were both staunch Salvites, ai\d they invited Tirujnana 
to exert his influence to change the mind of the king. He met 
the Jaina teachers in the royal presence and defeated them in 
discussion. The king was converted, but the Jainas refused to 
abandon their religion and so a large number of them were 
executed. He was an inveterate enemy of the Buddhists as is 
borne out by the uniform Imprecations pronounced upon them 
in every one of his hymns. He appears to have entered into 
disputes with the Vaisnava saint Tirumangai Alvar also and in 
every way he was so stout a champion of Saivism that the revival 
of the faith is mainly ascribed to him ; he holds the foremost 
place among the great Saiva preceptors and is actually regarded 
as an incarnation of t'oa. 

The following hymns give an idea of his conception of God 
and of man* s relation to Him : 

For the Father is Arm 

Sprinkle ye the blooms of love ; 

In your heart will dawn the light, 

Every bondage will remove. 

8&ingsbury and Phillip*: Hymn* of the Tamil Saivitc Saint*. 


Him the holy in Arur 

Ne'er forget to laud and praise ; 

Bonds of birth will severed be, 

Left behind all worldly ways. 

In Arur, our loved one's gem, 

Scatter golden blossoms fair. 

Sorrow ye shall wipe away, 

Yours be bliss beyond compare. 7 

Tirunavukkarasu 8 (Appar) was an elder contemporary of 
Tirujnana Sambandhar. He belonged to the Vellala caste. He 
was left as an orphan at an early age and was brought up by 
his sister as a devotee of S/oa. But he forsook his faith and 
became a Jaina. Later he returned to the Saiva fold and became 
a powerful influence in its growth. In his verses a deeper note 
of devotipn is struck, his consciousness of sin is intense and his 
sense of dependence on Siva's grace and of the ultimate 
breaking of the bonds of sin by 'His grace is certain. How 
close and intimate is God's relationship to man is brought out 
in this hymn : 

Thou to me art parents. Lord, 
Thou all kinsmen that I need, 
Thou to me art loved one fair, 
Thou art treasure rich indeed. 
Family, friends, home art Thou, 
Life and joy I draw from Thee, 
False world's good by Thee I leave, 
Gold, pearl, wealth art Thou to me. 9 

In his exalted moods he rises high above all external forms 
of religion leaning unaided upon the mercy of God alone. He 
then knows that no ceremonial will help him, and that bathing 

TKingsbury and Phillips: Op. ctt, p. 25, 
8 Ibid. 

Pfirnalingain Pillmi ; Ten Tamil Saints. * 

9Kimrebunr and Phillips; Op. cit, p. 49. ' 


in the Ganges, pilgrimages to Comorin, chanting of the Vedas, 
study of the Sastras, asceticism, penance and fasts, will not 
eventually avail. 10 

'* Release is theirs, and theirs alone, who call 
In every place upon the Lord of all." 11 

Appar's Sioa is not a crude anthropomorphic conception 
but the being which dwells in all. ** He is ever hard to find, but 
He lives in the thought of the good. He is the innermost secret 
of scripture, inscrutable, unknowable. He is honey and milk 
and the shining light. He is the King of the Deoas, 

Immanent in Kisnu, in Brahma, in flame and in wind, 
Yea, in the mighty sounding sea and in the mountains." 12 

Sunderamurti 13 the third of the joint authors of the Devdram, 
was a Brahmin. He was born in the South Arcot District and 
lived in the eighth or ninth century. He was not rigid in his* 
adherence to caste principles, for although he married twice, 
neither of his wives was a Brahmin. He was probably the last 
of the Adiyars, for he has sung the praises of his sixty -two 
predecessors. The dread of death and faith in ultimate deli- 
verance inform many of his hymns. 

The young saint refuge sought from Death ; 

To save him, Thou grim Death didst slay. 

Such deeds thy might accompl'.sheth. 

And I who have beheld them pray, 

** O Father, should dread Yama press 

On me, forbid Him. *Tis my slave * ; 

Do Thou in green Pungar confess. 

I've reached Thy foot, and Thou canst save." 14 

10 Kingsbury and Phillips : Op. cit., p. 57. 
n ibid., p. 57. 
is Ibid., p. 65. 
t 13 Ibid. 

14 Ibid., p. 79. 


Mariikka Vasahar 15 (Marnkya Vachaka), the greatest among 
Saiva saints, was born at Tiru Vathavur on the Vaigai river near 
iMadura, of parents who belonged to the Amittiya section of the 
Brahmins. M&nikka was a precocious lad and at the age of 
sixteen had acquired the whole of Sanskrit learning. His fame 
reached the ears of the Pandya King who called him to the Court 
and appointed him Chief Minister, But although he lived sur- 
rounded with pomp and luxury the infinite woe of the world 
oppressed him. The story of his conversion is overlaid with 
miracles. It is related that the king sent him on commission to 
purchase horses which had arrived from the * Aryan land * 
(Arabia). He started with great eclat, his march was a proces- 
sion. On the way, he met a saintly Brahmin whose personality 
so impressed him that he accepted him as his guru (teacher). 
He spent the king's treasure in feeding ascetics and returned 1 
without executing the commission. This brought upon him the 
wrath of the king, but at last he escaped through the guru's 
grace, for he was no other than Siva himself. The Guru then 
laid upon him an injunction to convert the Tamil country to 
Siva's faith. He became a wanderer visiting holy shrines sing- 
ing Siva's hymns, till at last he came to Chidambaram where he 
rested. He attended an assemblage of Buddhist priests wh'ich 
was gathered together by the King of Ceylon and attended by 
the Chera King. In discussion the Buddhists were worsted and 
the King of Ceylon became a Saivite. This was the last triumph 
of Manikka's life, for some time after this he died. It is difficult 
to fix correctly his date, but in all probability his career lay in 
the ninth century. 

There is deeper passion and fervour in his verses than in 
those of his predecessors, and without a doubt they must have 
powerfully affected the heart of his hearers. Dr. Pope says, 
'* the effect of these songs full of a living faith and devotion 
was great and instantaneous. South India needed a personal 
God, an assurance of immortality, and a call to prayer. These 


"Pope: Manikka Vasahar. 4 


it found in Manikka Vasahar's compositions.** 10 Here are a 
few specimens of his songs : 

*' Indra or Visnu or Brahm, 
Their divine bliss crave not I ; 
I seek the love of Thy saints, 
Though my house perish thereby. 
To the worst hell will I go, 
So but Thy grace be with me. 
Best of all, how could my heart 
Think of a God beside Thee? '* 17 

I have no fear of births, but quake at thought that 

I must die 

E*en heav*n to me were naught ; for earth's whole 

empire what care I? 

O 5,i va wreathed with honeyed blossoms, when shall 

come the morn 

When Thou wilt grant Thy grace to me? 1 cry with 

anguish torn." 18 

Myself I cannot understand, nor what is day or night ; 

He who both word and thought transcends has reft my 

senses quite, 

He who for bull has Visnu, and in Perundurai dwells, 

O light supreme, in Brahman guise has cast on me 

strange spells.'* 19 

44 I had no virtue, penance, knowledge, self-control 
A doll to turn 

At others' will I danced, whistled, fell. But me 

He filled in every limb, 
With love's mad longing, and that I might climb 

there whence is no return. 

He shewed His beauty, made me His. Ah me, when 

shall I go to Him." 2 ' 

16 Pope: Op. cit., p. xxxvi. 

1" Kingsbury and Phillips : Op. cit., p. 89. 

IS Ibid., p. 91. 

19 Ibid., p. 121. 

30 Ibid., p. 127. 


Of other Saiva saints Tirumular, Nakklrar, Nambiandar 
Nambl, Sekkirar there is not much to write. They followed 
the same line of thinking and added to the volume of feeling 
created by their forerunners. 21 

The separation of the Vaisnava cult from Sawism and its 
development as a distinct sect was due to the JSfodrs.-' 2 They 
drew their ideas largely from the Sanskrit epics and the 
Purchias. Their hymns were collected together in the tenth 
century, and they were themselves canonised two or three 
centuries later, when thdlr images were set up in temples and 
prayers were addressed to them to mediate for securing 
salvation. The Aluars were ardent worshippers of Kiinu and 
most of them were zealous opponents of Buddhism, Jainism 
and S&ivism. Some of them came from lower castes ; some 
were Brahmins ; one, Andal, was a woman ; and Kulaiekhar 
was a king.- 3 Tirumangai wrote the largest number of 
hymns, and Nammalvar was the foremost among the saints. 
Namma's poems (TiruVoymoli, Tiruvasiriyam, Tiruviruttam and 
Tiruvandadi) are considered as sacred as the four Vedas. 

The hymns of Vaisnava saints show the same type of 
thought and feeling as those of the Saivas. They, however, 
substituted Visnu in place of $:t)a and sang his praises above 
all other gods ; they also differed in regard to the belief in incar- 
nation, for while Visi\u came down several times upon earth to 
save mankind, Siva did 1 not do so, at any rate in the Vaifoavite 
manner. A few extracts to illustrate their teachings are given 
below. The spirit of love of God and reliance upon His grace 
breathe through them. 

" Mighty Lord of the Celestials ! Thou hast made my 
heart Thy tabernacle. So intimate and close is Thy union with 

21 Purnalingam Filial : Ten Tamil Saints. 

22 Bhandarkar : Vai?navism and daivism. 

T. Rajagopalachariar : The Vaifnava Reformers of India. 

TDther Literature at cited above. . 


me that I beseech Thee never more to leave me, me so lovingly 
clinging to Thee. 24 (Namma) 

4 * As dote I on the Lord of Kaikatai, 
Whose streets with scarlet lily are perfum'd, 
My heart for His wonderful graces melts 
How then can I, my restless love suppress?*' 25 (Namma) 

44 The errors of I-ness, my-ness, 

With roots pluck out, and join the Lord." 20 

44 If men are drunk with the love of God, they ought 
To dance like madmen in the streets ; if they cannot 
They are not love-smitten." 27 

The relation of devotee to God is like that of a wife to her 

44 Thou hast not yet been gracious enough to extend Thy 
sympathy towards Thy consort (Alvar). Before she gives up her 
ghost in despair owing to Thy indifference show so much at 
least of Thy mercy as to send word to Thy consort through Thy 
messenger and vehicle Garuo'a the storehouse of kindness, not 
to pine away, but to take courage a little, till Thou, Lord and 
Master returnest as expected, which will assuredly take place 
soon.** 28 (Ndmmdlvar) 

44 O Lord, mayest Thou graciously hear the humble suppli- 
cations of thy devotees. . . . O Thou Lord of Snranga ! the 
Reliever of the great elephant (Gajendra). . . . Condescend to 
wake up from Thy conscious sleep to extend Thy gracious look 
on Thy servants." 29 (Tondaradippodi) 

44 I shall wed, if at all, none other than the Supreme 
Lord." 30 (Andal) 

24 Govindacharya : The Divine Wisdom of the Dravidian Saints, p. 108. 

25 ibid., p. 109. 
20 ibid., p. 2. 
27 Ibid., p. 52. 

2s Nityinusanadhanam Series, Book 3, p. 54. ( 

20 Ibid.. Book 2. 

30 ibid., Book 2. (Andal). 


The hymn singers of Tamil land were the creators of that 
powerful religious feeling which swept Buddhism and Jainism 
out of their country. The great scholastics who appeared simul- 
taneously with them forged the intellectual instruments with 
which the resuscitated Hindu. sm fought and conquered. Among 
them the earliest and the most remarkable was ankara. Jil 

Sivaguru, a Nambutiri Brahmin, and his wife Aryamba 
resided at Kaladi, a village situated on the north bank of the 
Alvar river on the Malabar coast. They were the parents of 
Sankara who was born at some time in the last quarter of the 
eighth century. The death of the father while he was young 
made the mother his sole guardian. She appears to have 
bestowed great affection and care upon him and his education. 
Sankara was a precocious child, he soon learnt all that his tea- 
chers could impart to him, he had an insatiable desire for learning 
and he was early smitten with the sorrow of the world. He left 
home and became a Sanyasin, and took Govind Yogi, who was 
a pupil of Gau(}apada, and who resided on the banks of the 
Narmada, as his teacher (Guru). He passed rapidly through 
all the stages of an ascetic's Lfe and his Guru conferred upon 
him the degree of Param Hamsa. He then betook to travelling 
all over the country, discussing with religious teachers of all 
denominations and sects. His biographer Anandagirl names 
nearly fifty different sectaries with whom Sankara had intellectual 
combats, and by defeating whom he celebrated his Dig-v:jaya 
(world-conquest). ankara visited Malabar several times after 
his retirement from the world. One of these occasions was 
when his mother died. The story is thfct the Brahmins raised 
objections to his performing the funeral rites because he was a 

31 For 3an1ffara's Life, ICrishnaswaml Aiyar : ankara and His firn' is 
Bhasyacharya : Age of Sankara. 
Anandagiri : Sankara Vijaya. 
For Sandra * teachings : 

P. Deusaen : Philosophy of the Upanisads. 

Outline of the Vedanta. 

G. Thibaut : The Vedanta Sutras, S.B.E., Vols. 34, 35. 


Sony Sain, but he overbore the objections. His name is 
connected with great reforms in Malabar ; and, according to 
legends, the Kollam era of that country which began in 
825 A.D. marks the new epoch which these reforms inaugurat- 
ed. Among these reforms none was more important than the 
banishment of Buddhism, and the abolition of rites connected 
with it and with other sects. He was also the organiser of 
monastic orders (maffi), he opened the ranks of Sanydsins 
to recruitment from all castes, but he excluded women from 
monastic life. If the story of the Chanddla who met him on 
the banks of the Ganges and asked him why he made a 
difference between his teaching and practice is true, then 
he appears to have been inclined towards social reform 
also. He wrote in the Manusa Panchaka? 2 : " He who has 
learned to look on phenomena in this light (monistic) is my true 
Guru, be he a Chanolala or a twice-born. This is my convic- 
tion." A consideration of his legendary life seems to indicate 
that ankara was not a blind follower of the ancient ways, he 
attempted to introduce change, though cautiously, and he 
appears to have received opposition and opprobrium from 
orthodox Brahmins. He died young in the beginning of the 
ninth century. 

Sankara's career is the great watershed in the history of 
Sanskrit learning. Behind him lies the world of ancient ideas, 
half reconciled systems, profound but scattered thoughts, rival 
philosophies struggling for ascendancy, the changing pantheon 
and theologies in a fluid condition, a living culture almost 
anarchic in its exuberance ; before him the medieval world of 
set ideas, fixed systems, scholastic ingenuity, accretion not 
growth, explanation not invention, commentaries not philo- 
sophies, a stereotyped uniformity. The living stream of culture 
abandons the ancient bed of Sanskrit and flows through new 
channels Tamil, Telugu and Canarese in the south, Hindi, 
Bengali, Mar at hi and Urdu in the north but the abandonment 

32 KrishnaswSmi Aiyar : Op. cit. < 


is never quite complete, an increasingly thinning rill continues 
to linger in the old beds. 

Sankara's philosophy 33 which, in so far as thought systems 
may be considered to be causes of events, dealt a fatal blow 
to Buddhism, attempted to rally the Hindu sects together. The 
one aim of Sankara's endeavours was to remove the fatal weak- 
ness of Hinduism, the fissiparous tendency of its religious sects, 
which all claimed their authority from the same source, namely, 
the Srutis. He employed the whole power of his keen analytic 
mind and his matchless dialectical skill in overthrowing all 
systems which disagreed with one another, and in establishing 
one logical system. It is a tremendous recognition of his genius 
that all later th.'nkers have taken Sankara as the starting point 
(prasthana) of their thinking and more or less confined their 
labours to establishing, amending, or disproving his doctrines 
and interpretations. In doing so they have all become tinged 
with his ways of thinking and his methods of exposition. 

Sankara had to establish that the sacred scriptures of the 
Hindus had one consistent teaching to impart ; and that the 
differences of schools were due to misunderstanding and lack 
of true insight. Monism, according to him, was the outstanding 
feature of Hindu theology, a monism uncompromising, absolute, 
idealistic. God was one and there was no other besides Him. 
God was the only reality, all else was illusion. His nature was 
absolutely homogeneous. He was a pure being and pure intelli- 
gence. He was without attributes or qualities. He was not a 
thinking or knowing being, but thought or knowledge ttself. 
The world was merely a phenomenon, an appearance, not a 
true reality. It evolved out of the principle of illusion (maya). 
Maya by self-modification gave rise to individuals distinguished 
by name and form, and the individuals made up the whole 
universe. In fact, however, the multiplicity of individuals is 
only apparent ; in reality they are one. The plurality of sentient 
beings is equally illusory. The human ego is identical with God, 

*3 See under 31. * * 


his individuality is Maya, his reality is Brahman. It is due to 
ignorance that he does not perceive the identity, and so lives a 
miserable existence in the phenomenal world which is only a 
creation of illusion. 

As long as this ignorance lasts the weight of the phenomenal 
presses upon man. The phenomenal appears real and during 
the period of ignorance has to be taken into account. This 
phenomenal world has a god, Isvara, who is endowed with good 
attributes. He is the creator who evolves and dissolves the 
world jn cycles. The human soul looks up to Him for reward 
and punishment, for grace and forgiveness. It realises its good 
through knowledge of Jsvara. 

Thus there are two worlds, one real, the other unreal ; and 
there are two kinds of knowledge, one, the higher, for the remo- 
val of ignorance and the realisation of the absolute Brahman, the 
other, the lower, to w/.n Isvara' s favour. But the lower know- 
ledge and its end Jsvara are both phenomenal and true freedom 
is only attained by rising above it to the real. As, besides the 
soul, the mind and intellect, the ordinary instruments of cogni- 
tion are the products of Maya, the higher knowledge cannot be 
gained as long* as the activities of the mind are not completely 
controlled and stopped. In the moment when the mind is still 
and the path of impression is cut off and the state of deep 
trance (Samddhi) is induced, the soul realises its unity with 
the absolute and rids itself of the illusion of the phenomenal. 

Sankara established a logical monistic system, but the cost 
at which it was done was great. On the one hand, God's unity 
was raised to such a giddy height of abstractness as to daze the 
ordinary mortal. On the other, by compromising this idealism 
by the acceptance of a world of lower good and lower truth, he 
almost handed over this poor mortal bound hand and foot to 
the mercies of the pr'lest and his elaborate ceremonial. What 
he tried to drive out of the front door thus re-entered through 
the back door, and while he started to condemn, he remained 
to bless those very practices and doctrines which were fit only 
for the feeble and* the ignorant. 


Sankara's system, however, had a unique success. It 
dominated by the grandeur of its conception, the amplitude of 
its knowledge and the subtlety of its philosophy the thought of 
generations of men. Time has not yet dulled the freshness 
of its impress upon the Indian mind. 

Sankara was the great protagonist of the path of knowledge, 
and among the learned and the philosophically minded his 
exposition of Vedanta had an extraordinary influence. Also vast 
bodies of Smartas in the south and the west as well as in the 
north became his followers. But the religion of love and 
devotion, which the Alvdrs and the Adiyars were making 
popular, soon found its own philosophic exponents who entered 
the field of controversy and disputed the theories of Sankara. 
These were the VaisnaVa A chary as, and the Saiva Siddhdnta 

The first among the VaisnaVa Achdryas was Nathmuni who 
lived at Srirangam in the tenth century. His grandson and 
successor was Yamuna-muni who was also known as Alvandar 
(victor). He was the teacher of Ramanuja, and he directed him 
to write a commentary on Radr ay ana's Brahma Surras, to refute 
the theory of illusion or Maya, and to establish the religion of 

Ramanuja 34 was born in 1016 at Tirupati or Perumbur in 
the neighbourhood of Madras. His father Kesava was a 
Dravida Brahman of Harita family and his mother's name was 
Kantimati. He became at first the pupil of Yadava Prakasa 

34 For life of Ramanuja : 

Bhandarkar : Vaisnavism and Saiviem. 
Rangacharya: Life and Teachings of Ramanuja. 
K. S. Aiyangar : Ramanuja. 
Rajagopllachariar : Ramanuja. 
For hit philosophy : 

G. Thibaut: Vedanta Sutras. S.B.E.. Vol. 4o. 

Sukhtankar : The Teachings of Vedanta According to Ramanuja. 
Bhandarkar : Op. fit. 

Bhandarkar., Research for Sanskrit MSS. in Bombay Presidency for 
* 1883-84. 


who was a follower of Sankara at Conjeeveram, but he dis- 
agreed from his teacher on the interpretation of sacred passages 
and was dismissed from the class. He was then invited by 
Yamunamuni, who taught at Srlrangam, to become his disciple. 
Soon after, the teacher died, and Ramanuja was appointed his 
successor. He continued to study and teach, till at length he 
considered himself fit to carry out the directions of his Guru to 
write the promised commentaries, and then he composed his 
Veddnta Sangraha, the Bhdsyas of Bddrayana's Veddnta Sutras 
and the BhagaVadgltd. 

He had before becoming an author taken to Sanydsa, and 
now he started on his travels accompanied by his disciples. 
He visited many northern countries as far as Kashmir and then 
returned to Srlrangam. Here he was threatened with persecution 
by the Chola King Kulottunga I (1095) who wanted him to 
renounce Vaisnavism for Saivism. Ramanuja took refuge in the 
dominions of the Hoysala Yadava princes, and converted 
Vithaldeva, brother of Ballaladeva. After the death of 
Kulottunga I in 1118, Ramanuja returned to Srlrangam where 
he died in 1137. 

The aim of Ramanuja's teaching was the refutation of 
Sankara's absolute monism and Mdydcdda, and the establish- 
ment of Bhaki:. within the philosophy of Veddnta, and, incident- 
ally, also to obtain recognition for the non-Vedic Panchrdtra in 
the Vedic literature. 

According to him, Brahman is the one supreme reality 
possessed of unsurpassable greatness both in his nature and in 
his qualities. He Vs the Lord of all (Isvara), and, as the universal 
soul, the Highest Person (Purusotiama). He is devoid of im- 
perfections and endowed with numberless auspicious qualities 
of unequalled excellence. He has unconditional and unlimited 
power to realise His wishes and purposes. He creates, destroys 
and preserves. He does not create out of nothing, for creation 
out of absolute non-existence is inconceivable. His creation 
means change from one state to another, from existence in the 
casual condition (kdrana) to existence in the effect condition 


(karya). At first Hvara was one without a second, but from 
within Him appeared matter and souls (Praferiti and Jiva), which 
form his body. They are both real, they do not bind Jsoara but 
are subservient to His will, and are dependent upon Him for 
existence. At the end of each kalpa (cycle of creation) the 
world is dissolved, the grosser substance into subtler, till at last 
the ultra-subtle matter called darkness (Tamas) alone remains. 
This is the body of Brahman, but it is so subtle that it does not 
deserve a separate designation and is, as it were, non-existent. 
In this casual condition Brahman is one without a second, for 
the body (Tamas) is undistinguished by name and form and is 
non-existent. Then Brahman wills to become many and 
transforms itself into the effect condition, 'into the gross world 
of names and forms, into creation. Effect is no more than the 
evolution of the cause. 

For purposes of meditation and worship Isvara appears in 
five different manifestations : (I) as Para or the highest in which 
form as Ndrdyana he lives in Vaikunfha attended by ods, 
goddesses, eternal spirits and delivered souls ; (2) as Vyuhas or 
hypostases of Para in the four forms of KdsuJeua, Sarhfearsana, 
Pradyumna and A niraddha ; (3) as Vibhava or the incarnations 
of N dray ana ; (4) as A ntarydmin in which mode he dwells within 
the heart and is seen in the Yogic trance ; and, (5) as idols or 
images (archa) set up for worship. 

The individual souls are the modes of Brahman. They are 
divided into five classes : (I) the Nitya, who never enter the cycle 
of births and deaths ; (2) the Afufefa, who have broken their 
fetters and attend on God as His servants ; (3) the KeVala*, who 
have purified their hearts and who are free from birth and death; 
(4) the Mumu^Au, who desire liberation and are endeavouring to 
attain it ; (5) the Bdddha who are still bound. 

The soul is conscious, self -illuminated, joyous, eternal, 
atomic, imperceptible to senses, unchangeable, the substratum 
of knowledge, unthinkable, agent, subject to God's control, 
dependent for its existence upon Him, and an attribute or mode 
of GW. 


The soul attains God by Bhakti. It first purifies itself by 
sacrifice and the performance of duties (karma), and acquires 
concentration and meditation (Jndna) which lead to actual 
visualisation (Bhakti). The three upper classes alone could 
practise Bhakti, for others there was the path of self-surrender or 
avoidance of opposition and resolution to yield (Prapatti) and 
complete trust in the preceptor (Acharya abfcmana). 

The end of the path was release, a glorious freedom in which 
the soul enjoys eternal blessedness in the presence of God, it 
partakes of His joys and excepting creation shares (n his powers, 
transcending all prohibitions and commands and ranging freely 
through the universe. 

Ramanuja, although he still maintained the ancient privi- 
leges of the higher castes, opened a way for the Sudras and 
the outcastes. He arranged that the outcastes should be able 
to attend certain temples on a fixed day in the year and he 
gave instruction to the Satanis who were a group of Sudras 
whom he attached to his Sampradaya. His teaching with 
regard to Prapatti led to the formation of two schools. The 
northern branch (Vadagalai) holds that God's grace is co- 
operative, that is, the process of deliverence must begin with 
an act of a person seeking it. The southern branch (Tengalai), 
on the other hand, considers God's grace obligatory, for 
God must take entire possession of the soul of the devotee and 
lead him to Himself, his function being to surrender himself 
completely. The Northerners describe Prapatti as one of the 
ways of liberation, the Southerners as the only way. They also 
differ regarding their treatment of persons belonging to inferior 
castes, and in other details. 

Nimbarka, 35 a younger contemporary of Ramanuja, carried 
the doctrine of devotion further. Philosophically his system was 
based on the theory known as bhedabhed (difference without 
difference), that is, that God the individual soul and the in- 
animate world are identical yet distinct. In religion he gave 

I 35 Bhandarkar : Vai?navism and Saivism. 


predominance to the principle of self-surrender (prapatti), and 
to the worship of Kriwa and Rddha. Nimbarka although 
originally a Tailanga Brahman born in the Bellary district, 
spent most of his life in the North, in Brindaban near Mathura, 
whence the cult of Rddha and Kriyoa spread in the North and 
in Bengal. 

Anandatlrtha or Madhva (11991278) rejected both the 
unqualified Monism of Sankara and the qualified Monism of 
Ramanuja, and eitablished a system of frank dualism, based 
mainly upon the BhdgaVata Purdna. His object was to 
emphasize the independence and majesty of God which was 
compromised by his predecessors, who made Him the material 
cause of the universe. Madhva's conception of God was that 
of the sovereign who ruled the world, and whose grace 
conferred deliverance on man. 

A number of other Vaisnava teachers developed these 
doctrines and spread the cult of devotion among the people. 
Among them were Visnu SwamI, PJlai Lokacharya (born in 
1213), Ved'anta Desika (born in 1268), and many others in 
subsequent centuries. 

Among the SaiOa Achdryas* 1 the earliest was Nambiandar 
Nambl, a contemporary of Nathmuni. He collected the Saioite 
hymns into the Devdrdm (the divine garland) and the Tiru-Murdi 
(the sacred books). But the first of the Saiva theologians was 
Meykandar Deva who was a Sudra and lived in the thirteenth 
century on the bank of the Pennar river to the north of Madras. 
He translated the Sanskrit Raurava Agama Sutras into Tamil and 
called it $iva~jndna-bodha (Introduction to the Knowledge of 
Siva). His disciple Arulnandl Deva wrote a commentary on the 
master's work and a polemic criticizing other schools. A Sudra 

30 Bhandarkar : Vai?navism and SaivUm. 
37 Pope : Op. cit., Introduction. 
Barnett : Museon, 1909. 

Barnett : aiva Siddhanta, Siddh&nta Dipiki. Vol. XI, No*. 2, 3. 
Barnett: J.R.A.S., 1910. 

Frazer : Dravidians (South India) . R. . , 

= Anivwm. E. R, E. 


disciple of Arulnar^di was the author of another work on Saiva 
Siddhanta, and the Sudras disciple was Brahmana Umapati 
(1313) who was the greatest theologian of the sect. 

The Tamil Saiva Siddhdntas were affiliated to Kashmir 
Saiva Schools which had arisen in the ninth and subsequent 
centuries. The central doctrine of both was the trinity of Pati 
(lord), Pdsu (individual soul), and Pasa (bond). 

The systems into which this doctrine was expounded bear 
analogies with Vaisnava P anchor dtr a systems. But, whatever 
the metaphysics of Saiva Siddhdnta, the practical religion was 
that of love and devotion. Its chief elements were : (1) faith in 
Siva and his grace ; (2) unquestioned belief in the teacher ; 
(3) loving devotion and worship ; (4) discipline of Yoga demand- 
ing concentration and accompanied with song, dance and 
ecstatic rapture ; (5) toleration of all creeds ; (6) protest against 
the externalia of religion, ritual and idol worship ; and 
(7) religious equality of all irrespective of caste or sect or worldly 

The distance which the Indian mind has travelled from the 
sober, moderate, contemplative devotionalism of the north and 
the fervent ardour and explosive passion of the religion of 
Bhakti, of the south is great. The mystic note is struck clearly 
in both. But mysticism is universal and eternal. It appears in 
all cultures and in all periods of man's history. It is an activity 
of the human mind obscure and ill-understood, arising out of 
dark regions carefully protected from the intrusion of intellect, a 
phenomenon of the subconscious self, a function of the sublimi- 
nal consciousness. It dwells where abide libido, and impulses 
of sex and fear and desire. 38 It has thus a world- wide signifi- 
cance and a history coeval with that of man. 

38 Evelyn Underhill : The Essentials of Mysticism. 
Bertrand Russel : Mysticism and Logic. 
Pratt : Psychology of Religious Life. 
Starbuck : Psychology of Religion. 
Cohen : Religion and Sex. 
William James : Varieties of Religious Experiences. 


It is obviously futile to attempt to discuss the origins and 
migrations of mysticism in history, for mystical experience is 
implicit in all religions. But mysticism is a protean phenomenon. 
Its expression takes infinite forms. In different lands it hat 
different intellectual formulas and theories ; it employs different 
phrases and idioms, and in doing so it borrows language and 
imagery ; it accentuates certain aspects of faith and tends to 
ignore others. It is possible to observe the modifications of 
form and expression and to render an account of the debts 
which one culture owes another. 

The growth of the emotional religion, the Bhakfi school 
both in the ancient epoch in the north and in the early medieval 
times in the south, has been traced above. The development 
of the speculative side of religion and of its social aspects 
through the efforts of poet-saints and theological thinkers has 
also been described. It now remains to enquire into the 
causes of its growth, the reasons of the striking differences 
between the ancient beliefs and practices and the early 
medieval ones. 

Much of the difference may be accounted for by the social 
upheavals, religious conflicts and political movements of the 
times, in short by the fact that thought moves as life moves. 
Much may be due to natural developments in the intellectual 
field, the logical springing forth of schemes from seeds in earlier 
systems. It may, for instance, be urged that the passionate 
Bhakti of the later age is the necessary outcome of the devotion 
in the Bhagavadgtta, Svetasvatara Upanisad and Mahaydna 
Buddhism, that the increasing emphasis on the unity of God is 
the extension of the ancient monotheism of the Upanisads, that 
the rejection of externalia or caste is a reversion to the purer 
forms of ancient Buddhism and Jainism. 

All this may be granted, yet the progressive simplification 
of the faith and the deepening of its emotion as time passes does 
not seem to be completely explained by the causes just mention- 
ed. These circumstances seem to point to the working of a 
steady force with fixed tendencies in reference to which tile 


movement of Hindu thought pressed onwards, and whose 
influence, which began to operate early, continued to grow with 
time. The need for such a cause has been felt for a long time 
and most writers on the history of Hindu religion have sought to 
discover it. Grierson 39 felt it strongly, as appears from his 
remarks in reply to Keith and Kennedy's criticism of his paper 
Modern Hinduism and its Debt to the Nestorians. 

Pope, 40 in the introduction to the translation of Manila 
Vdsahar, notes two features of this Bhatyi whi^h appear to him 
new. He says, " here can be no doubt but that the idea of 
special devotion is expressly taught in the Gita, but the devotion 
of the $a*vite to the Guru who is a man, a holy, human, divine- 
ly-endowed teacher differs very widely from this, or any 
previous Hindu conception of loving service." Again, 
" Bhakfi, or loving piety, is the main idea of the Saiva system, 
and the fervent self-negative love and worship of Sivan is 
represented as including all religion, and transcending every 
kind of religious observance, and since all are capable of this, 
men of all castes can be received as devotees and saints in the 
Saiva system .... In fact, it (love) seems to be something 
pertaining to the Semitic religions especially.** 

Burnell, 41 Weber, 42 Logan, 43 Caldwell, 44 Hopkins 45 and 
Bhandarkar 4 " along with Pope and Grierson ascribed these 
changes to the influence of Christian communities in the south. 
Barnett, 47 Macnicoll, 48 Estlin Carpenter, 40 hold more or less ex- 

80 Grierson: Modern Hinduism and its Debt to the Nestorians. 
J.R.A.S., 1907. 

40 Pope : Op. cit., p. Ixvii. 

41 Burnell: Indian Antiquary, Vol. HI. p. 308; Vol. IV, p. 183. 

42 Weber: Indian Antiquary, Vol. Ill, pp. 21, 47. 

43 Logan: Malabar. 

44 Caldwell : A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. 

45 Hopkins : India Old and New. 

46 Bhandarkar : Vaianaviam and Saivism. 

47 Barnett : Heart of India. Bhagwad Gita, etc. 

48 Macnicoll : Indian Theism, Appendix C. 

49 Estlin Carpenter: Theism in Medieval India; Note on Christianity 
in India 


plicitly that the development was due to internal causes only, 
because the historical conditions necessary for Christian contact 
in the south were wanting. Fawcett, however, in his Notes on 
Some of the People of Malabar suggested that Islam was prob- 
ably the needed factor. He wrote, " something may be said of 
the legendary story surrounding the tfreat Sankaracharya, the 
apostle of the Nambutris. He was born at Kaladi near the 
Eluvayi river when the country was in peril. Her king had been 
converted to Islam, and that religion was gaining ground. 
Brahmanism must be revived, so Siva was re-incarnated in the 
child of a widow." The circumstance of his practical excommu- 
nication with all his family by the Brahmans, and his seeking a 
Nayar's aid in performing the rites of the dead on the demise of 
h'ls mother, point to the same conclusion. And Barth r>l in the 
Religions of India argued in a similar strain. He says, '* The 
Arabs of the Khalafat had arrived on these shores in the char- 
acter of travellers and had established commercial relations 
and intercourse with these parts long before the Afghans, Turks, 
or Mongols, their co-religionists, came as conquerors. Now, it is 
precisely in these parts that from the ninth to the twelfth century, 
those great religious movements took their rise which are con- 
nected with the names of Sankara, Ramanuja, Anandatirtha and 
Basava, out of which the majority of the historical sects came 
and to which Hindustan presents nothing analogous till a much 
later period/* 

It is necessary to repeat that most of the elements in the 
southern schools of devotion and philosophy, taken singly, were 
derived from ancient systems ; but the elejn^ptfSfeBetfeg^ totality 
and in their peculiar emphasis betray 

to Muslim faith and therefore makene\ttumeinNW$^ 
influence probable. It is true that MriQrjfg the schools 
so far the evidence is all circumsMflml Yn& 4lnfgurac 
borrowing cannot be substantiated||miireD4]&dR*jtkilc 

5V Aoc - No * 

5Fawcett : Anthropology, Bulletin, \lMn{J(Jo. 1. Edited bjj 
Barth : Religions of India. X^V^*-^^^^ 


or otherwise ; but it must be remembered that the Hindus were 
a proud race as Alberum remarked. They were great artists in 
the assimilation of foreign ideas and they did not allow their 
prestige to be lowered by crude imitations which could be 
easily detected. The history of the whole of Indian culture in 
the ancient period is a testimony to the correctness of these 

The influence of Islam was in the first stages indirect and 
selective. It was not the result so far as can be ascertained 
of a study of Muslim literature, but of the teaching from the 
mouth of religious ascetics or of observation of their rites and 
customs. In a previous chapter the occasion of contact and the 
opportunities of influence have been discussed. There were 
plenty of Muslims settled on the coasts where the great Tamil 
teachers arose, they wielded sufficient power to attract notice 
and held a sufficiently respected status in the land to enter into 
intercourse with the people. The history of the development of 
Islamic thought shows how in Muslim countries ideas had been 
evolved which were analogous to Hindu ideas and which could 
therefore be presented without shocking them. The material of 
contact although peculiar, was not thus entirely heterogeneous. 
It is necessary to examine it in order to find out what contribu- 
tion it could have made to the development of Hindu thought. 


THE parallels between the Indian systems developed in the south 
by Sankara and h.s successors and the schools of Muslim theo- 
logy and mysticism are startling in their similitudes. Both sys- 
tems of thought appear to have undergone an evolution which 
ran on similar lines. The Indian mind starting with Sruti and 
the Muslim with the Quran, both enjoining a religion of action, 
passed through the stage of rationalisation to devotional and 
emotional religion. Sabara and Kumaril, the predecessors of 
Sankara, were Afimansafeas who tried to re-establish the religion 
of action and sacrifice. The appearance marked the turning 
point in ancient Indian religious thought. Sankara found a 
philosophic basis for this new movement and set definitely the 
direction in which the Hindu mind was to work in subsequent 
ages. The difference between the aspect of religious history in 
the pre-Sankaran or ancient, and post-Sankaran or medieval 
periods is great. In the ancient period there is not one religion 
but many religions Brahmanism, Buddhism, and Jainism. 
Brahmanism is itself in a curiously fluid condition, syncretism is 
taking place in its pantheon on at least three lines Siva, Vi'fflti 
and Sakti. Along the first line the Rudra of the Vedas gathers 
under his expanding wings the gods of hills and forests, of the 
Himalayas, the Vindhya and the Tamil land, the red lord of 
terror and the bright lord of healing combine, the dread human 
and animal sacrifices and Vedic rites combine, the magic of 
ruder tribes and 1 the speculations of the civilised combine, and 
these produce the Siva of the Mahabharata, the Patupata and 
similar philosophical systems, and the Saiva cults. Similarly, 
along another line the Vedic Viwu, the Vatadeva of the 
Sdtyatas, the Krifna of the YadaVas, the Copal Krijna of the^ 
Abhiras are joined in one conception of an Efcdntm Go<h the. 


cults of various tribes are merged into Bhagwata and Panchatan- 
tra worship and their speculation in the Bhagavad Gita and 
Vai$nava Samhitas. Sakta philosophy, worship and cult foFow 
exactly the model of the Siva sect. In Buddhism and Jainism 
the influence of neighbouring sects and the assimilation of alien 
elements produce complexities which have been described 
elsewhere. All these processes which go on throughout the 
ancient period leave on the mind an impression of great 
complexity and bewilderment, although as time passes the 
confusion begins to simplify. 

According to some sociologists, all religions in their begin- 
ning must have been monotheistical ; each tribe had one god 
whom it worshiped. As tribes joined together, either because of 
war or of struggles for means of living, their gods were brought 
together and polytheism arose ; and as the joint tribes became 
uniform and gained in solidarity so again the many gods coalesced 
into one dominant god. If this theory is true, it throws a great 
deal of light upon the process of the emergence of the three 
deities Siva, Vinu and Sakjti in India. After the Guptas had 
vanquished the barbarous Hunas in the fifth century, no large 
accession of foreign tribes took place in India for the next five 
or six hundred years. The Muslims, who settled on the western 
borders or on the coast from eighth century onwards, came in 
small communities and did not produce any large disturbance in 
the settled populations. The fluid mass of thought and religions 
had therefore time to settle. The peoples of India in the ancient 
times were divided into numerous tribes politically independent 
or semi-independent, and culturally diverse as the literature 
of the Vedic and Buddhist 1 periods clearly attests. The 
incursion of Scythians, Yueh-Chis, Hunas and others 
added to the diversity already existing. The assimilation of the 
tribes and their cultures was the task of the various periods of 
ancient history. During the Gupta period the last of the syn- 
theses took place, and gave to Brahmanism a unity of which 

1 Rhys Davids : Buddhist India; 


the literary expression is the Mahdbhdrata and the religious 
symbol the TrimurtT. 

Sankara was born when this modification had been accom- 
plished and Hinduism was already triumphing over its rivals 
Buddhism and Jainism. He was thus a child of the times, but 
he was also the precursor of a new age. Monotheistic worship 
had been vindicated, by the labours of his predecessors, but it 
had to be established on the firm foundations of philosophy, so 
that not merely the will but also the intellect might become 
convinced and its permanence be assured. 

The establishment of this monotheistical tendency received 
a poweful impetus from the appearance of so uncompromisingly 
monotheistic a religion as Islam. Sankara was born at a time 
when Muslims were beginning their activities in India, and, if 
tradition, is correct, when they had gained a notable success in 
the extension of their faith by converting the king of the land. 
He was born and brought up at a place where many ships from 
Arabia and the Persian Gulf touched. If his extreme 
monism, Ms stripping of the One of all semblances of duality, 
his attempt to establish this monism on the authority of revealed 
scriptures, his desire to purge the cult of many abuses, had even 
a faint echo of the new noises that were abroad it would not 
be a matter for great surprise or utter incredulity. But Sankara's 
life is wrapped in legend and direct testimony of any kind 'is 
completely lacking to establish a connexion between him and 

His successors, Raman uja, Visnuswaml, Madhava and 
Nimbaraka, and the hymn-makers, in their speculations and 
religious tone, show closer parallelism. In the give and take of 
culture between Muslims and Indians it is difficult to assess accu- 
rately the share of each. It is true that the Muslims received 
many ideas from India and perhaps India received through 
Islam a reflection of its own contribution. It is true that 
Christian and neo-Platonist thought deeply coloured Islam and 
thejefore some writers have found in Hinduism traces of thos^ 
systems. But the fact remains that a number of elements Vere 


absorbed into Hinduism through its direct contact with Islam 
and these elements were presented to India impressed with the 
Islamic mould. 

In Ramanuja's time Muslims were to be found in the ports 
of the Coromandel coast. Muslim saints like Nathad Vail were 
preaching Islam to the people and converting numbers of them, 
and Hindu kings like Kun-Pandya were giving grants of land 
for the erection of mosques. The existence of Christians at 
Malaipuram is more than doubtful ; and, in any case, the small 
uninfluential community professing a corrupt form of that 
religion could hardly influence the thoughts of its neighbours. 
As Barth has pointed out, it was riot in general the monotheism 
of the Christian religion which most struck the Hindus. 2 

Ramanuja's philosophy recognised a god 1 with good attri- 
butes and inculcates His worship with faith and devotion. He 
exhibits a desire to open the doors of religion to the classes 
which had so far been shut out of it. Ix>ve finds a place not only 
in the relations of man and God but also of man and man, 
although in the latter case the advance is timid. Visnuswami, 
Nimbaruka and Madhava's metaphysical discussions regarding 
the nature of God and man almost recall the debates of Nazzam, 
Ash* an and Ghizali. But these resemblances may be easily 
fanciful or due to the nature of the enquiries themselves, and no 
reliance can be placed upon them for deducing any inference 
regarding cultural borrowings. 

Certain other characteristics of Squth Indian thought from 
the ninth century onwards, however, strongly pdlnt to Islamic 
influence. These are the increasing emphasis on monotheism, 
emotional worship, self -surrender (prapatti) and adoration of the 
teacher (Guru bhaktty and in addition to them laxity in the 
rigours of the caste system, and indifference towards mere 

It is hardly necessary to expatiate at length on the first 
point. The conception was ancient, but was not dominant. 

i Barth: Religions of India. 


Practical religion consisted in either the performance of good 
actions and sacrifice or in following a system of mental and 
spiritual training (Yoga) without dependence on a god with 
whom intimate personal relationship could be established. 
This is mainly the teaching of the Dharma Sdstras, Mahdbhdrata 
and Sdnkhya-Yoga philosophy. The Upanisads and the un- 
orthodox Bhagavatism were exceptional. They appealed to a 
small esoteric coterie, the last to tribes outside the pale of Vedic 
Brahmanism, till they were admitted inside the fold and their 
systems were recognized/ 4 Philosophical religion dwelt in the 
region of abstraction and only practical needs forced it to take 
account of the conception of God. Buddhism and Jainism were 
largely atheistical ; only in later times did Mahayana develop n 
theistic cult, but the worship of Amitdbha was only one of the 
numerous sects. 

In medieval times monotheism becomes the prevailing 
religion of India. The One God may be called by different 
names, $it)a, Kzsnu or any other, and there may be different 
theories about His existence, creation and relation with man. 
But He is One above all. Then He is a personal god. Again 
the conceptions of personality may differ. He may be king and 
master, father or mother, friend and teacher, spouse and lover. 
In every case the human relation with Him is emotional, usually 
tender. The emotion in the earlier times is calm, and restrained, 
in later times exuberant, passionate, violent. 

The hymns of the A Ivdrs deprecate externalia in religion, 
fasts and pilgrimages, and, occasionally, image worship, and 
inequality in worship. Ramanuja admitted the Sudras (under 
restrictions) to temples and provided the faith of self-surrender 
(prapatti) and of adoration of the Guru (dchdryabhimdna-yoga) 
for their spiritual welfare. These features of the reform move- 
ments could hardly be due to Buddhism and Jainism for both 
were in their later days rigidly bound up with ceremonialism 
and image worship, which was indeed one of the very causes 


3 Ram Praaada Chanda : In do- Aryan Races. 9 


of their downfall. They could scarcely be derived from the 
prevailing types of the Hindu religion, for the worship of Vi$ntt, 
Siva or Sakfi was ritualistic as well as that of other Vedic sects. 
Some of them might be affiliated to older and purer forms of 
Buddhism and Upanisadism, but Prapatti and Guru-bhakti not 

The idea of Prapatti attains importance in the school of 
Ramanuja, where Bhakti is permitted to the three higher classes 
alone but not to the Sudras.* The last are Prapannas, who take 
refuge in God, feeling themselves poor and helpless. They 
fling themselves on the will of God, renouncing everything 
worldly, seeking the advice of a preceptor and acquiring from 
him the impulse to action. Later the Vai?navas were divided 
into two branches on the question of Prapatti. And Nimbaraka 
gave great predominance to this method of winning the grace 
of God. 

Prapatti is closely connected with the adoration of the 
teacher (acharyabhimana-yoga) which consists in surrendering 
oneself completely to a teacher and being guided by him in 

Bhandarkar is of opinion that both these elements may be 
traced to the influence of Christianity. 5 It is more likely, how- 
ever, that they came from Islam. Both were very prominent 
features of that religion. The word /.Warn means surrender, and 
the Muslim is verily a Prapanna. It has been shown that 
submission to the will of God is an essential part of the Muslim 
religious consciousness. Historically also there is no insuper- 
able difficulty in supposing that Ramanuja adopted it from 

Absorption in God through devotion to a teacher is again 
an important Muslim conception. It was started by the Sht'as 
and from them taken by the Sufis. But it may be urged that 
the reverence to a teacher is an ancient Indian idea. Without 
going further back one may find it in the Grihiya Sutras and the 

4 BHandarkar : Vaipnavism and Saivism . c 

* 6 4 lbid., p. 57. 


Dharma Sdstras." They lay down rules govern'ng the relation of 
Guru and Brahmachari (student). The student is asked to regard 
his Guru as more than his father, to pay him perfect obedience 
during the period of studentship and to hold him in reverence 
throughout Kfe. The teacher is even compared to God. 7 But 
this ancient homage that the disciple paid to the preceptor is not 
the same thing as devotion to a spiritual director who is human 
yet divine, who is a link in the hierarchical chain of preceptors 
(pir, shaikh, Imam, prophet or qulb), each successor receiving 
inspiration from his predecessor and being the keeper of the 
traditions of the sect to which the novice once admitted belongs 
for ever. 

This Sufi conception of the deified teacher was incorporated 
in medieval Hinduism. Anandagiri's conception of Sankara as 
the incarnation of Siva,* the estimation of the Alvars and the 
Acharyas as incarnations of Vi$nu or his parts, and Umapath'i's 
Guruvdda? are all assimilations to the Sufi type. From them the 
idea spread all over India, so that a modern Hindu writer says, 
** nothing strikes as so peculiar in Hindu religious life as the 
high pedestal on which the spiritual teacher is placed and the 
implicit faith which the community has in him for weal or 
woe." 10 The acharyabhimana-yoga of the Artha Panchika and 
Ramanuja system were loans then not from Christianity but 
from Islam. 

The appearance of new ideas and the emphasizing of certain 
old ones in Southern India from the ninth to the fourteenth 
century is rather peculiar. Such things did not happen in the 
North, for all the early medieval reformers belonged to the 
South. If one of the reasons was not the influence of Islam 

Asvalayana : Grihya Sutras. HI, 4. 4, S. B. E. 
Apastamba: Dharma Sutras, 1, 1, 13-19. S. B. . 
Manu: Dharma Saslra, 11, 146, 148. II. 24344, S. B. E. 

7 Svetasvatara Upanilad, Hume's translation. 
* Anandagiri : gankara Vijaya. 
9 Pope: Introduction to Manikka Vasahar. 
*10 Rijagopalaxhariar : The Vaifnava Rcformert, p. 12. 


steadily and increasingly exerted during this very period and 'in 
this very region till it was suddenly eliminated by the advent of 
the Europeans, it would be difficult to account for the pheno- 
menon, still more so considering that the reforming shears were 
applied to the very parts anathematised by Islam, and that the 
new acquisitions were the very features which most prominently 
marked that religion. 

Before leaving the South two more sects require consider- 
ation, in which the influence of Islam appears more clearly 
than in those considered so far. They are the Lingayats or 
Jangamas and the Siddhars. 

The Lingayats consider themselves an ancient Saiva sect. 
Without disputing the fact of their ancient lineage from one 
of the many branches of Saivism and admitting the probability 
that the Aradhyas made an early attempt to organise a reformed 
Vaiqnava faith, it may be taken for granted that the uncompro- 
mising Lingayatism arose in the twelfth century. Who were the 
leaders of this movement? Basava and Channabasava his 
nephew, are universally recognised by the Lingayats. Dr. Fleet 
on the strength of an inscription of about 1200 A.D. found at 
Ablur, associated Ekflnta (or Ekantada) Ramayya with Basava 
as the founder of the sect. 11 Some Saioa poets who lived in the 
court of a Ballal raja Harisvara, Raghavanika, and Kereya 
Padmarasa are said to have espoused similar views. 1 - Basava, 
however, whether he was the actual founder of the system or 
not, was its most powerful advocate and sponsor. It is not 
necessary to extricate all the details of his career from the con- 
flicting accounts of the legendary historians. It is enough to 
know that he was the Minister of Bijjala, the Kalachurl king 
who ruled at Kalyan, 11561167. The Jaina and Brahmana 
influences were strong at the court and in the kingdom, and 
Basava was an uncompromising enemy of both. A conflict in 
the circumstances was inevitable and Bijjala and Basava were 
both simultaneous victims of mutual hostility. Basava's nephew 

11 Epigraph!* Indica, Vol. V, p. 239. , 

* !2Wurth:J. Bo. Br. R. A. S. f Vol. VIII, pp. 65-221. 


Channabasava carried on the propaganda after the uncle's 
death. The movement started by Basava had wide and lasting 
effect. The power of the Kalachuris was completely under- 
mined so that Kalyan soon after fell into the hands of the 
Hoysalas, from whom the kingdom passed to the Muslim 
conquerors from the north. 

The system of Basava in its original form was one of resolute 
and wholesale opposition to the prevailing religious thought. 
It was revolutionary all along the line in doctrine, ritual and 
social custom, so much so, that in spite of all the attempts of 
the Lingayats to tone down its daring originality they have not 
succeeded in completely obliterating its individuality or in 
assimilating it to orthodox Hinduism. 

The Lingayats are worshippers of one God (Para Sioa), the 
infinite, independent, invisible Being, the highest radiance, the 
supreme joy, the most excellent substance, exalted above all 
change and void of all materiality. He is the creator of souls 
and of nature which are conceived of as the self-diremption of 
the supreme Being. He manifests himself as the world-teacher 
(A llama Prabhu) and guide of the individual soul (Siva the 
Redeemer). The human teacher, Basava, is the incarnation of 
the Redeemer, whose divinity passes to his successors and 
representatives. The first four among them are especially 
revered 1 Re van, Marul, Ekorama and Pandit. According to 
Brown they are analogous to the four ' pirs ' of the Musalmans, 
the canonised spiritual guides, who *' play the same part in the 
ceremony of making a Musalman murld that the four A radhyas 
do in that of making a Jangam. They too are described in an 
apostolical succession/ * ia The preceptor initiates the novice 
into the creed. " The rules regarding initiation are analogous 
to those used among Musalmans.** 14 

Love is the first creation of God. Bhakfi or faithful devo- 
tion is the means of attaining the goal of human life, it is an 
attraction towards God and there are three stages in the progress 

43 & 14 Brown: Madras Journal of Literature and Science, January 
1840. p. 146. . 


of the soul. The first is the stage of indifference which involves 
firm belief in God, the discipline of vows and restraints and 
the practice of rites and devotion ; the second involves the 
renunciation of egoism, concentration in God, resignation and 
serenity ; the third, the sharing the joys of blissful union and 
seeing God in oqeself and in everything else. 15 

The practices of the Jangamas are summed up in the aahta- 
varanam (the eight environments), they are (1) guru (preceptor), 
(2) lingam (phallus), (3) jangama (follower), (4) vibhuti (ashes), 
(5) rudra^ia (rosary), (6) padodakfl (water in which the 
preceptor's feet are washed), (7) prasdda (sacramental food), 
(8) panchaksara (five-syllabled 1 formula). 16 

The preceptor is considered as * superior even to the 
deity/ 17 The lingam is the symbol of divinity embodied in the 
saints. The jangam represents the incarnation of the deity in 
the whole community. He is the passive principle, Siva is the 
active, and the preceptor the intermediate link between the 
two. The formula (namah Sivaya) is the confession of faith and 
the remaining elements are the ritual of the sect. 

There are no sacrifices, no fasts or feasts, no pilgrimages. 
** There is no river (purificatory ceremony) for a Lingdyata.'* 1 * 
There is no caste, ** even if a Pariah joins the sect, he is con- 
sidered in no way inferior to a Brahman.** 19 There are no dis- 
tinctions based on differences of birth or sex. ** All men are 
holy in proportion as they are temples of the great spirit.** 20 

Marriage is voluntary, the consent of the bride before mar- 
riage is necessary and child marriage is considered wrong. 
Divorce is allowed. Widows are treated with respect, and they 
are permitted to marry again. The dead are not cremated but 

13 Brown: Madras Journal of Literature and Science, January 1840, 
p. 150. 

IB Bhandarkar : Op. cit., p. 136. 

ifThurston: Castes and Tribes of South India, Lingayats, P. 280. 

18 Ibid. 

19 Ibid. 

4 SO Brown: Op. cit., p. 146. 


buried, the dying man is given a bath, no srdddha or death 
ritual is prescribed. The theory of transmigration of souls 4 or 
metempsychosis is not believed in. All Lingadharis or wearers 
of the divine symbol eat together, intermarry and live in unity. 

Ijngayats are devout, puritanical and warlike in their 
character. 21 They are found chiefly in the Kanarese and Telugu 
countries, constituting thirty-five per cent, of the total popula- 
tion in the Belgaum, Bijapur and Dharwar districts and ten per 
cent, in the Mysore and Kolhapur States.- 2 They call them- 
selves Virsaivas, the brave followers of Siva. 

Whence did they develop their peculiar doctrines and social 
institutions ? Brown, although he noticed the resemblances with 
Muslim ideas inconsequentially, came to the conclusion that 
k * an observation of the Christian faith in the neighbouring 
country of Malayala may have led to his (Basava's) seeking a 
better creed." 23 This is, however, a mere fancy. There is no 
evidence for the existence of a Christian community on the 
Konkan coast. On the other hand, the whole of Western India 
from Cambay to Quilon was studded with Muslim colonies, 
established in the early centuries of the Muslim era. Nairn after 
investigating the Musalman remains on the Konkan coast arrived 
at the conclusion ** that the Musalmans of this part, who differ 
so strongly from others of their religion in physical appearance, 
in dress, and in some of their customs, must be descended from 
sea-faring Arabs who settled on this coast, and not from the 
Musalman conquerors of India.** 24 It is difficult to resist the 
inference that Lingdyatism was a result of the influence which 
these Muslims exerted in these parts of India. No other hypo- 
thesis appears sufficient to explain the revolutionary character of 

21 Brown : Op. cit., p. J75. 

22 Thurston : Op. cit. 

23 Brown: Op. cit., p. 145. 

** Nairn : The Muslim Remains on Southern Konkan, Indian Antiquary,* 
VoL II. pp. 278, and 317; Vol. IH, 1*1. 


its doctrines and customs. The abandonment of such a deep- 
rooted Hindu idea as that of metempsychosis and of such 
customs as cremation, and purificatory death ceremonial, the 
abolition of inequalities of caste and sex and 1 the reform of 
marriage, the conceptions of the community of brave warriors 
led by their sanctified preceptor, and of God (A llama) whose 
very name is probably of Muslim origin, 25 point unmistakably 
to the source of inspiration, that is Islam. 

It is easily comprehensible that after the downfall of their 
kingdom and the conquest of their lands by Muslim armies from 
the north at the end of the thirteenth century, the reformers, 
dismayed by the effects of the schism that they had started, 
attempted to bring about a reconciliation with the peoples sur- 
rounding them and professing more orthodox views, and, there- 
fore, deliberately or compelled by force of circumstances or by 
sheer neglect, they mitigated the sharp outlines of their system 
and gradually permitted the reappearance of such features as 
caste to creep in. Thus the Lingayata of today although 
still distinct from other Hindu communities are fast becoming 
identical with them. The memory of their earlier career and its 
vicissitudes is, however, still preserved in the prophecies of 
Channabasava who predicted that sixty years after the rule of 
the Kalachuris ** the great Pitambar will be born by the bless- 
ings of Siva among the Turks, and his house will reign over this 
country seven hundred and seventy years, demolish Kalyan and 
build KalaburigT " and the country will be called Tur^dnya. 
But ultimately the great Vasantaraya will rise, who will drive 
out the foreigners, rebuild Kalyana, take Chaunna as the Minis- 
ter of his realm, and establish the faith. 26 

The following extracts from the Vachanas attributed to 
Basava illustrate the doctrines of the Lingayats.- 7 

25 Brown : Telugu and English Dictionary. 
Kittel: Kannada and English Dictionary. 

26Wurth: Op. cit., p. 220. c 

L>7 Halkathi, P. C : Indian Antiquary, Vol. LI, 1922. 



(1) Thou art the only Lord and Thou art eternal ; this is Thy 
title. I proclaim it so that the whole world may know. There 
ia no word beyond the Almighty God, the Almighty God 
Paaupati is the only God in the whole universe. In all the 
heavenly world, the mortal world and the nether world, .there 
is only one God, O Kudalasangama Dei) a. 

(2) I did not see those so-called gods alive, when the four 
yugas and the eighteen cycles of those yugas were being des- 
troyed ; nor did I see them, when all was burning ; nor do 1 see 
them now. Neither that day nor this day, do I see those gods, 
except Kudalasangama Deva. 

How can I say that the god that, filled with lac, melts down, 
or the god that, being touched with fire, twists itself, is equal 
to Him? How can I say that the god that is sold, when the 
time comes, is equal to Him ? How can I say that the god that 
is buried, when there is fear, is equal to Him? Kudalasangama 
Deva is the only one God whose state is natural, who is in 
union with truth, eternal, pure and chaste. O think : there is 
only one husband to a wife that loves. So there is only one 
God to the devotee that believes. Oh, do not seek the com- 
pany of other gods. To speak of other gods is adultery. 


Ah, wherever I look, there Thou art, O God ! Thou Thy- 
self art one with a universal eye. Thou Thyself art one with a 
universal mouth. Thou Thyself art one with universal arms. 
Thou Thyself art one with universal feet, O Kudalasangama 

Thy width is as wide as the universe, wide as the sky, wide 
as the widest. Thy auspicious feet are far beyond the nether 
world, and Thy auspicious crown far far above the globe of the 
Universe. O Linga, thou art unknowable, immeasurable^ im* 

O Kudalasangama Deva. 



O you who have committed sinful deeds ! O you who have 
killed a Brahman ! Say only once, " I yield myself to God 1 .** 
If you say once, " I submit/* all sins break and fly away. 
Even mountains of gold will not suffice for expiations. Hence, 
say only once, " I submit," to that only one, our Kudalasangama 


Leave it alone, that Horse -sacrifice, leave it alone, that 
Initiation into the Ajapa Mantra. Leave it alone, that offering 
in fire, and those countings of the Gdyatri spell. Leave them 
alone, those charms and incantations for bewitching people. 
But the company and the words of the servants of Kudala- 
sangama Deoa, mark, are greater than any of these. 

With one who knows not the subtle path of God, the time 
of the eclipse is far superior to the twenty-four iff his. The 
fast day is far superior to " Sankranta" Sacrificial offerings 
and the daily rites are far superior to Vydtipata. But to one 
who constantly meditates on Kudalasangama Deoa, such medi- 
tation is far superior to innumerable countings of mantras and 
the performance of severe penances. 


Do they look for beauty in an enthroned king ? Should they 
look for caste, when one is worshipper of God, Ling at Why, 
it is the word of God that the devotee's body is His body. 

None but the ancients can know it. O stop, stop. Only 
the devotee of God is of the highest caste. Hence no distinc- 
tion of caste should be observed. He is neither born nor 
unborn. The servant of Kudalasangama Deoa is limitless. 

What if he has read the four Vedas? He that has mo 
Linga is a Mahar what if he is a Mahar? He that has the 


Linga IB Benares. His clusters of words are good. He is holy 
in all the worlds. His Prasdd is nectar to me. It is said *' My 
devotee is dear to me, even though he is a Mahar. He is 
acceptable to me. He should be worshipped even as I am." 
Since it is so said, then he that worships Kudalasangama Detfa, 
and knows Him, is greater than the six philosophies and is pure 
in all the worlds. 

The Vedas trembled and trembled ; the Sastras retired and 
stood aside ; Logic became dumb ; the A gams went out and 
withdrew ; for our Kudalasangama Deoa dined in the house of 
Channayya, the Mahar. 

What does it matter what caste he belongs to? He that 
wears the symbol of God is of the highest caste. It has been 
said. "The caste of him who is born from God is sacred and 
he is free from births. His mother is Uma and his father is 
Rudra, and certainly his caste is Isvara." Since it is so said, I 
will accept the remains of their food and will give them my 
child in marriage. O Kudalasangama Deva, 1 place my trust 
in thy servants. 


Mere strings of words such as ** God is the soul of all 
created beings " will never do instead of the work which i 
your duty. You ought to use up your body, mind and soul for 
Guru, the servants of Kudalasangama Deva. 


Do not compare things that are incomparable. They are 
devoid of time and action, devoid of worldliness, Thy servants, 
O Kudalasangama Deva. 

Is the sea great? It is bound by the earth. Is the earth 
great? it stands on the head-jewel of the Lord of ssrpsn's. Is 
the Lord of serpents great? He is only a signet-ring on'the 


little finger of Pdrvati. Is PdrOati great? She is only one-half 
of the body of Paramesvara. Is Paramesvara great? He is 
confined on the edge of the top of the mind of the servants of 
our Kudalasangama Delta. 

His origin is not like that of the creatures of the air. Thy 
servant is a creation of Linga. He sticks to one. His heart does 
not vacillate. He penetrates the mind. He forgets his bodily 
qualities and worships Thee. He is, as it were, Thine own 
reflection. O Kudalasangama Deva. 


Ah, what can I say about the bliss I feel, when my body 
melts, like a hailstone in water, or an image of lac in fire? The 
waters of my eyes have overflowed their boundaries. Oh, to 
whom shall I speak of the happiness of uniting with Kudala- 
sangama Deva in oneness of mind? 

I know not the earth, the sky or the ten quarters. I do not 
understand them. They say, ** The whole universe is contained 
in the centre of the Linga," but, like a hailstone, I fell into the 
midst of the ocean ; I am overwhelmed in the happiness of the 
touch of the Linga ; and am saying only, ** God/' knowing 
nothing whatever of duality. 

The Siddhdrs were a school of philosophical rhymists, who 
were Yogis as well as medical men and alchemists. It is 
difficult to determine their age for all signs of the school have 
now completely disappeared and their writings have undergone 
much interested editing. Mr. Srinivasa Aiyangar, a Brahmana 
scholar, does not speak of them in terms of praise. He calls 
them impostors and plagiarists who assumed the great names of 
antiquity like Agastiyar, Kapilar and Tiruvalluvar to throw dust 
into the eyes of the people. According to him, they were eaters 
of opium, dwellers in the land of dreams, and full of unbounded 
conceit. 28 

033 Srinivasa Aiyangar : Tamil Studies, p. 226. v 


It is manifest, however, that they did not like the Brahmanas. 
They ridiculed them in their writings and poured unlimited 
contempt on their social institutions, religious observances and 
sacred books. They were monotheistical quiet ists who retained 1 
the name of Siva as that of God, but rejected everything in. the 
Saiva system which was inconsistent with pure theism. Their 
summum bonum was to apprehend and approach that Eternal 
Light which they termed Paraqjoti, Peroli or Vetta i?e/f. 20 

Thou shalt adore the world's one Light, 

Who at a thought this vast earth framed. 

Made noble man, then, dawnlike, flamed 

A priest (Guru) upon His sight. 

No kin had he of mortal race ; 

Ascetic-wise hard deeds He wrought ; 

Then having made disciples (Siddhars), sought 

The Unlimitable Place. 30 

God is ** the Light whom earth and heaven and hell cannot 
contain, " :u and He is my king, the King of Kings/ 12 God is 
transcendent for He "stands far, far and far, beyond all beings, 
utmost pale/* and yet within, " His sacred feet are in your 
heart. 34 

They believed in one God, in one true preceptor (satguru), 
in one way for all men, and rejected the theory of many births 
and the authority of the Hindu sacred scriptures. 

God is one and the Veda is one ; 

The disinterested, true Guru is one, and his 

initiatory rite is one, 

29 Srinivasa Aiyangar : Tamil Studies. 

30 Caldwell : Tamil Popular Poetry, Indian Antiquary, 1872, Vol. I, 
P 203. 

31 Ibid., p. 101. 

32 Ibid., p. 179. 

33 Ibid., p. 100. 
** Ibid., p. 179. 


When this is obtained his heaven is one ; 
There is but one birth of men upon earth ; 
And only one way for all men to walk in. 

But as far as those who hold four Vedas and 

six Sastras. 

And different customs for different peoples, 

And believe in plurality of gods, 

Down they will go to the fire of hell! *' 35 

The denunciation of those who do not agree with them is 
quite Islamic in its fierce sternness. 

The Siddhdrs were followers of the path of devotion and of 
love. Tirumular says : 

The ignorant think that God and love are different. 
None knows that God and love are the same. 
Did all men know that God and love are the same, 

They would dwell together in peace, considering 

love as God. 30 

True worship does not consist in bowing 

To idols made of clay, or mud 
Baked in the fire. No image made 
Of stone or wood, no linga stump, 
Built of earth and made by hand, 
Could ever seem divine to one 
Who knew he came from God, 37 

or in the worship of gods and goddesses. 

How many flowers 1 gave 
At famous temple shrines ! 
How many mantras said ! 
Oft washed the idol's head! 
And still with weary feet 
Encircled Siva's shrines ! 

3rCaldwell: Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages 
Second Edition, p. 147. 

36, Ibid, 
c * 

*7 Cover: Folk Songs of Southern India, p. 162. 


But now at last I know 

Where dwells the King of Gods, 

And never will salute 

A temple made with hands. ns 

What then is true worship ? Sivavakyar replies : 

My thoughts are flowers and ashes. 

In my breast* s fane enshrined, 

My breath too is there in it 

A linga unconfined : 

My senses too, like incense 

Rise and light bright lamps shine, 

There too my soul leaps over 

A dancing-God divine. no 

Worship needs the guidance of the teacher, and therefore it is 
necessary to 

** Be faithful to the glorious priest (Guru) 
Who teaphes truth. Receive from him 
The heavenly light that shall make clear 
What body is and what is soul. 40 

The Siddhdrs did not believe in caste. Patirakiriyar asks the 


O Brahmans, list to me 
And answer if you can. 
Do rain and wind avoid 
Some men among the rest 
Because their caste is low? 
When such men tread the earth 
Hast seen it quake with rage? 
Or does the brilliant sun 
Refuse to them its rays? 41 

38Caldwell: Indian Antiquary, Vol. I. p. 170. 

39 Ibid., p. 101. 

4% Cover: Op. cit., p. 162. 

41 Caldwell : Indian Antiquary, VoL 1, p. 168. 


He deeply yearned for the coming of the brother of man. 

When shall our race be one great brotherhood 
Unbroken by the tyranny of caste? 42 

But he has a firm faith that it will come, 

O Brahmans list to me ! 

In all this blessed land 

There is but one great caste, 

One tribe and brotherhood. 

One God doth dwell above 

And He hath made us one 

In birth and frame and tongue. 43 

It will be seen from the ample quotations given here that 
the Siddhara were severely monotheistic, they had no use for 
Vedas and Sdstras, or for idolatrous practices, and they repudia- 
ted metempsychosis. The hymns of the Siddhdrs remind one 
of the uncompromising severity of Islam. Their conceptions 
of God and absorption in Him are reminiscent of the teachings 
of the Sufis, for both describe the ultimate reality as Light and 
both give to Love a dominating position among universal forces. 
In regard 1 to alchemy especially they were the disciples of the 
Muslims, 44 their attitude towards it was the same as that of Dhul 
Nun MisrT 45 and of those who followed him. One last quotation 
will show how much they were imbued with Sufi phraseology : 

That highest one is not a beauteous rose 

Nor doth He hide Him in the sweet perfume. 46 

In short, the progress of religious thought in the south reveals 
a growing absorption of Muslim ideas, into Hindu systems. 

42 Caldwell : Indian Antiquary, Vol. I, p. 102. 

43 Ibid., p. 168. 

44 Barth : Religions of India. 

45 Nicholson: J.R.A.S.. 1906. f 


4 Caldwell: Indian Antiquary. Vol. I. p. 177. 


Hie philosophies of Saniara, of Ramanuja and others had their 
roots in the systems of the past, their presentation was original, 
but in the case of the latter it appears probable that they did 
not grow up utterly regardless of the new currents of thought 

W f W 

which then flowed in the country, But if in their case it is only 
possible to give a judgment which must be largely conjectural, 
the evidence leaves almost no doubt that the Wi)fl and the 
were largely ir 


WHEN the empire of Harsa fell the North broke up into small 
principalities. Rajput clans starting from their original homes 
in the West spread north and east establishing the chieftaincies 
in the Himalayan regions, in the plains watered by the Ganges 
and the Jumna, and in the wide stretch of territory broken up 
by the Vindhya and Kaimur ranges between Gujarat and Orissa. 
Even those who had no title to the name of Rajput constructed 
imaginary pedigrees and affiliated themselves to the dominating 
race. The Rajputs thus were the masters of the destinies of 
India from the Panjab to the Deccan and from the Arabian Sea 
to Bengal before the Muslims appeared upon the scene. 

Under their sway great changes came upon the social life 
and culture of Northern India. The old landmarks racial 
political and religious, were obliterated. The ancient tribes 
mentioned by Varahamihira in the Vrihat Samhita 1 or those 
conquered by Samudra Gupta- in the fourth century, Latas, 
Panchalas, Arjunayanas, Yadavas, Malavas, Kosalas, Vatsas, 
Sakas, Anartas, Videhas, Kurus, Matsyas, Chedis and innumer- 
able others, disappeared ; and their places were occupied by 
Gurjaras, Rastrakujas, Gaharwars, Kalachuns, Chandels, 
Chauhans, Parihars, Tomaras, Pan wars, and Solankis. Feudal 
institutions swept away the ancient councils and assemblies and 
tribal kingdoms. The ancient imperialistic idea the over- 
lordship extending from sea to sea vanished, and a kind of 
balance of power, of alliance and counter-alliance of princes, 
took its place, making civil strife a daily habit and national 
unity a rare dream. 

1 Kern : Varahamihira's Vrihat Samhita. Verspreide Geschriftcn, 



2 Vincent Smith: J.R.A.S., 1897. pp. 19, S59. 


The ancient seats of culture and regions of busy ancl 
humming life changed. Magadha was no longer the cradle of 
empire ; Pataliputra and Gaya were in ruins, and in their walled 
cities there were few inhabitants ; Vaisali, Kasinagara (Kania), 
Ramagrama, Kapilavastu and Sravasti, the cities renowned in 
Buddhist history, were desolate. The scenes of political activity 
had shifted from the middle country to the west and the extreme 
east. Kanauj, Gwalior, Delhi and Anhilwada, and Ajmer in 
the west and Gaur in the east had risen into prominence as 
centres of political life, art and literature. 

In religious matters a vast transformation took place. The 
India of Harsa was still mainly Buddhist or Sivaite. India in 
the eleventh century as Alberuni saw it was quite different. 
Buddhism or a mixture of Buddhism and Sattfism, or I antrism 
was confined to one corner of the country, namely, Bengal ; 
Jainism maintained its existence in the extreme west, Gujarat 
and Rajputana ; but the dominant creed of India was Hinduism, 
and here Visnu or N dray ana is the first god in the pantheon of 
his (Alberuni's) Hindu informants and literary authorities, whilst 
Siva is only incidentally mentioned, and not always in a favour- 
able manner. ;i The transformation was due to the ascendancy of 
the Brahmans in the social life of India, an ascendancy which 
began in the Gupta period and was completed when the foreign 
immigrants were received into the Hindu social system. The 
Brahmans transformed the Scythians, the Hunas, the Sakas and 
other foreigners and the Gonds and Bhils and other indigenes 
into Rajputs ; and the Rajputs paid the price of their elevation 
from barbarism to civilisation by accepting and confirming 
their claims of superiority. Vaisnavism, at one time a heterodcx 
system, had very early been appropriated by the Brahmans as 
peculiarly their own. Siva's worship was, however, the religion 
of the common folk or semi-Hinduised peoples. The first 
recommended itself to them because the priest played such an 
important part in it, the latter's ritual might be performed wihout 

3SacW: Alberuni, Vol. 1, p. xlvii, * 


a priest. The Rajputs themselves were attached to &tfa, they 
built numerous temples in Gujarat, Rajputana and Bundelkhund, 
dedicated to him, but in deference to the views of their 
benefactors paid worship to Visnu and erected his temples and 
created endowments for their maintenance. Even today, how- 
ever, the Ranas of Mewar consider themselves Dtwans or 
Vicegerents, of Siva, and when they visit the temple of Efe/mga, 
supersede the Brahman high priest in his duties and perform the 
ceremonies. 4 The information of AlberunI was, however, 
derived from his Brahman teachers, and he naturally received 
the impression that India was dominantly VaisnaVa. 

The impression was perhaps exaggerated but not wrong. 
The Guptas had encouraged Visnu worship, they had set up 
pillars to Visnu and proclaimed themselves in their title adorers 
of Bhagwata. Perhaps a setback was given to the spread of 
Vaisnavism in the period immediately succeeding their down- 
fall. But the movement again became vigorous under Rajput 
princes. The Gurjara-Pratihar ruler of Kanauj, Mihira Bhoja 
(840 90 A.D.) posed as an incarnation of Visnu , Adi Varaha, 
and his successor was obliged to surrender an image of Visnu 
to his powerful ally, Yasovarman Chandel who built for it a 
splendid temple at Khajuraho. 

About the same time the doctrines of Bhakti which were 
taught in the South by the Alvars, travelled to the North and 
gave new strength to the Vaisnava movement. The Bhagwata 
Purana was the result of these religious upheavals. The 
Ahetukf (motiveless) Bhakii which the Purana preached was 
based on monotheistic philosophy. 

The Bhagwata Purana conceives of God as free, pure and 
omniscient. He is changeless, primeval, without constituents 
(nirguna). He is the soul. He beholds the intellect in the light 
of consciousness. He is absolute joy. He is the creator and 
protector. *' Even as a cow suckles her ignorant calf and 
protects it from ferocious animals, so Thou delivereat persons 
< t 

4 Tod: Rajasthan, Vol. II. p. 602 (edited by Crooke). 


distressed/"' He is ever loving towards His votaries and 
delights in their devotion ; by His grace the devotees snap the 
consciousness of ego tied with actions, and * 4 as the fire of 
greatly increased flames reduces pieces of wood into ashes so 
devotion unto me consumes all sorts of sins." (l God is 
absolute, but personal, and He incarnates upon earth for the 
welfare of man and the protection of His devotees. Tl>e 
Bhagwata Parana describes at length the events of the life of 
His complete incarnation, Krsna, in order to stimulate the love 
of His votaries and to spread the doctrine of Bhakti. 

The aim of Bhakti is described by Prahlada, the exemplar 
of Bhatyas. He says, " I who know the result of the enjoyment 
of corporal beings am not desirous of having longevity, 
prosperity and wealth, and even the pleasures and privileges of 
Viranchi which contribute to the gratification of senses. 
Neither do I wish to possess the Siddhis (miraculous powers) 
.... Convey me besides Thine own servants.'* 7 In the path 
of devotion and love, expiatory ceremonies, rigid mortification, 
even knowledge of the Sdstras are of no avail. It demands a 
discipline of concentration of mind, practice of virtues. 
meditation and asceticism, friendship towards all, companion- 
ship of devotees, chanting the glories of the Lord, repeating His 
names, thrilling with joy begotten of love, surrendering the mind 
to Han, to weep, laugh, dance and sing with joy. 8 The seeker 
after God, who desires to cleanse himself of all impurities and 
to escape from the meshes of mundane existence, should seek 
refuge with some ascetic as a preceptor, and " he should be 
shorn of malice and with reverence, devotion and love serve his 
preceptor considering him as identical with me.'*" The path is 
open to all, to a Sudra and a Supacha or Chandala, even the 

: Bhagwata Purana, Book IV, Chap. IX. 

Book XI. Chap. XIV. 
7 Ibid.. Book VII, Chap. X. 
t 8 Ibid., Book IX, Chap. III. 
9 Ibid., Book XJ, Chap. XVIII. 


leader of the elephant herd who appealed to the Lord for mercy 
was saved from the dread jaws of the alligator. 10 

The devotional religion of the BhdgWata Purdi^a opened the 
way for the spiritual emancipation of the individual, it did not 
remove the chains of social slavery, it still demanded that the 
followers of Bhdgwata " forsaking all desires should act in 
consonance with their castes/' 11 Nor did it hold an uncom- 
promising position regarding the external forms of worship. It 
regarded * Yoga, knowledge, virtue, study of Vedas, asceticism, 
charity, sacrifice, vows, worship of deities, mantras (spells), 
journey to sacred shrines, self-control/ as inferior to the 
companionship of the devotees, yet not quite dispensible to 
devotion. 1 - It prescribed the worship of idols and symbols, 
and meditation upon the image of God according to Yogic 
methods. 13 

The Bh&gwata Parana marked the transition from the 
ancient religion of works to the medieval religion of Bhafeti. 
But the influence of the emotional elements in the faith was not 
strong enough to counteract effectually the growing rigidity of 
caste or the growing power of the priest. The period of Rajput 
ascendancy was one of division, and conflict. Society was 
enfeebled by feudal anarchy and clannish pretensions on the 
one side and by religious dissensions: and priestly selfishness on 
the other. But although political power suffered an eclipse, 
literature, art and science still continued to flourish. 

Bhavabhuti, Rajsekhara, and Krsna Misra the author of 
Prabodha Chandrodaya, continued the traditions of Kalidasa. 
In mathematics, astronomy and other branches of science, 
Bhaskaracharya succeeded Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta mud 
Varahamihira. The art of sculpture devoted to the service of 
Hindu gods was developed in diverse styles by many schools 

loDutt: Bhagwata Purina, Book VII, Chap. X. 
n Ibid., Book XI. Chap. X. 

, I2;lbid., Book XI. Chap. XII. , 

13 Ibid., Book XI. 


of artists, and architectural monuments were raised on a 
magnificent scale. 

Upon this scene of petty Rajput feuds and glorious Rajput 
art the avalanche of the Muslim conquest burst. The Muslim 
advance from across Baluchistan into Sind, in the eighth 
century, was held up by the inhospitability of the country and 
the difficulties of maintaining communications with far off 
Baghdad, especially when rebel chiefs blocked the ways which 
led from the centre of the Caliphate to its outlying tenritori-s. 
Nearly three centuries passed till attacks were resumed 
but now they procceeded from a different quarter. Sabuktaatfn 
and Mahmud undertook their annual forays from the north-west. 
Their effect was not great, some temples were plundered and 
a few cities were sacked, the Hindu-Shahlya dynasty and with 
it the Hindu dominion disappeared from the Panjab, otherwise 
things remained as heretofore. Permanent conquest in India 
was not the aim of the Ghaznavides, who looked for emp : re 
towards the west. Another century passed, during which the 
disturbances created in Central and Western Asia by the rise of 
the Turks turned the attention of the Ghori rulers of Afghanis- 
tan definitely in the direction of the east. 

Here the victim was ready for the sacrifice. India on the 
eve of Muslim conquest resembled Greece before the rise of 
Macedonia into power. There was the same incapacity in both 
regions to create a political union, and there was the same 
keenness and brilliance in the pursuit of science, literature end 
art. The analogy went further, for if the Macedonian was the 
semi.hellenised Greek, the Turk who swept over India was the 
non-Hinduised Rajput. 

The thirteenth century had hardly begun when the conquest 
of Northern India was completed. Within a quarter of a century 
the Muslim armies had overrun the country from the Panjab 
to Assam and from Kashmir to the Vindhyas. The Rajput 
princes offered scarcely any resistance, they were all taken by 
itfter surprise. Each one fought singly, bravely, but no one 
showed any particular foresight, and collectively they 


complete lack of cohesion and power of combination. The story 
of Laksmana Sena the last ruler of Bengal may not be accurate 
history ; nevertheless, it is true history. If the Muslim generals 
were at all in the habit of writing despatches, if trey needed a 
motto for their reports, they might have done worse than choose 
the victorious announcement of Julius Caesar they came, they 
saw and they conquered. A hundred years more and India 
down to Mysore lay within their grasp. 

The Muslim conquest had a tremendous effect upon the 
evolution of Indian culture. Superficially, it upset everything : 
the Hindu religion received a terrible blow, the patronage of the 
priests and Pandits ceased, the Hindu monuments were 
destroyed, literature received no royal encouragement and 
languished ; to all outward appearances political conquest was 
synonymous with cultural death. Fundamentally, it had a 
different effect. The Muslim kings displaced the Hindu Rajas 
in the important principalities. Delhi, (Kanauj, Gwalior, 
Anhilwada, Deoglr, and Gaur passed into their hands ; not so 
the outlying countries. Then, too, the new ruler was master of 
the immediate lands within striking distance of his cavalry 
encampment ; beyond, the petty landholder with his retnue was 
safe within his mud castle and defied the sovereign power. To 
reduce these small chieftains was a task of Sisyphus. Every 
energetic ruler of the many dynasties that sat upon the throne of 
Delhi from the times of Qutb-ud-din Aibak to the spacious 
days of Akbar had to carry out annual razzias to keep them 
under control or to collect revenue. In fact the imperial autho- 
rity masked a surprisingly extensive system of local autonomy 
which tended continually to break out into anarchy when not 
kept in check by a Balban, an 'Ala'uddm Khaljl or a Muham- 
mad Tughlaq. 

Muslim auhority was not only restricted in these two ways, 
it had also to impose upon itself other restraints. The employ- 
ment of the Hindus was a necessity of their rule. Mahmud of 
Ghazna had a numerous body of Hindu troops who fought for 
him in Central Asia, and his Hindu commander Tilak suppressed! 


the rebellion of his Muslim general Niyaltigin. When Qutb-ud- 
din Aibak decided to stay in Hindustan, he had no other choice 
but to retain the Hindu staff which was familiar with the civil 
administration, for without it all government including the 
collection of revenue would have fallen into utter chaos. The 
Muslims did not bring with them from beyond the Indian 
frontiers artizans, accountants and clerks. Their buildings were 
erected by Hindus who adapted their ancient rules to newer 
conditions, their coins were struck by Hindu goldsmiths, and 
their accounts were kept by Hindu officers. Brahman legists 
advised the ICing on the administration of Hindu law and 
Brahman astronomers helped in the performance of their general 

' The Muslims who came into India made it their home. 
They lived surrounded by the Hindu people and a state of 
perennial hostility with them was impossible. Mutual inter- 
course led to mutual understanding. Many who had changed 
their faith differed little from those whom they had left. Thus 
after the first shock of conquest was over, the Hindus and 
Muslims prepared to find a via media whereby to live as neigh- 
bours. The effort to seek a new life led to the development of 
a new culture which was neither exclusively Hindu nor purely 
Muslim. It was indeed a Muslim-Hindu culture. Not only did 
Hindu religion, Hindu art, Hindu literature and Hindu science 
absorb Muslim elements, but the very spirit of Hindu culture 
and the very stuff of Hindu mind were also altered, and the 
Muslim reciprocated by responding to the change in every 
department of life. 

The effect of Islam upon Hindu sects in the South has 
been traced in a previous chapter. The movement which 
started there continued to develop in the North. The religious 
leaders in Maharastra, Gujarat, the Panjab, Hindustan and 
Bengal from the fourteenth century onwards deliberately reject 
certain elements of ancient creeds and emphasize others and 
thus attempt to bring about an approximation between the Hindu 
and Muslim faiths. At the same time Muslim Sufi orders an* 


Muslim writers and poets show a strong tendency to assimilate 
Hindu practices and doctrines, in some cases going so far as 
to adopt even the adoration of Hindu gods. 

The Indian architecture of the period exhibits the same 
synthetic tendency. The Hindu palaces, temples and cenotaphs 
are no longer built on the lines of the pure styles of the preced- 
ing period ; they not only employ the Muslim elements of 
architecture, but they also breathe a new spirit which demon- 
strates how much the ancient aesthetic values have changed. 
Again, the influence is not confined to any particular part of the 
country, it appears most strongly among the Hindu principalities 
of Rajputana and Central India, in holy places Lke Mathura, 
Brindaban and Benares, and it is felt in far off Khatmandu and 
distant Madura. The mosque, the tomb and the palace of the 
Muslim are equally Indian. The Musalman borrows certa-n 
definite features from the styles of the so-called Arab and 
Persian architecture, but evolves a new style in India or rather 
a number of new styles, which continue the traditions of Hindu 
styles. As a matter of fact the architectural schools of the 
period, whether Hindu or Muslim, are really two branches of 
the same tree for both spring from the same root. Their pur- 
pose differs but the significance of their form remains the same. 
Indian painting, Mughal or Rajput, is like Indian architec- 
ture. In fact here, even more than m architecture, one aesthetic 
law governs the form. The difference between the style of 
Ajanta and that of Delhi or Jaipur is great ; line, colour and 
rhythm have all changed. But the difference between Delhi and 
Jaipur or Kang<jia is just the difference between two individual 
artists of the same school and hardly more. The influence of 
Central Asian and Persian art is evident ; but Indian art. whether 
produced in the courts of Mughal emperors and Nawabs 
or those of Hindu princes of Rajputana or Tanjore, does 
not imitate slavishly the foreign models. It has an indviduality 
all its own, and it can only be described by the term Muslim- 
Hindu art. 


In literature, Sanskrit no more provides the medium for the 
most vital needs of the people. Thought creates new instru- 
ments of self-expression. In the North Hindi, in the west 
Marathi, and in the east Bengali develop into literary languages,, 
and Hindus and Musalmans share in the glory of their achieve- 
ments. Above all, a new linguistic synthesis takes place : the 
Muslim gives up his Turkish and Persian and adopts the speech 
of the Hindu. He modifies it like his architecture and painting 
to his needs and thus evolves a new literary medium the Urdu. 
Again both Musalmans and Hindus adopt it as their own ; and 
a curious phenomenon occurs, Hindi Bhasa is employed for one 
kind of literary expression, the Urdu for another ; and thus 
whenever the creative impulse of the Muslim or the Hindu runs 
in one channel he uses Hindi and when it drives him into the 
other he uses Urdu. 

Moulavi Muhammad Husain Azad in comparing Hindi and 
Urdu composition lays bare the secret. The first lends itself to 
the creation of a natural, direct, simple, sweet, unperiphres ic 
and non-exaggerated style, which is racy of the associations, 
traditions and emotions of its native soil. The second is 
involved, subtle, high-flown, throbbing with the energy of 
rhythm and the power of words, the pomp of imagery and the 
splendour of diction, and drawing its metaphors and similes 
from Persia and Turkestan. 14 Another writer, Mir Ghulam *Ali 
Azad of Bilgram says, "The creators of significance on Arabic 
and Persian have drawn blood from the arteries of thought, and 
raised the style of subtle thought to the highest stage. The 
magicians of India have not remained behind in this 
valley; on the other hand, in the art of Afoyefea Bheda (descrip- 
tions of heroines) they place their magic-making steps far in 
advance of them. Whoever has acquired both Persian and 
Hindi and fully cultivated a taste to distinguish between what ;* 
white and what is black will endorse the words of the fal&r (the 
writer), 15 

V* Muhammad Husain Azad : Abi-Hayit, pp. 2768. t 

ir> Mir Ghulam 'Ah Azad: Maisir-ul-Kiram, p. 352. * 


44 Hindustani way " 21 ; His successors so gloriously adorned and 
so marvellously enriched this legacy that India might well be 
proud today of the heritage which they in their turn have left 

21 Beveridge : Memoirs of Babar. 


RAMANANDA was the bridge between the Bhakti movement of 
the south and the north. There is a great deal of uncertainty 
with regard to the date of his birth and death. According to 
Bhandarkar 1 and Grierson, 2 he was born in 1299 A.D. 
MacaulifrV* places him between the end of the fourteenth and 
the first half of the fifteenth centuries, and Farquhar 4 agrees with 
him. Nabhaji does not give any dates ; the Agastya Samhita* 
gives the date of birth as 1299 A.D. (1356 Samvat) ; and a San- 
skrit commentary of Rahasyatrayi by Agraswami, 1299 A.D. (J 
Bhandarkar and Grierson both consider that Ramananda was 
the fourth in spiritual descent from Ramanuja. This, however, 
does not seem to be borne out by tradition. Nabhaji only says, 
44 The immortal glory of Ramanuja's system prevailed upon 
earth. Devacharya (was the first) and Hariyanand the second 
greatly renowned (teacher), from him Raghvananda came who 
gave great joy to the devotees .... From him was manifested 
Ramananda who incarnated for the joy of the world/* 7 Nabhaji 
here only mentions the names of some specially famous sa'mts 
who were in the direct line of descent from Ramanuja but does 
not name all of them. Sitaram Bhagwan Prasad* definitely 
states that Ramananda was twenty-second in descent, 
Devacharya (or Devadhipa Acharyajibeing sixth from Ramanuja, 
Hariyananda fifteenth from Devacharya, and Ramananda next 

1 Bhandarkar : Vaisnavism and Saivism. 

2 Grierson: J.R.A.S., 1920. 

3 Macauliffe : The Sikh*. Vol. VI. 

4 Farquhar : Outline of the Religious Literature ot India, p. 323. 

5 Sitaram aran Bhagawan Prasad : Bhakta Mala, p. 264. 

7 Ibid. 


to Hariyananda. If Ramanuja's date of death was 1137 A.D. 
and twenty teachers followed him before Ramananda then it is 
more likely that he was born about the end of the fourteenth 
rather than that of the thirteenth century. 

The date of hs death again is difficult to determine. 
Bhandarkar puts it at 1411 A.D. (1467 Samvat), Farquhar at 
1470 A.D. and the Sanskrit commentary at 1448 A.D. (1505 
Samvat). The date of Bhandarkar is obviously unacceptable ; 
it is incompatible with the date of his birth and the dates of 
his disciples. The date of Agraswaml gives him nearly fifty 
years of life but raises no great difficulty with regard to the dates 
of his disciples. Farquhar *s date fits all the facts easily but it 
does not appear on what authority it is based. The authors of 
the history of Hindi literature, Misra Bandhu Vinoda, vaguely 
suggest that Ramananda lived about 1456 A.D. His career 
may provisionally be accepted to lie in the last quarter of the 
fourteenth and the first half of the fifteenth centuries. 

Ramananda was born at Prayag (Allahabad) in a Kanya- 
kubja Brahmin family. He was educated partly at Prayag and 
partly at Benares. His first teacher was a Vedantist of the 
monist school, but he became later the disciple of Raghavananda 
who belonged to Ramanuja's Sri sect. He had an independent 
mind, he travelled about the country broadening . his outlook, 
and, according to 'Macauliffe, ** it is certain that Ramananda 
came in contact at Benares with learned Musalmans.*' 10 

The result of his experiences and discussions was that he 
made a bold departure from the doctrines of the school to which 
he belonged. In theological belief he substituted the worship 
of Rama for that of Kisnu and his consort, and he taught the 
doctrine of Bhakfi to all the four castes without prejudice. He 
rejected the regulations of Ramanuja with regard to the 
preparation and partaking of meals, and admitted to h's new 
sect disciples from all castes, from both sexes and even from 

8 MUra Bandhu Vinod : Ramananda. 

10 Macauliffe: The Sikhs, Vol. VI, p. 102. 


among the Musalmans. The names of his twelve disciples who 
became famous were Anantananda. Kabir, Pipa, Bhavananda, 
Sukha, Sursur, Padmavati, Narhari, Raidasa. Dhana, Saina 
and the wife of Sursura. 

Ramananda's teaching gave rise to two schools of religious 
thought, one conservative, and the other radical. The first 
remained true to ancient beliefs and allowed only slight changes 
in doctrines and rites, the other struck out a more independent 
path and attempted to create a religion acceptable to men of 
different creeds especially Hindus and Musalmans. The 
greatest name in the first class is that of Tulsldasa and in the 
second that of Kabir. These two indeed are undoubtedly the 
most remarkable men that the middle age of India produced. 
Tulsldasa is unrivalled as the saintly singer of Rama's Bhaltfi. 
He combines profound philosophy with passionate yet chaste 
and ethical emotion. He delves into the deepest recesses of the 
human heart but never completely exposes their mystery to the 
common gaze. Yet he knows the varying moods of man and 
nature and by his directness and simplicity appeals to all, 
young and old, ignorant and learned. He is essentially humble 
and therefore touchingly humane. He :s completely wrapped 
up in his devotion and utterly lacking in self-conscious or self- 
righteous sentiment. He is like a natural perennial mountain 
spring which bubbles with the waters of pure sweet joy and 
slakes the thirst of those who are weary and heavy laden with 
the sorrow of the world. 

Kabir is a genius of a different order. He has gazed into 
the mystery of life and seen the vision of the ineffable light. 
He brings from the world of beyond a new message for the 
individual and for society. He dreams of a future purified of 
insincerities, untruths, uglinesses, inequalities ; he preaches a 
religion based on the only foundation on which faith can stand, 
namely, personal experience. He brushes unhesitatingly aside 
the whole paraphernalia of dogma and authority, for his soul i 
sicjc of the sorry spectacle of the quarrels of creeds and the 
wnralim of empty shells of formal religions. He tolerates no 


shams and demands reality in the search after God. Kabir is 
no retiring ascetic who has abandoned the world in despair, 
nor is he an Idealiser who finds good in all things, he is eager 
to lift the sword in the moral struggle of the world and strike a 
doughty blow for the victory of reghteousztess, and he is not 
afraid of administering stern even harsh rebuke to all infringe- 
ments of rational conduct and all degradations of human dignity. 
He is a mighty warner, an intrepid pathfinder, the great pioneer 
of the unity of the Hindu and Muslim communities of India and 
the apostle of the faith of Humanity who taught that " the 
divine disclosed itself in the human race as a whole.'* 11 

Kablr's life is shrouded in obscurity. Different writers give 
different dates of his birth and death. According to MacaulUe, 12 
whose date is accepted by Bhandarkar, he was born in 1398 
A.D. (1455Samvat); but according to Westcott, 1 * who 's followed 
by Farquhar, Burns and others, the date of his birth was 1440 
A.D. The Hindi authors do not give clear guidance. The 
editor of the Santa BaiiTi Sangraha 14 gives 1398 A.D. as the date 
of birth and 1518 as that of death. Si tar am Saran Bhagvan 
Prasad 15 quotes a Doha which gives 1492 A.D. (1549 Samvat) 
as the date of death and says that Kabir lived for a hundred and 
one years. Excepting the last writer most of the others agree 
in assigning 1518 as the date of death. There ,is however 
no adequate reason for preferring 1518 to 1492. If the 
latter date is accepted as that of death, and 1398 A.D. 
as that of birth, the total length of life comes to ninety- 
four years which is unusual but not impossible. These 
dates however make Kabir a contemporary of Ramananda, 
and in this respect contradict the tradition according 

11 Evelyn Underbill : The Mystic Way. p. 25. 
i^Macauliffe: Op. cit., Vol. VI. 

13 Westcott : Kabir and Kabir Panth. 

uSant Bam Sangrah, Vol. I, p. I. 

1 15$itirlm Saran Bhagwin Prasad : Bhakta Mala, p. 474. 


to which he was a mere youth when he became the 
latter 's cLsciple. In any case it is difficult to hold to the year 
1398 as that of Kabir's birth. If Kabir was about eighteen 
years of age at the time of his initiation and remained under 
the tutelage for three or four years which may be surmised 
from the fact that Ramananda passes out of Kabir's legends 
quite early and leaves only a shadowy impression upon the 
development of his ideas, the year 1425 may be fixed as much 
as any other for the date of his birth. This subtracted from 
the year 1492 gives a Ufe of sixty-seven years which is eminently 
reasonable, or from the year 1518 it gives him ninety-three 

Kabir was the son of a Brahmin widow who 'in order to 
hide her shame left him on the side of a tank in Benares. He 
was found by a weaver Niru and his wife Nfma who adopted 
him. Kabir spent the years of his childhood in the house of his 
Musl'.m parents, who were very poor and were unable to give 
him regular education. He was left more or less to his own 
devices, except that he learnt his father's profession. In the city 
of Benares, surrounded by the Hindu atmosphere and endowed 
with a keen and enquiring mind, he early became familiar with 
both the Hindu and the Muslim religions. It is related that even 
as a boy he showed such freedom from bias, that both Hindu 
and Muslim boys misunderstood him and persecuted him. He 
soon began to seek for a teacher, and, according to Muhsbi 
Fan!, "at the time when he was in search of a spiritual guide, 
he visited the best of the Musalmans and Hindus, but did not 
find what he sought, at last somebody gave him direction to 
an old man of bright genius, *he Brahman Ramananda/' 10 
Thus he became the disciple of Ramananda. Kabir himself 
says, " I was revealed in Kasi, and was awakened by Rama- 
nanda/* 17 He initiated him in the knowledge of Hindu philo- 
sophy and religion. 

to Troyer and Shea : Dabistan-i-Mazahib, p. 186. 

17 Kabir: Bijak, Raroiini, p. 77. , * 


It appears however that he did not rema.'n long with his 
teacher, for tradition finds him soon after wandering from place 
to place and associating with ascetics and saints. He spent 
considerable time in the company of Muslim Sufis. Of this 
he speaks in a Rdmairii, * * Manikpur was the dwelling place 
of Kabir, where for long he listened to Shaikh Taqi. The 
same (teaching) he heard at J aim pur, and at Jhusi (near 
Allahabad) he learnt the names of the Pirs (Muslim preceptors). 
In that place they have a record of twenty-one Pirs who read 
the prayers (khutba) in the name of the Prophet." 1 * 

The knowledge which Kabir acquired from his teachers 
was all imparted by word of mouth. It is almost certain that 
he never learnt to use books and he does not display 
acquaintance with the learned languages Persian or Sanskrit, 
although he uses freely the technical terms of Sufism and Hindu 
philosophy. However, learning and scholarship have not been, 
the objects which men, drunk with the love of God, have 
principally placed before themselves ; and Kabir, whose mind 
was saturated with Hindu and Muslim traditions and theories 
of knowledge, could not accept learning as an end. He was 
a seeker after higher knowledge (para vidyd), gnosis (m'ari/af), 
which he later became satisfied he had attained. History has 
kept records of the struggles and achievements of an ancient 
predecessor of Kabir, viz., Buddha, but is entirely silent 
regarding him. It $s under the circumstnaces impossible to g've 
a consecutive account of the various events of his life. 

After the period of his apprenticeship was over he settled 
down as a teacher at Benares. His teaching was of so 
independent a character that both Hindus and Muslims were 
greatly offended, and they tried to suppress him by all the 
means which priestcraft with its vested interests has employed 
in all the ages. There were in the beginning bitter and 
prolonged discussions and petty persecutions, and when they 
failed the aid of the State was invoked. Lgend has thrown 

l 18 Ibid., Kabir, Bijak, Ramaini, p. 48. 


a veil woven of marvellous occurrences and miraculous escapes 
round the actual facts, but this much may be probable that 
Sikandar Lodi (1488 1517), impressed by the simple earnestness 
of Kabir, allowed him to get out of the hands of the Pandits and 
Maulvis persecuting him by a temporary exile. Kabir's 
teaching was so much akin to the then prevailing Sufi 
antinomianism that it could have hardly appeared to him 
deserving of severe punishment. He soon returned to Benares 
and was not molested any further. He won many followers 
among both communities and his fame spread all over the land. 
The private life of Kabir was a simple householder's (grihastha). 
He did not believe in extreme asceticism and abstraction from 
the world. He married a girl named LoT whom he met on the 
banks of the Ganges in the hermitage of a Virdgi, and by 
her he had one son named Kamal, and one daughter Kamali. 
He continued his profession of weaving and his pictures 
represent him sitting by the loom instructing his disciples. Some 
of the finest illustrations for his teaching are drawn from this 
art in wh'lch he was engaged, and by which he earned his 
living. His departure from the world was characteristic of the 
man. When he felt that his end was approach ng he left 
KasI the city whose holiness was considered so great as to 
confer paradise on those who died there, and migrated to 
Maghar where death entailed rebirth as an ass. This gesture of 
supreme contempt for ignorant superstition was the last act of 
his strenuous life. It is related that on his death Hindus and 
Muslims quarrelled as to the method of disposing the body 
Muslims desiring to bury him and Hindus to cremate. The 
quarrel is significant, for it shows that Kabir's faith was so 
broad and impartial that Hindus and Muslims could both claim 
him as their own ; it also shows that although both reverenced 
and admired the man both failed to rise to his message. But 
where have not the disciples betrayed their Master? 

What was Kabir's message? In the words of Nabhaji, 
" Kabir refused to acknowledge caste distinctions or to recogn se 
the authority of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, nor dil 


he set any store by the four divisions of life prescribed by 
Brahmins. He held that religion without Bhakti was no 
religion at all, and that asceticism, fasting and alms-giving had 
no value if unaccompanied by Bhajan (devotional worship). 
By means of Ramdini, Shabdas and Sdltfiis he imparted religious 
instruction to Hindus and Musalmans alike. He had no 
preference for either religion, but gave teaching that was 
appreciated by the followers of both. He spoke his mind 
fearlessly and never made it his object merely to please hfis 
hearers." 10 

The mission of Kablr was to preach a religion of love which 
would unite all castes and creeds. He rejected those features 
of Hinduism and Islam which were against this spirit, and 
which were of no importance for the real spiritual welfare of 
the individual. He selected from both religions their common 
elements, and the similarities between them. He found 
analogies in their philosophic ideas, their dogma and ritual. 
He used both Sanskrit and Persian terms an.d both forms of 
the vernacular, Ret^hta and Hindi bhdsd. He placed the greatest 
value upon the inwardness of religion and impartially condemned 
the external formalism of both. He deliberately abandoned lie 
divisions between the two faiths and taught a middle path : 

** The Hindu resorts to the temple and the Musalman to 
the mosque, but Kablr goes to the place where both are known. 
The two religions (din) are like two branches in the middle of 
which there is a sprout surpassing them. Kablr has taken the 
higher path abandoning the custom of the two. If you say 
that I am a H.ndu then it is not true, nor am I a Musalman ; 
I am a body made of five elements where the Unknown (ghaibi) 
plays. Mecca has verily became Kasi, and Rama has become 

Kablr was conscious of his apostolic mission and his life 
and teaching followed the line which is analogous to that of 

lOSltaram aran Bhagwan Prasad : Bhakta Mala, p. 461. f 

20 g Yugalanan<l : Kablr Sahib Kl Sakhi. Madhya Ka Anga. 


the Imams and Shaikhs of Shi 'ah and Sufi sects: " I am the 
servant of the Absolute (avigat) God and I have come to save 
the devotees (hamsa). I have taught to the world by word of 
mouth the knowledge which has the true stamp. I was sent 
here because the world was seen in misery, all were bound in 
chains of birth and death and no one had found the lasting 
home. The Almighty sent me to show clearly the beginning 
and the end."- 1 After discussing the creation of the world 
from Sruti, he says, " 1 came after that in order to spread the 
true word .... 1 have taught the word from rlouse to house. 
Those who will not listen to me, they will surely be drowned 
in the ocean of existence, in the midst of eighty-four lakh 
currents .... This, says the awakened teacher Kablr, is the 
decree (jarman) of the Almighty."- 2 And aga'n, ** Those who 
will not listen to my teaching will go to the gates of Yama, but 
those who will listen they will come to my abode (sal vat' on). '*-''* 
Dharam Dasa, his immediate disciple, completes the similarity^ 
by deifying Kablr, '* He is an incarnation of the Absolute, who 
revealed himself to the world/*- 4 

The expression of Kabir's teachings was shaped by that 
of Sufi saints and poets. In the Hindi language he had no 
precursor, and the only models which he could follow woro 
Muslim ones, e.g., Pandnama of Farid-ud-dm * Attar ; a 
comparison of the headings of the poems of both brings 
that out clearly. He must also have heard the poems of 
Jalal-ud-dm Rum! and Sa*d! besides the teachings of other Sufis, 
for there are echoes of them in his works. For instance, 
"when you came into the world the people laughed but you 
wept, do not conduct yourself in a manner that after your 
(death) people should laugh at you," 25 is a paraphrase of the 
well-known lines of Sa'di. And further he says : 

2lJCabir: Siddhant Dlpika, Adi Man gal. 

22 Ibid. 

23 Ibid., p. 81. 

2* Dharam Dasa : A&anga Yoga. ^ 

25 Yugalanand : Op. cit., p. 72. 


" This always is a bubble (hubab) on the motionless sea, 
the bubble is essentially the sea, although seemingly the wave, 
the sea and the vision are separate. It is a bubble when it rises, 
but in its mingling its aim is God. Both the bubble and the sea 
are Kablr, and all other names are unmeaning." 26 

I am not the follower of law (dharma) nor am I without 
law, 1 am not an ascetic nor a devotee of desire. I am not a 
speaker, nor a listener, I am not a servant nor a master. I am 
not bound nor am 1 free, nor am I engaged in worldly pursuits, 
1 never parted from any, nor am I a companion of any. I do 
not go to hell nor do I proceed to heaven. I am the doer of 
all actions, yet I am different from them." 27 

"There is no place to go to nor is there room to stay." 28 
He often compares the relation of the individual with God as 
that of waves and the sea, and he uses the same simile to 
represent the essential oneness of the Universe and the Absolute 
which Jill and other Muslim mystics have used. ** As ice is 
made from water, and as ice will become water and vapour, 
so is the reality from that, and therefore this and that are the 
same." 20 He frequently speaks of the wine and the cup of 
love, 30 of the lover (* dshiq, habib) and the beloved (ma's/iuq, 
mahbub),'" of the rose and the garden, 3 - of the path, its stations 
(muqdm) and its difficulties, of the traveller (musafir) and of his 

All these quotations prove that he was greatly indebted to 
Suli literature, but if his writings do not show more coincidences 
in phraseology, it is not due to the fact that his familiarity with 

26 KabTr : Cyan Gudri and Rekhta, No. 48. 

27 Kshiti Mohan Sen : KabTr, Vol. Ill, pp. 66, 67. 
2* Yugalanand : Op. cit., Suksma Marg Ka Anga. 

29 K. M. Sen: Op. cit. Vol. II, p. 74. 

30 Ganga Praaad Varma : Bijak. Kabir, abda, 12. 

31 KabTr : Cyan Gudri and Rekhta, No. 54. 
KabTr : Siddhant Dipika, p. 69. 

22 KabTr : Cyan Gudri and Rekhta, NOB. 53, 55. 


their thought was less, but because he was not a man of learning 
and therefore while he absorbed the ideas he could not retain 
the Persian lines complete in his mind. Yet Ahmad Shah the 
translator of his Bijak found over two hundred Arabic and 
Persian words in the work, and an analysis of these words 
shows how deeply his mind was imbued with Sufi doctrines. 
The main proof of Muslim influence on Kabir, however, lies in 
his teaching and to that it is necessary to advert. 

Kabir left behind him a vast mass of poetry in many 
metres. His compositions were all orally communicated, ** he 
did not touch ink or paper and never held a pen." : * :J In such 
circumstances many others added to the great teacher's words, 
and therefore it is difficult to say how far his works exactly 
represent his teaching. The Bijak (the invoice or seed) was 
compiled by Bhago Dasa, Sukh Nidhan by Srut-Gopala Dasa. 
In the headquarters of the Kabir Panthls at Kabir Chaura at 
Benares there exists a collection of twenty-one books called Khas 
Granth (The Special Book, or The Book). The correct list of 
books is given by Wilson, but Westcott has swollen their number 
to eighty-two, by counting some twice over and by including 
modern compilations. Kabir used the Bhdsd in preference to 
Sanskrit, for he wanted his teaching to spread among the masses, 
and any work composed in the learned language could reach 
only the few. He felt however the need to justify his departure 
and so said, ** Sanskrit is indeed the water of the well, but 
Bhasa (the Hindi language) is like the running river." 84 He 
employed, however, both forms of the Bhdsd, i.e., the 
Sanskritised Hindi and the Persianised Urdu, and some of his 
works are in the latter, for example, Rekhta. 

Kabir is not a systematic philosopher but a poet and mystic 
and his language is not always clear. There is therefore some 
difficulty in analysing his thought, but the main lines are clear. 
His central theme is God, whom he indifferently calls by many 

33 Vishwanath Singh : Bijak Kabir Das Satfk, Sakhl 187. 

94 Yugalanand : Kabir Sakhl, Bkate Ka Anga, . 


names Rama, Hari, Gotiinda, Brahma, Samrath, Sa'in, 
Satpurusa, Bechun (the Indescribable), Allah, Khudd, but his 
favourite name is Sahib. His conception of God is extremely 
subtle ; according to him God is transcendent and immanent, 
impersonal and personal, infinite and finite, without qualities and 
qualified, the non-being and the being, the unconscious and the 
conscious, neither manifest nor hidden, neither one nor two, 
both within and without, and yet above and beyond all pairs of 
opposites. It is this difficulty of adequately expressing God's 
nature which makes him exclaim, 

Oh, how may I ever express that secret word? 
Oh, how can I say He is not like this, and He is 

like that? .... 
There are no words to tell that which He is. 1 ' 1 ' 15 

This inadequacy of the ordinary human consciousness to 
hold in one moment the entire view of the total reality does 
not drive him to despair, for his mind has attained certainty 
through a direct vision in the unitive state, when his expanded 
consciousness saw " the Lord in me and in you " and in all 
things and beyond in one magistral survey in which the logical 
antinomies fused and were transcended. 

** Between the poles of the conscious and the unconscious 

there has the mind made a swing ; 
Thereon hang all beings and all worlds, and that 

swing never ceases its sway. 
Millions of beings are there ; the sun and moon in 

their courses are there, 

Millions of ages pass and the swing goes on, 
All swing ! the sky and the earth, and the air and 

the water, 

And the Lord Himself taking form/* 30 

35 Rabindra Nath Tagore : Kablr's Poems, JX. 
3 Ibid., XVI. 


His vision of dynamic reality is vouchsafed to few. It is 
impossible to see it by the light of ordinary reason, for the 
analytical intellect is the cause of separation, and ** the house 
of reason is very far away."-'* 7 

It is necessary however to give to the ordinary man partial 
views separately and lead him on by demonstrating their 
inadequacy and the intellect's futility to the ecstatic condition in 
which the reality is fully known. This explains why Kabir 
speaks of God sometimes as transcendent. ** The Absolute 
(Para-Bra h ma), the Supreme Soul (Purusa) dwells beyond tl*e 
beyond, " :{s or as Pure Essence (Pdk Dhat) at other times as 
identical with all beings. " He Himself is the true, the seed 1 and 
the germ. He Himself is the flower, the fruit and the shade, H<? 
Himself is Brahma, creature and Maya " 4 and again as existent 
within every heart. ** m every vessel He is revealed."^ 1 Bvt 
more usually he holds that the nature and essence of God n 
Light, herein betraying his deep debt to the Sufis. " See the 
ocean-filling One Light (nur) which spreads in the whole 
creation," 4 - and, " Thy Light (nur) fills all," and, " The Light 
is covering, the Light is the seat, the Light is the pillow." 
Says Kabir, " hear, O brother saints, the True Teacher (God) 
is completely Light (nur.)" 44 

Kabir gives several accounts of how the universe came 
into existence. Some of these accounts are based on ancient 
Hindu cosmogonies, others are apparently taken from Islam. 
Of the first set one example is in the first Rdmdrnl, a slightly 

37Rabindra Nath Tagorc : Kabir's Poems, XCVII. 

38 Kabir : Rekhta, No. 36. 

39 Ibid., No. 41. 

40R a bindra Nath Tagorc: Op. cit., VII. 
41 K. M. Sen: Op. cit., Vol. II. p. 105. 
42KabTr: Rekhta. No. 35. 
43 K. M. Sen : Op. cit, Vol. II, p. 66. 
4* Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 55. 


modified one in the second Rdmdirjii, and a fully developed one 
m the Adi Mangal. The first Rdmcitfi may be rendered thus : 

In the beginning Jwa (soul) existed. The Internal light 
illuminated it. Then was manifested will (ichchhd) which was 
called Gayatri. That woman produced Brahma, VISQU and 
Mahesa. Then Brahma asked the woman who was her 
husband, and whose wife she was. She replied, * 4 Thou art I, 
I am thou, and there is no third. Thou art my husband, and 
I am thy wife." The father and son had a common wife, and 
one mother has a twofold character ; there is r\p son who is a 
good son and who will endeavour to recognise his father. 45 

In the second Rdmairfi after Brahma is created, he carries 
on the next stages of creation by bringing into being an eg? 
from which the fourteen regions are developed, and then Brahma, 
Vi&nu (Hari) and the Mahesa (Hara) preside over the universe. 
In the Adi Mangal, in the Almighty, who in the beginning was 
alone, first appears knowledge (sruti), from this comes the word 
(sabda) and from Sabda five Brahmans and five breaths and from 
them the whole creation according to the Sdnkhyan system. 

The first Rdmdini has a curious resemblance with similar 
notions of Jill and Badruddin Shahid. 40 Both Kabir and Jill 
seem to mean, that soul (jiva or ruh) is the object of divine 
knowledge, God as the centre of scul is its father, yet God 
becomes the object of knowledge and therefore the son of soul. 
The account of the sacred Rdmdint may be compared 1 with 
Jill's cosmological myth. Kabir and Jill start with one God 
who was Himself before creation. Then He created the idea 
of ideas (haqlqat-al-haqaiq) or word (sabda). From Sabda 
comes Brahma who creates an egg (the white chrysolite of Jili), 
from which evolve the fourteen regions (the seven heavens and 
the seven earths). 47 

45 Kabir: Bljak, Ramaini, I. 

40 Nicholson : Studies in Islamic Mysticism. 

JlKabtr: Bljak, Ramaini II. 


In other places Kabir makes an attempt to reproduce the 
scheme of nine spheres through which creation develops in 
accordance with Muslim philosophy. The Panfl Mangal give* 
the list of nine regions and their presiding forces, but does not 
mention the names of the planets or regions. Sometimes he 
speaks of creation in such terms : " In the sky He was seated 
meditating behind closed doors, then He saw his own image 
and thereby the three became pleased.*' 48 This seems like an 
echo of Ibn Sina's theory. Two other speculations occur in 
the Siddhdnta Dipifed, in one everything is created from water, 
"The whole universe is bodied forth from water, out of the 
essence of water it is kneaded. The seven heavens and 
fourteen regions all are sieved out of water and dissolved in it. 
The ten Avatars, Pirs and Paighambars (prophets) are all made 
of water.'* 49 In the other, creation is likened to a mechanical 
process, ** the Artisan is a wonderful smith, who has made 
innumerable things." 1 " 10 

The individual soul was in the Supreme Being before 
creation, it came into existence when His Light illumined it. 
The first created was the female principle Sabda whose offspring 
were distinct individuals. This distinction however is unreal, 
I and thou are of one blood and are one life." 51 Kabir 
recognised individuality and yet did not forget the unity that 
lies behind and thus he avoided an atomic view of personality. 
He says : 

" O friend, this body is His Lyre ; 

He tightens its strings, and draws from it the 

melody of Brahma, 

If the strings snap and the keys slacken, then to dust 
must the instrument of dust return ; 

Kabir says : none but Brahma can evoke its melodies. ** 52 

48 Yugalanand : Op. cit., JyotI Ka Anga. 

49 Kabir : SicWHanta Dlpika, p. 44. 
5* Ibid., p. 46. 

rKabTr: Bijak, Ramami, H. 


The destiny of the individual, according to Kabir, is 
ultimate realisation of union with God. Nothing short of it is 
adequate, paradise will not satisfy him, for 

** As long as you expect paradise (tfaifcunf/ia) 

So long will you delay dwelling at the feet of 
the Lordss 

and, " Paradise and hell are only for the ignorant, not for 
one who knows Hari." 54 

For the attainment of the goal it is of the utmost importance 
to select a teacher (guru). In the Pantha (way, sect) of Kabir, 
the Guru holds the same position as in any other Sufi order. If 
it is true of the Sufis that * among them the worship of God 
is the same as the worship of man,* it is equally applicable 
here, for says Kablr, 

** Consider the Guru as Gotiinda (God) " 55 ; 
nay more, 

** If Hari becomes angry still there is some chance, but 
if the Guru is angry then there is no chance 
whatever." 58 

And as among Sufi orders so in Kabir Pantha. 

" The real meditation (dhuana, dhikr) is of the Guru's form, 
the real worship is of the Guru's feet. The real boat is the 
Guru's word, which in essence and feeling is true/' 57 and ** in 
the three worlds and nine regions none is greater than the 
Guru."** 8 

03 Kablr : Siddhanta Dipika, p. 54. 

54 K. M. Sen: Op. cit., Vol. U. 12. 

55 Yugalanand : Op. cit., Guru Deva Ka Anga. p. 4. 

54 Ibid., p. 6. 

Jfrlbid., p. 8. 6 

58 Yuffalanand : Op. cit., Guru &ya Parakh, p. 8. 


It is essential then to exercise the greatest discretion in 
selection. ** The Guru should be a polisher (siqtigar) who 
would polish the mind, and who would clear away the stains 
and make the heart a mirror/' 50 If the Guru is not of the right 
sort then it is a case of * the blind pushing the blind and of 
both falling into the well/ m ' While those who have no Guru, 
' their efforts will be of no avail/ 01 and * they will be washed 
away by the current who do not take hold of the arms/ 02 

The teacher directs the devotee upon the path, which is 
the discipline of the soul. The end of the discipline is to 
die to self in order to live in God. ** He is a rare saint who 
dies when living/' 03 There are then two aspects of the 
contemplative life of the mystic. First, he must die to the things 
of the world, and gain complete control over passion and desire. 
His mind must cease to be the monkey of the soul, and his self 
must cease to be a prostitute devoted to many men/ The 
preliminary step is complete trust in God. His heart is like wax. 
He is merciful (daydlu), and gracious (miharban), and, therefore, 
he who seeks His protection (saran) is never disappointed. 
Then by constant repetition of His name, not merely * by 
revolving the rosary in the hand, but by revolving the beads of 
the mind/ 64 by indifference, * feeling neither pain nor pleasure,' 
by suppressing the five evil tendencies of the mind, by abandon- 
ing anger and pride, by the acquisition of humility, poverty, 
patience and discrimination, the self is effaced. 

The dying to self did not mean to Kabir complete retire- 
ment from the world and betaking to hills and forests. ** O 
Saints, He who brings self-forgetfulness into his house, I like 
that man. Both meditation (Yoga) and pleasure (Bhoga) are in 
the house (householder's life), one need not abandon the house 

50 Yiigalanand : Op. cit., Guru deva Ka Anga, p. 5. 
<*0 Yugalanand : Op. cit., Satgur deva Ka Anga, p. 9. 

61 Yugalanand : Op. cit., Nirgun Ka Anga, p. 23. 

62 ibid., p. 24. 

. M. Sen: Op. cit., Vol. iH, p. 19. 

Yugalanand : Op. cit., Smaran Ka Anga, p. 31. 


in order to go to a forest/* 65 Kablr himself stayed at home and 
worked as a weaver. The dying to self meant waging a 
constant war with one's senses. Kabir calls upon the devotee 
" Lay hold on your sword, and join in the fight, 
Fight, O my brother, as long as life lasts .... 
In the field of this body a great war goes forward 

against passion, anger, pride and greed, 
It is in the kingdom of truth, contentment, and purity 
that this battle is raging, and the sword that rings 
forth most loudly is the sword of His name." 00 

The end of the struggle is thus described : 

** The man who is kind and who practises righteousness, 
who remains passive amidst the affairs of the 
world, who considers all creatures on earth as his 
own self. 

He attains the immortal being, the True God is ever 
with him." 07 

The other aspect of the discipline is living in God. The 
devotee must realise, *' one love it is that pervades the whole 
world." 68 He must realise that God is near. 

" Where dost thou seek me, O slave. I am indeed near 
these, I am not in the temple, nor in the mosque, 
neither in Ka'ba, nor Kailds. If thou art a true 
seeker I shall meet thee immediately in a moment's 
search. Says Kalblr, hear, ye Sddhus, He is in the 
breath of breaths." 69 

He must realise that God is not Han or Ram or Kri.?ria, 
He transcends all conception. He is without body or form, yet 

or, K. M. Sen: Op. cit, Vol. 1, 65. 
eeRabindra Nath Tagore : Op. cit., XXXV1J. 
67 Ibid., LXV. 

6RRabindra Nath Tagore. * 

. M. Sen: Op. cit, Vol. I, 13. 


He is most intimate of Beings. He is the Supreme Painter (rang 
rezwd), the world is His picture, He is the great sportsman, the 
universe is His sport, but above all He is the Father, the Lover 
and the Husband (pritam). The individual must seek Him as 
the son, the beloved or the spouse, and he must not rest till he 
has attained union with Him. 

If the Muslim mystic speaks of God as the tender maid 
and the wine-giver (Saqi), and of the dark hair, the shapely neck, 
the gazelle eyes and the lovely gestures which all symbolise 
His surpassing beauty, Kabfr thinks of Him as the Spouse, for 
whom the wife abandons her home, her name and honour, goss 
out in the night though it may be ever so dark and though storm 
and rain may impede her path. Like the Sufi he too invites 
his fellow-travellers to inebriate themselves with the wine of 
love and throw worldly discretion to the winds. 

The devotee who desires the mystic union must firmly set 
forward upon the path. It is like walking on the keen edge of 
a sword. There are many disappointments, and terrible 
obstacles. * The clouds gather, the evening falls, the rain pours 
down, the fourfold blanket becomes wetter and wetter and the 
burden gets heavier and heavier * 70 and * walking, walking the 
feet are aching.' 71 Kablr experienced all the conditions (hdl) 
which the Sufis describe : contrition (pachhtdwa) and sorrow 
(Ju^Ji), hope (dsd) and fear (durdsd), intimacy in contemplating 
His beauty (jamdl) and awe at His majesty (jalal), violence 
(qahr) and kindness (mihr), separation (virahd) and union 
(mi/an), absence (ghaibat) and presence (hudhur), amazement 
(hairat, chigungl or oharam), and satisfaction (bharam uidhwan*). 
He describes the journey of the self within the self in the very 
terms which Mansur al Hallaj used so early as the tenth century. 
Says he, " Abandoning the actions pertaining to humanity 
(nasuf), one sees the sphere of the angels (ma/.afeuf); then leaving 
even the sphere of majesty (jabarut) one gets the vision of 

^OKablr: Bljak, Ramaini 15 (Ahmad Shah's translation). 

71 Ibid., 16. 


divinity (lahut); but when these four are left behind then comes 
hahut t where there is no death or separation and where Yama 
finds no entrance.*' 72 He knew the correct significance of each 
one of these terms and he expresses it in two terse lines : 

" Humanity (Ndsut) is darkness, Malakut is angelic, in 
Jabarut shines the Majestic Light (Nur /a/a/), in 
Lahut one finds the Beautiful Light (Nur Jama!) and 
in Hahut is the dwelling place of Truth (Haqf). 73 

In the Das Muqami Rekhta (the poem describing the ten 
stations) Kabir in his own way reproduces the whole story of 
Muhammad's Mirdj as developed in later Muslim tradition. It 
is, of course, symbolic of the path which the saint follows in 
his inward flight towards the ineffable goal " like the butterfly 
towards the light." This goal has been described in many 
beautiful poems by Kabir ; just one may be given here in the 
rendering of Rabindranath Tagore to illustrate his conception 
of the mystic regions to which the saint rises. 

" There falls the rhythmic beat of life and death ; 
Rapture wells forth, and all space is radiant with light, 

There the unstruck music is sounded ; it is the 

music of the love of three worlds. 

There millions of lamps of sun and of moon are 


There the drum beats, and the lover swings in play, 
There love-songs resound, and light rains in showers ; 

And the worshipper is entranced in the taste of the 

heavenly nectar. 

Look upon life and death ; there is no separation 

between them. 

The right hand and the left hand are one and the same 
Kabir says, There the wise man is speechless ; for 
'this truth may never be found in Vedas or in books/' 74 

72 Kabir: Rekhta, No. 22; Siddhanta Dipika, p. 15. 

< 73 Kabir : SiddhSnta DTpika, p. 14. 

r * 

74 Rabindranath Tagore: Op. cit., XVII. 


In this sorrowless region. Spring the lord of seasons reigns, 
the woods are ever a-bloom and the fragrant scent " He is I " 
is borne ,on the wind. There the Lord stands self -revealed and 
the goal of the long and weary search is at last reached. 

Thus did Kabir turn the attention of India to a religion of 
the universal path ; a road was laid out which both could 
tread together. No Hindu or Muslim could take exception to 
such a religion. This was the constructive part of Kablr's 
mission. But it had a destructive side also. It was impossible 
to build a new road without clearing away the jungle which 
obstructed the ancient footpaths. Kabir therefore attacked with 
fearless indignation and in trenchant language the whole 
apparatus of externalia which obscured the truth or separated 
the Indian communities from one another. He spared neither 
the Hindu nor the Musalman. 

He asked the Hindus to give up what every reformer since 
the days of Buddha had insisted upon ceremonial, sacrifice, 
lust for magical powers, lip worship, repetition of formulae, 
pilgrimages, fasts, worship of idols, gods and goddesses. 
Brahmin supremacy, caste differences, prejudices concerning 
touchability and food. He openly condemned the doctrine of 
incarnations : ** The Creator did not marry Slta nor did He 
make a stone bridge across the waters," and " they say the 
Lord of the world finding inequalities of the weak and the strong 
came as Rama. But Kabir says, before such a one (Rama) 
who took birth and died, I cannot bend my head." 70 Again, 
"the ten incarnations that people talk about do not concern me, 
they are merely the reapers of the fruits of their actions, but 
the Creator* is some one else." 77 

It is difficult to say how far he 
of Metempsychosis. There are 

75 Kabir : Salxia 8. 
T 6 Yugalanand : Op. cit., Avatar 
* 77 K. M, Sen: Vol. II, p. 37. 


appears to have repudiated it ** the soul (jiyard) is a guest 
which will not come a second time/* 78 and, " birth as man is 
not easy to obtain, it does not happen a second time, when the 
ripe fruit falls it does not again get attached to the tree/* 79 
Again, " all go from this side taking their burdens with them, 
no one returns from the other side, who could tell the tale." 80 
There are other passages where he speaks of the eighty-four 
lakhs of births, and of unceasing coming and going. It appears, 
however, that he uses the fear of death (yam a and fea/a) and 
of remorseless chain of birth and death more or less as warnings 
for men to deter them from their ungodly lives. He does no" 
expatiate on the doctrine of Karma which is indissolubly linked 
with Metempsychosis, and his whole attention seems to be 
concentrated upon the here and now, rather than on the here- 
after and future. 

He asks the Musalmans to give up their exclusiveness, 
their blind trust in one Prophet and his book, their externalism 
in the performance of rites pilgrimage to Mecca, fast and 
regulated prayers, their worship or saints (aulia and pirs) and 
prophets (paigambar). 

He asks both Hindus and Muslims to have reverence for 
all living creatures and to abstain from bloodshed. He asks 
them both to give up pride whether of birth or position, to 
give up extremes of asceticism and worldliness, and to consider 
life as a dedication : 

I shut not my eyes, I close not my ears, I do not 

mortify my body ; 

I see with eyes open and smile, and behold His 

beauty* everywhere ,. 

Whatever I do, it becomes His worship. 
All I achieve is His service." 81 

78Kabir: Bijak (Ganga Prasad Varma's Edition), Sak hi 10. 
78 Ibid., Sakhl 115. 
so Ibid., Sakhl 226. 
' 81 K. M. Sen: Op. cit, Vol. I, p. 76 


He repeats again and again that Hindus and Muslims are 
one, they worship the same God, they are children of the same 
Father, and they are made of the same blood. ** All the men 
and women that are created are Your form, Kabir is the son 
of Allah and Rdma, He is his Guru and Pir." 82 And, ** The 
Hindu and Turk have one path which the True Teacher has 
pointed out ; says Kabir, hear, ye saints, say Rdma or say 
Khudd." 83 And, '* the religion of those who understand is one. 
whether they are Pandits or Shaikhs .'* s4 Naturally it pains him 
to find, 

Hindus call upon Rama, the Musalmans on Rahimdn, 
yet both fight and kill each other, and none knows the truth. "** 
Kabir's was the first attempt to reconcile Hinduism and 
Islam ; the teachers of the south had absorbed Muslim elements, 
but Kablr was the first to come forward boldly to proclaim 
a religion of the centre, a middle path, and his cry was taken 
up all over India and was re-echoed from, a hundred places. 
He had numerous Hindu and Muslim disciples, and today his 
sect numbers a million. At Kabir Chaura in Benares they 
gather every year, and at Maghar the Muslim followers 
congregate to keep fresh his memory. But it is not the number 
of his following which is so important, it is his influence which 
extends to the Panjab, Gujarat and Bengal and which continued 
to spread under the Moghul rule, till a wise sovereign correctly 
estimating its value attempted to make it a religion approved 
by the State. Akbar's Din-i-Ilahi was not an isolated freak of 
an autocrat who had more power than he knew how to employ, 
but an inevitable result of the forces which were deeply 
surging in India's breast, and finding expression in the teachings 
of men like Kabir. Circumstances thwarted that attempt, but 
destiny still points towards the same goal. 

82 K. M. Sen: Op. cit., Vol. 111. p. 23. 

83 Kabir: Bijak, Sabda 10. 

84 Yugalanand : Op- cit.. Parfchha Ka Anga. 

. M. Sen: Op. cit.. Vol. I. p. 6. 


THE Panjab was on the highway along which Muslim arms and 
culture passed into India. In the fifteenth century the province 
had longer been under Muslim rule than any other. Its towns 
and villages were honeycombed with Muslim saints and faqlrs. 
Panipat, Sirhind, Pakpattan, Multan and Uchh were places 
where famous Sufi Shaikhs had spent their lives, and the names 
of Baba Farid, 'Ala'-ul-Haq, Jalal-ud-Dln Bukhari, Makhdum 
Jahaniyan, Shaikh Isma'il Bukhari, had become household words 
for piety and devotion. The ferment in the minds of men set 
up by them prepared the intellectual milieu in which a 
synthesis of ideas could take place. 

In the district of Gujranwala, in the Tahsil of Sharkpur, is 
the small village of Talwandf which is situated on the banks of 
the river Ravi. Rai Bular, a BhattI Rajput, was the lord of 
this village, and he had a Bed! Khatri as an accountant whose 
name was Mehta Kalu Chand. The accountant was held in 
respect by the villagers and also by the Rai. On the full-moon 
day of Kartik (November) 1469 A.D. the Mehta was blessed 
with a son. His family priest gave him the name of Nanak, 
a name common to both Hindus and Musalmans. At the age 
of seven he was sent to school to learn Hindi, two years later 
to study Sanskrit, and shortly after to Mulla Qutb-ud-Dm to 
learn Persian. It is difficult to say how much he profited by the 
teaching of the Pandit and the Mulla. Tradition relates 
the usual kind of miraculous story regarding the preco- 
city and astonishing wisdom of the child. It may, 
however, be presumed that the son of the accountant 
who was destined by his father for government service 
acquired some working knowledge of Hindi and Persian. 
It is also likely that he did not show any violent desire for learn- 
ing, and therefore he was tried on many odd jobs like agriculture, 



cattle-tending and shop-keeping with equal frudtlessness. 
Nanak was a moody meditative child more given to reverie and 
day-dreams than energetic practical pursuits. He w^s unmindful 
of his personal needs and careless of his appointed tasks. Some 
thought he was possessed by an evil spirit, others that he had 
lost his senses. The efforts of the exorcist and the doctor failed 
to do any good or to render any harm. His father failed to 
understand him, but his sister, with the discerning sympathy 
and the sure instinct of a woman, perceived the true nature of 
her brother's ailment. She was married to one Jai Ram, a 
Dlwan in the service of Nawab Daulat Khan Lodl, a relation of 
Sultan Buhlul, the Emperor of Delhi. The Nawab held an 
extensive jogir in Sultanpur near Kapurthala. She sent for the 
young Nanak and obtained for him a post in the Nawab's 
service as the keeper of his storehouse of charities. Here he 
remained till 1499. 

Nanak was married at the age of eighteen, to Sulakhin and 
had two sons Srichand, who later founded the order of L/dasis, 
and Lakhmi Das. When he was thirty, he renounced home 
and service and became a faqlr. Mardana, the Muslim ministrel 
of Talwandl and, later, Bhal Bala joined him and they commenc- 
ed their wanderings over many lands, interviewing saints and 
gathering spiritual experience, and, if any credence can be 
placed upon the legends, Nanak visited all the holy places and 
towns of importance in India, Ceylon, Persia, and Arabia during 
four series of travels in the remaining forty years of his life. 
He is said to have had long intercourse with Shaikh Sharaf of 
Panlpat, the Pirs of Multan, Shaikh Brahm (Ibrahim) the suc- 
cessor of Baiba Farid at Pakpattan, and several others. He 
preached his own ideas wherever he went and never hesitated 
to uphold by action what he spoke by word of mouth. At last 
the wanderings were over, the message was delivered, and the 
day had arrived when the earthly journey was to end. " The 
Guru drew a sheet over him, uttered Wdh t Guru, made obei- 
saijce to God, and blended his light with Guru AngadV The 
Guru remained the same. There was only a change of, body 


produced by a supreme miracle/' 1 The Hindu and Muslim 
disciples had a controversy over the disposal of the body, the 
Guru decided the difficulty, for when the sheet was lifted, the 
body had disappeared and there were only flowers there. 
They were divided, the Hindus erected a shrine and the 
Musalmans a tomb over them, but both were washed away 
by the flood of the Ravi river. 

The mission of Nanak was the unification of the Hindu and 
the Musalman. He realised that in order to heal the wounds 
of society it was essential to end the conflict of religions. He 
says : 

" When one remains and one is removed then alone is it 
possible to live with ease ; but as long as the two remain es- 
tablished there is struggle and confusion. The two had failed, 
then God gave orders ; for many had gone taking with them 
the Furqan (Qoran) in order to unite, but they had failed to 
unite. * Thou art my son, go into the world, all have gone 
astray from the path, direct them upon the right path. Go thou 
into the world, and make them all repeat the one name ; Nanak, 
go thou as the third over the head of both. Establish the religion 
of truth and remove evil, whoever comes to you from the two 
receive him, let not life be taken unnecessarily, protect the poor, 
remember that God pervades the eighty-four lakhs of species." 2 

He regarded himself as the prophet of God, who had come 
from the divine court, and ** received from His door-step the 
signs (5'ifan), the chapters (surahs), and the traditions (hadlth) 
of the prophet." 3 He taught that " there is one God in the 
world and no other, and that Nanak the Caliph (or son) of God 
speaks the truth." 4 

1 Macauliffe : The Sikh Religion, Vol. 1, p. 190. 

2Khazan Singh: The History and Philosophy of Siknlsm, Vol. II. 
p. 348. 

f a Ibid., p. 350. 
'/ . Mbtd., P . 350. 


It is clear that Nanak took the prophet of Islam as his 
model, and his teaching was naturally deeply coloured by this 
fact. He was a mystic in the sense that he had a lively realisa- 
tion of the presence of God, but he was not an en wrapt vision- 
ary like Kabir. His spirit took occasional flights to the sorrow- 
less and where * the Divine palace is illumined by His light 
which exceeds the light of millions of moons, lamps, suns and 
torches, and where from behind the curtain of the Unknown 
(ghaibi) the sound of bells is heard/ 5 but he does not revel in 
the transcendent joys of that illumined abode. His spirit draws 
its inspiration from that vision, but it is far too deeply interested 
in the fate of his fellow-beings upon earth to linger long in 
the rare mystic re>gions. 

Nanak's conception of religion was severely practical and 
sternly ethical. His God is exalted above all. He " is inacces- 
sible, unfathomable, altogether distinct from His creation/* at 
" His threshold millions of Muhammads, Brahmas, Kisnus 
Mahesas, Rdmas are lauding Him in millions of ways and 
millions of forms/* 7 " He is incomprehensible, endless, in- 
calculable, independent, immortal, actionless. He has no caste. 
He is not born nor does He die. He is self -existent, He has no 
fear, and no doubts .... He has no family, He has no illusion, 
He is beyond the beyond, the whole Light is Thine/** Yet he 
admits that He is immanent in all, " within each body the 
Absolute (Brahma) is concealed, and within each vessel the 
whole light is His/' 9 God is husband (khasam) and bridegroom, 
and thus intimately related to the human soul. But in his more 
permanent mood Nanak looks upon God as the One Lord of all, 
the Commander (Hakim) according to whose pre-ordained will 

5 Khazan Singh : Op. cit., Vol. II, p. 3% 
"Macauliffe: Op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 363. 
7 Khazan Singh: Op. cit., Vol. 11, p. 393. 
Mbia., p. 394. 

: Op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 171. t 


man ought to walk, for obedience to Him brings wisdom, know- 
ledge, security from punishment, freedom from Yama, and 
salvation.'* 10 Nanak has no use for any anthropomorphic Being, 
nor does he dwell much upon His personal humane qualities ; 
to him He is the great and high, formless (niranJjar), light (niran- 
7*an), and from the viewpoint of personality the true teacher 
(Sat guru). But he is far too much impressed by His power and 
His irresistible will to develop greatly the latter aspect. 

As Creator He brings the universe into existence out of dark" 
ness : 

In the beginning there was indescribable darkness ; 
There was not earth or heaven, naught but God's unequalled 


There was not day or night, or moon, or sun : God was 

meditating on the void .... 

The Imperceptible God was himself the speaker and 


Himself unseen He saw everything. 
When He pleased He created the world ; 
Without support he sustained the sky. 

He created Brahma, Visnu and Siva, and extended the love 

of mammon. 

He communicated the Guru's words to some few persons. 
He issued His orders and watched over all. 
He began with the continents, the universe, and the nether 
regions, and brought forth what had been hidden. 

His limit no one knoweth/' 11 

The universe is the domain of the Lord. The creation is 
his play, his motiveless activity ; but sometimes he speaks of 
it in other phrases, " Thou didst effect the expansion of the 
world " 12 ; again, ** from its brilliance everything is brilliant " 13 

10 Macauliffc : Op. cit., Vol. I, p. 195. 

11 Ibid., pp. 16567. 

12 Ibid., p. 205. 

18 Ibid., pp. 82, B3. 


and ** all is illumined by the light of His appearance/' 14 Over 
the universe the Lord has established a system of government 
of His own. 

44 The Hindu and Muslim saints are the diwans in attend- 
ance upon the Preserver (parvardigdr), the great Pirs are 
magistrates (siqdar) and collectors (karoris), the angels are 
accountants and treasurers (fotedar). The gentleman trooper 
(ahadi) 'Izra'il binds and arrests, and degrades the ignorant and 
beastly men." 15 

Such a conception of God and his relationship with creation 
lays greater emphasis upon the transformation of human will 
than upon his intellect or feeling. Nanak demands of his follow- 
ers, like the Prophet of Islam, a complete surrender to the 

44 Nanak maketh one application. 
Soul and body are all in Thy power. 
Thou art near, Thou art distant, and Thou art midway 

Thou seest and hearest ; by Thy power didst Thou create 

the world, 

Whatever order pleaseth thee, saith Nanak, that is accept- 

and again : 

44 Whatever the Lord does, consider it is for your 

Good, wisdom consists in obeying His order. 

Whatever the King commands obey with all your body 

and mind, such should be our reverence for Him 

Lose yourself and then you will find the King, no other 

wisdom avails." 17 

Nanak is impressed with the utter worthjessness of man, and 
there is a deep note of contrition and humility in the con- 
sciousness of his own sin. Says he : 
* My sins are numerous as the waters of the seas and the ocean. 

MKhazan Singh: Op. cit. Vol. II, p. 397. 

iMbid., p. 404. 

i Macauliffc: Op. cit.. Vol. I, pp. 35-36. 

TiChazan Singh: Op. cit., Vol. II, p. 419. f 

F. 12 


Bestow compassion, extend a little mercy, save me who 

am like a sinking stone.*' 18 
41 I utter calumny night and day ; 

I am base and worthless, I covet my neighbour's house. 
Lust and anger which are Pariahs, dwell in my heart .... 
I am a cheat in the country of cheats. 
I deem myself very clever, and bear a great load of sin. 
Ungrateful that I was, I did not appreciate what Thou didst 

for me. 
How can I, who am wicked and dishonest, show my face? " 19 

Such a person who dares to tear so rudely aside the curtain of 
self-complacency and egotism which hides the uglinesses behind 
will hardly tolerate the shams and falsehoods which masquerade 
in the guise of religion. Nanak shows little mercy to himself 
and he is naturally not very tender when he deals with others. 
With a mind definite, clear cut and keenly alive to the sharp 
distinctions between good' and evil he condemns with Semitic 
vehemence the superstition and formalism of Hinduism and 
Islam. He says : 

" Cooking places of gold, vessels of gold, 
Lines of silver far extended, 
Ganges water, firewood of the Karanta tree, 
Eating rice boiled in milk 
O! my soul, these things are of no account 
Until thou art saturated with the True name, 
Hadst thou the eighteen Purdnas with thee, 
Couldst thou recite the four Fee/as, 

Didst thou bathe on holy days and give alms according to 

man* s castes, 

Didst thou fast and perform religious ceremonies day and night. 
Wast thou a QazT, a Mulla, or a Shaikh, 

A Jogi, a Jangam, didst thou wear an ochre-coloured 


18 Macaulifle : Op. cit, Vol. 1, p. 30. 
'.9 Ibid,, p. 184. 


Or didst thou perform the duties of a householder 
Without knowing God, Death would bind and take all 

men away.*' 20 

" He who worshippeth stones, visiteth places of pilgrimage, 

dwelleth in forests, 

And renounceth the world, wandereth and wavereth 

How can his filthy mind become pure? "- 1 
He rejects the doctrine of incarnations, 

" Nanak, God is independent ; Ram could not erase his 

destiny." 1 ' 2 

And the inequalities of caste, 

I belong not to any of the four castes."- 11 
He says, 
" Nanak is with those who are low-born among the lowly, 

Nay, \vho are lowest of the low ; how can he rival the great? 

" Where Thou, O Lord, watchest over the lowly. Thy look 

of favour shall be their reward." 24 

To the Musalman he says, 

14 Make kindness thy mosque, sincerity thy prayer carpet, 

what is just and lawful thy Qoran, 

Modesty thy circumcision, civility thy fasting, so shalt thou 

be a Musalman ; 

Make right conduct thy Kabah, truth thy spiritual guide, 

good works thy creed and thy prayer, 

The will of God thy rosary, and God will preserve thine 

honour, O Nanak." 25 

20 MacauliflFe : Op. cit., p. 133. 

21 Ibid., p. 339. 

22 Ibid., p. 382. 

23 Ibid., p. 43. 

24 Ibid., p. 186 

25lfid. f p. 38. 


What should a man do then to attain salvation, or to blend the 
light of soul with that of God ? Four things are necessary. Fear 
God, do the right, trust in the mercy of His name, and take a 
guide to direct you upon the path which leads to the goal. 
Regarding the first Nanak says, 

44 Be in fear of that day when God will judge thee/* 20 and, 
" Put the fear of God into thy heart, then the fear of Death 

shall depart in fear." 27 

Regarding the second, his works are so full that it is difficult 
to make a choice. He is never tired of harping upon two 
themes praise of virtue and condemnation of vice. He is 
careful, however, to remember that a mere catalogue of com- 
mands and inhibitions is not enough and that essentially moral 
conduct is the proper attitude of the inward soul. He also 
knows that men and women have to live in the world and 
work in their professions and a religion which suits mereb 
the faqlr and the sddhu who has renounced the world canno 
be the faith of an active community engaged in social pursuits 
He, therefore, advocates a middle path between extrem 
asceticism and heedless satisfaction of sense, or rather h< 
advocates an asceticism of the heart combined with the fulfil 
ment of the worldly functions of body and mind. Here is on 
of the shorter catalogues of virtues 

** Practise humility, renounce pride, restrain the mind, 

remember Go< 
Be honest, watch, restrain the five evil passions, be content.** 

Nanak loved to draw illustration for the virtues from tJ 
daily occupations of men, for example 

44 Make continence thy furnace, resignation thy goldsmith. 
Understanding thine anvil, divine knowledge thy tools. 
The fear of God thy bellows, austerities thy fire, 

seMacauliffe: Op. cit., p. 14. 
27 Ibid., p. 78. 
* 28 Ibid., p. 13. 


Divine love thy crucible, and melt God* 8 name therein 

In such a true mint the Word shall be coined. 

This is the practice of those on whom God looked with 

an eye of favour. 

Nanak, the kind One by a glance maketh them happy. *'- w 
Nanak was a believer in the transmigration of souls, and he 
taught that the doers of evil will continue to suffer from repeated 
births and deaths, till they turned their hearts towards Truth. 
Transmigration, however, did not apparently satisfy him as a 
sufficient deterrent from sin, and so he threatened those who 
would not walk along the path of virtue with the direst punish- 

" The sinners who have committed transgressions are bound 
and led away. 

Their luggage of sins is so heavy that they cannot lift it. 
The steep road ahead is dark, while the executioner 
walketh behind them. 

In front is a sea of fire ; how shall they cross it? 
Ravens stand upon men's skulls, and peck at them fast 

as a shower of sparks. 
Nanak, where shall man escape when the punishment is 

by God's order? " 

And he goes on to describe the horrible fate that is in store for 
them. It is too gruesome to describe. From such a fate only 
the mercy of God can save man. Fortunately He is ever ready 
to help, " If for a moment thou restrain thy mind, God will 
appear before thee/' 31 and ** He bestoweth gifts on whom He 
looketh with favour and mercy/' 32 and '* the mere repetition of 
His name can confer salvation/* 33 His gifts are priceless, and 

29Khazan Singh: Op. cit., Vol. U, p. 437. 
80 Macauliffc : Op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 217. 

31 Ibid., pp. 125-26. 

32 Ibid., p. 177. 

3f Ibid., p. 208. , 


his marks priceless, priceless his mercy and priceless His ordi- 
nances. 34 Good deeds, approved charities, penances and yoga, 
study of scriptures and meditation, ** Nanak, these devices would 
be of no avail ; true is the mark of grace." 35 

Like all Sufis Nanak taught that in the soul's journey to- 
wards God it was necessary to be guided by a Guru. In his 
system the preceptor occupies the same position as in that of 
Kablr. Muhsin FanI, who was an earnest student of the religions 
of India and a contemporary and friend of many Hindu saints 
of the seventeenth century, describes accurately the Sikh belief. 
Says he : ** When Nanak expired his spirit became incarnate 
in the person of Angad, who attended him as his confidential 
servant. Angad, at his death, transmitted his soul into the body 
of Amaradasa, and this Guru, in the same manner, conveyed 
his spirit into the body of Ramadasa, whose soul transmigrated 
into the person of Arjun Mai ; in short, they (Sikhs) believe that 
with a mere change of name, Nanak the First became Nanak the 
Second, and so on, to the fifth in the person of Arjun Mai.*' 36 
The Guru directed the disciple upon the path which has four 
stages Saran Khand, Jndn Khand, Karam Khand and Sach 
Khand , which, according to Gurumukh Singh, the author of 
Nanak Prakas, correspond with the Sufi Shan at, Ma'rifat, Ufwa 
and Lahuf. a7 The path ultimately leads to the goal so dear to 
the soul of the devotee, where the fear of death is no more, the 
wheel of birth and death ceases to revolve, where man at last 
becomes united with the Light from which he emanated. 

How deep Guru Nanak's debt is to Islam, it is hardly neces- 
sary to state, for it is so evident in his words and thoughts. 
Manifestly he was steeped in Sufi lore and the fact of the 
matter is, that it is much harder to find how much exactly he 
drew from the Hindu scriptures. His rare references to them 

34 Macauliffe : Op. cit., p. 147. 
as Ibid., p. 210. 
3Ibid., p. 229. 
,37 Ibid., pp. 253-54. 


lead one to imagine that Nanak was only superficially acquainted 
with the Vedic and Purdnic literature. Be that as it may, it is 
certain that in his own mind he was clear that he had come upon 
earth with one purpose which was to proclaim that : 

** There is only one path to the Divine Court which is presided 
over by the one eternal Lord."-' 1 * 

The religious movement started by Nanak continued to 
gather momentum under his successors. Its stern ethical tone 
and its definite puritanism were elements which distinguished it 
from similar movements in India. Its spirit of non-compromise 
carried within it possibilities of martyrdoms and the seeds of 
an organised church. The unsettled political conditions of the 
later period of the Moghul Empire gave these possibilities their 
opportunity, and the seed bore fruit. The later Gurus were in- 
evitably drawn into the whirl of politics and they transformed 
the Church into a militant society. But although the Sikhs 
changed their organisation their religion retained almost un- 
altered the impress of Guru Nanak's teaching. 1 *" 

fJBGurumukh Singh: Nanak Prakas, pp. 21516. 
39Khazan Singh, Op. cit, Vol, II. p. 527. 


KABlR and Nanak were leaders of the radical school of thought. 
They had many supporters among their contemporaries and 
numerous followers after them throughout the centuries. Of the 
twelve disciples of Ramananda four others besides Kabir have 
left some of their hymns behind, Dhanna, Pfpa, Sa*m, and 
Raidas. The hymns of the first three are preserved in the 
Adigrantha of the Sikhs, while Raidas' s teachings have been 
collected and published separately. 

Dhanna was a Jat by caste and is said to have been born 
in 1415 A.D. He belonged to Rajputana, whence he went to 
Benares to become Ramananda's disciple. Nabhajl and Priya- 
dasa relate the legends of the supernatural occurrences of his 
life, which indicate that he was at first an idol worshipper. Later 
a change seems to have come over him, for he says : 

" When the Guru caused the wealth of divine knowledge 
to enter me, I meditated on God, and accepted in 
my heart that He was One. 

I have embraced the love and service of God and known 
comfort ; I am satiated and satisfied, and have ob- 
tained salvation. 

He in whose heart God's light which filleth creation 
is contained, recognizeth God, who cannot be 
deceived." 1 

The Bhaktmala and its commentary give an extended notice 
of Pi pa, the Raja of Gagaraungarh, and relate many stories of 
the marvellous events which happened in his life, and of the 
conversions which he effected. Macauliffe translates a hymn 
which is found in the Granth, and which shows the same ten- 
dency as is found in other contemporary saints, that is, God is 
the Primal Essence, the Guru is the means of attaining God, and 
that worship must be internal. 

lMacauliffe: The Religion of Sikhs, Vol. VI, p. 110. 


Sai'n was a barber who lived at the Court of the Prince 
of Bandhavgarh, the modern Rewa. He is said to have become 
the spiritual preceptor of his prince. Of him a story is told 
by Nabhajl which illustrates the saint's dependence on God and 
His readiness to help him. 

Raidas was a worker in leather and thus belonged to a 
caste very low in social status. He was born at Benares, his 
father's name was Ragghu and that of his mother Ghudbiniya. 
He was devoted to religious men and saints and used to spend 
all the money that he could procure from his father in their 
service. His father became displeased and turned him out of 
the house. He then began to live with his wife in a dilapidated 
hut, engaging in devotion and earning his living by mending 
shoes. People were attracted to him by his life of simplicity 
and contentment, and it is said that a Rajput queen accepted 
him as her Guru. 

His hymns breathe a spirit of humility and self -surrender. 
He did not indulge in high philosophic speculation about the 
nature and essence of God and His relation with the world and 
man. His cardinal doctrines are not different from those of 
Kablr, and like him he uses Rekhta, even the Persian language, 
and Sufi terms to show the identity of Hinduism and Islam, 
He believed in a God who was the Absolute Lord of all. 

" Govind is immovable, formless, unborn, unique, of 
fearless gait, unlimited, beyond si-grit and reason, 
indivisible, unqualified, extreme joy." 2 

" Hart is in all and all is in Han," :j 
and identical with self. 

** Thou art I, and the difference between me and thee is 
like water in a vessel of gold and in the wave." 4 

*2 Raidas ki BanT, p. 25. 
3 Ibid., p. 7. 
* 4 Ibid., p. 15. * 


Thus although he is one he is yet many, 

One is many and many is one Han', how am I to say 
that there is a second/* and ** He is one, and only 
two by illusion. " r> 

But God is not identical with any of the incarnations, 

" The Rama in whom the people recognise Him, they are 

in error about it, O brother/' 

Raidas looks upon the world as the play of God, and is 
inclined to the view that it is illusory or at any rate not worth 
paying attention to, 

" He arranges it like a Player (Bazigar), no one knows the 
secret of His play. The play is false, only the 
player is true, by knowing this *the mind is 
satisfied/' 7 Again, " the body is empty, the may a 
(nature) is empty, emptily hast thou wasted life 
without Hari. The temple and luxurious living are 
empty and empty is the dependence on other 
gods/' 8 Raidas has complete faith in His grace, 
for did he not come to the help of Ajamila, the 
elephant, the prostitute, and if He broke their 
chains, undoubtedly He will do the same for him. 
Yet there is a pleasing conceit in his attitude, 
** Thou hast bound me by chains of illusion (mo/i), 
I have bound Thee with the ropes of love. I am 
making an effort to emancipate myself, but when 
I attain freedom then who will adore Thee? " 9 

The other attitude, of complete surrender and humility, is 
usual with him. 

5 Raidas ki BanT. pp. 26, 25. 

6 ibid., p. 6. 

7 Ibid., p. 7. 

8 Ibid., p. 26. 

9 ibid., p. 22. 


** O Rama, Thou alone art wise, thou art eternity without 
guise, Thou art King (sultan) of kings. I am thy 
ignorant broken (shifyasta) servant (band a). I have 
no manners, no fortune. I am senseless, foolish 
and given to evil. I am a sinner, an alien (gharib), 
heedless, cowardly and black-hearted. Thou art 
powerful (Qddir) and capable of taking me across 
the ocean. I am greedy and cunning. This body 
of mine is shattered and broken, and my mind is 
full of many apprehensions. Raidas the slave begs 
his lord (Sahib) vouchsafe to me a sight (didar) 
of Thee," 1 " 

and therefore he calls upon Him out of the depth of his heart, 
*' Save me, save me, O holy Lord of three worlds. " n 

It is necessary then to give up all external rites, the pil- 
grimages, fasts, shaving of head, singing and dancing in 
temples, offering of leaves to idols, and to betake to the devo- 
tion of One only, by losing the self in Him, as the river loses 
itself in the sea. Although, 

** My caste is low, my actions are low, and even my 
profession is low, 

Says Raidas, yet the Lord has raised me high." 1 * 
Kablr had many disciples who spread his message 
throughout Northern India and the Deccan. They founded 
twelve branches of the Panth, each one recognising some 
immediate disciple as its head. Some of the branches were 
merely nominal and took no root where they were planted, 
others produced important sects. Of his immediate disciples 
Srut Gopal Das succeeded him at Benares and was recognised 
at Maghar, Jagannath and Dwarka ; Bhaggu (Bhagwan) Das 

10 Raidas ki Bam, p. 16. 

11 Ibid., p. 39. 

* 12 Ibid., p. 20. * 


is known as the compiler of the Bijak ; Dharamdas was the 
author of many poems in which Kabir appears as answering 
his questions ; Jivandas was probably the founder of the 
famous Satnami sect ; and Kamal who is remembered in the 
Adigrantha by the disparaging line, *' the family of Kabir 
foundered when Kamal the son was born,** apparently had a 
following in Western India. Others hardly need mention. 

Of those in the generation following one of the most 
important was Dadu Dayal. According to Muhsin Fani, Dadu 
was a cotton cleaner, who came from Naraina, a village of 
Marwar, and lived in the time of Akbar. Wilson follows 
Muhsin Fani concerning Dadu's caste, but states that he was 
born in Ahmedabad, from where he removed to Naraina in 
his thirty-seventh year, and where he lived till the end of his 
life. Farquhar and Traill, however, state that he was born 
of Brahmin parents at 'Ahmedabad in 1544 A.D. But Sudhakar 
Dwivedi differs from them and is of opinion that he was a tanner 
or currier (moc/ii) and his family profession was that of making 
leather bags (mof) for drawing water from a well. His first name 
was Mahaball, he retired from worldly pursuits after the death 
of his first wife and became a disciple of Kamal. The last 
authority produces the following couplet in proof of his 
opinions : 

44 I found the true and mighty guru, who taught me the 
reality, Dadu is the leather bag (mof), Mahaball 
is the vessel who churned and ate the butter.'* 13 

Dadu spent most of his life in Rajputana and he visited 
Ajmer, Delhi, Amber and other places. He is reported to have 
had an interview with Akbar. He died at Naraina in 1603. 
His poetic utterances consist of 5,000 verses which are divided 
into chapters, each dealing with a leading religious question. 
Their language is a mixture of the dialects Braja bhdsa and 

13 S^dhakar Dwivedi: Dadu Dayal ki Bam. Introduction. 


Rajasthdni ; some of the verses are in Panjdbi and a number in 
Rekhta and corrupt Persian. Of the last, one or two instances 
may here be reproduced. 

Be mihr gumrah ghafil gosht khurdani, 
Be dil badkar 'alam hayat murdani. 14 
which may be rendered thus. 

Men are merciless, strayed from the path, heedless meat- 
eaters, heartless, evil-doing, and living yet lifeless. 

Kul 'alarp yake didam arwah akhlas 
Bad 'ami badkar dui pak yaran pas. 15 

which means that he saw the whole universe as one, and the 
pure souls cleaned of evil actions and deeds and of the sin 
of duality in the company of the Friend. And again, there 
is an entire poem beginning with the lines, 

Maujud khabar ma'bud khabar arwah khabar 

Maqam chi chiz ast dadanl sujud. 10 

The poem may be translated as follows : 

The existent is known, the adored is known, the souls are 
known, what is the station of the being to whom 
it is necessary to bow? 

The station of being is this : When the lower self (nafs) is 
dominant, and pride is in possession and anger, egotism, 
duality, falsehood, greed, obstinacy are present, then there is 
not the name of righteousness. 

The station of souls (arutah) is this : When, love, worship, 
obedience, unity, purity, mercy, affection, right and goodness 

"Chandriki Prasada Tnpithi : 
Didu Dayal kl Ban!, p. 186. 
15S. Dwivedl: Op. cit., p. 327. 
10 Ibid., p. 80. * 


are present then there is the name of righteousness near. The 
station of the adored (ma' bud) is this : There is one, the 
beautiful sight of the Beauty is amazing. To drink the cup of 
inebriation is a wonderful thing. The animal stage is when 
men are away from the path and heedless ; the first step is to 
be bound by law (shanaf) to obtain from a wise person the 
knowledge of good and 'bad, and of lawful and unlawful. 

Then having completed this, it is necessary to abandon the 
world, and to engage in remembering every day and every 
moment the Highest God, to love the Lover, and to feel the 
pain and to complain and cry. 

Then the station of gnosis (ma'rifat) is to know that water, 
fire, heavens (' arsfi), the chair were all forms of the Subhdn 
who had taken the quality of fire (sharar). 

The Truth is found, 1 have seen the Light, the object is 
held which is the sight of the Friend, the spirits of Adam are 
the being of the being. 

I have told plainly what kind of goal I had attained, the 
Pirs (Preceptors) have informed the soul of the Mufids (disci- 
ples) about the path to the Adored." 

Dadu's description of the true Musalman shows how he 
rose above prejudices of creed and emphasized the true inward- 
ness of religion. He says, 

" Dadu the tank of His presence is in the heart and there 
\ take my complete ablution ; after performing the ablution in) 
front of Allah I say the prayers there. 

Dadu makes his body His mosque, he finds the five 
members of the assembly (ja m a't) in the mind as well as the 
leader of the prayers (Mullaimam) ; the indescribable God is 
Himself in front of him and there he makes his bows and 

Dadu regards the whole body as the rosary on. which the 
name of the Generous one (Karim) is repeated ; there is one 
fast and there is no second, and the word (kplima) is He 

Thfts Dadu rises before Allah with concentrated attention 


and goes himself above the heavens f arsh) to the place where 
the Rahman (clement) lives. 

Dadu the worshipper continues thus every day till his 
death, and then he stands before the gates of the Master and 
neither leaves Him nor goes." 17 

Dadu manifests perhaps even greater knowledge of 
Sufism than his predecessors, perhaps because he was the 
disciple of Kamal who probably had greater leanings towards 
Islamic ways of thinking than others, perhaps because the 
Sufis of Western India Ahmedabad and Ajmer wielded 
greater influence upon the minds of seekers after God, Hind a 
pr Muslim, than those of the East. At any rate, the effect of 
their teachings was to make him a staunch supporter of 
Hindu-Muslim unity. He repeats again and again the senti- 
ment that, 

In all vessels whether Hindu or Muslim there is one 
soul,'* 18 and 

44 O Allah Rama, my illusion has passed away, there is 

no difference at all between Hindu and Musal- 

man/* 10 

44 The one invisible Ildht art Thou, Thou art Rama and 

Rahim, Thou art the Beautiful Master (ma/i'fc), Thy 

names are Kesava and Karim,"- 

and he asks, 

44 What is the Panth (sect) of Brahma, Visnu and Manes 
which is the din (faith) of Muhammad and what is the way of 
Gabriel ; the one Allah is their PIT and Murshid (preceptor and 
director). Dadu knows in his heart to whom they were 

ITDwivedi: Op. cit., p. 95. 

18 C. P. TripathT: Op. cit., p. 323. 

19 Ibid.', P . 383. 

to Ibid.. P . 455. f 


devoted, the Invisible Ildhi is the Guru of the world and there 
is no other besides him/*- 1 

and lastly says Dadu, 

** The two brothers are hand and feet, the two are the 
two ears, the two brothers are ^ the two eyes Hindus and 
Musalmans." 22 

With regard to ritual and form, priests, caste, idol worship, 
incarnations, pilgrimages, ceremonial ablutions and so forth, 
he held the same opinion as his master KabTr, to him also God 
alone is essential and He is sufficient, 

** I am not a Pandit, I do not know the good of studying 
and I have not thought over knowledge. 

I am not a prophet, I do not know the light, and I do not 
possess the ornaments of the face. 

I am no ascetic, I haye no control over my senses, and I 
have not performed pilgrimages. 

I am not a worshipper in temples, and I do not put my 
trust in meditation. 

I am not an adept in Yoga and 1 do not know the methods 
of worship. 

I do not know anything else, and what after all is the need 
of other things. 

Dadu has placed his whole soul under the protection of 
one Beautiful Got>iW." 23 

His ideas of God, of the world and of man do not differ 
from those of his predecessors. He insists upon the unity of 
God and he regards him in his twofold aspect of transcen- 
dence and immanence. To him He is one, unchangeable, 
immortal, incomprehensible Being ; He is brightness, efful- 
gence, light, illumination, perfection ; He is within the heart 
of all beings. ** I stay within me, I am the house for me, 

21 C. P. TripatKi: Op. cit., p. 201. 

22 Ibid., P . 323. 

<" 23 S. Dwivedi: Op. cit., p. 76. t 


I am in the heavens (' arsh). 1 am my own support, I depend 
on myself, so says the Merciful One, the Creator "~ 4 ; and 
" the whole of nature is His own form, for He is inside all." 25 
Withal He is Creator and Lord, who " by one word created 
all,"-" and who wills it and the creation comes out of nothing 
or relapses into nothing. 

Man, as long as he is separated from Him, is a sinful 
creature ; his salvation consists in rending this veil ; in 
realising that all otherness and duality, the world of sense, 
pleasure and pain is a sport and illusion, they are like the 
mirage in the desert after which the thirsty man runs in vain. 
The one road to salvation is to know and love Him alone, 
the one discipline is to die to self in order to live in Him. The 
man who journeys along this path must be prepared to lay 
down his life, for he will meet with terrible obstacles, he will 
feel weary and sick and maddened by pain, so that he will 
cry out, ** my soul is sorely afflicted, because 1 have forgotten 
thee, O God, 1 cannot endure the pain, deliver me.'* 27 But 
if he perseveres the clouds will roll away and the sun will shine 
and the Light will illumine his soul, and filled with wonder he 
will exclaim ** O Rama, my God, 1 am amazed, no one can find 
Thy end. Brahma Sanakfl and Narad all failed to see Thee ; 
1 who am insignificant and low and little minded, Thou 
vouchsafes! Thy vision to me. '- s 

Dadu held that man passed through the whole cycle of 
births and deaths in one life-time. He says 

" The nature of the eighty-four lakhs of lives is within 
you, there are many births in a single day but few under- 
stand them,"- 9 and 

^ S. DwivedT: Op. cit., p. 59. 
2- Ibid., P . 81. 

2C. P. TripathY: Op. cit., p. 276. 
->7lbid., P . 511. 
2*S. Dwivedi; Op. cit, p. 109. 
fIbid., p. 159. 
P. 13 


44 There are as many incarnations (rebirths) as the changes 
which come over the soul. This is the transmigration which 
the Almighty Creator removes away/' 30 

44 The soul does not know of its births, they take place 
moment after moment, it undergoes the eighty-four lakhs but 
does not apprehend.** 31 

And again, 

44 The swine, dogs, jackals, tigers and serpents reside in 
the heart, also the elephants and the insects, but the Pandit 
knows them not.** 32 

It is only by destroying this chain of psychic modifica- 
tions or spiritual births and deaths that one can. become 
absorbed in God. 

Dadu teaches that the Guru is the devotee's protector 
(gudl), and the whip which keeps the horse of the mind in 
control. The Guru is -greater than books Veda and Qordn 
for through him realisation takes place and the abode of light 
is attained. But it is difficult to obtain the right type of Guru 
in which case Dadu recommends that one should make birds, 
beasts and the lord of the forest his Guru, for God is in all. 
Dadu did not believe in complete actionlessness, for he 

44 Effort (udyam) does not produce evil effects, for him 
who knows it ; in effort there is joy, but it should be directed 
towards the Lord only." 88 

The sect which Dadu established, has its chief seat at 
Naraina where he died. There they hold an annual festival 
which -gives an opportunity to the Dddupanthis to assemble 
together in memory of the great man who tried to sink all 
differences of creed and caste in one religion of love. 

80S. Dwivedl: Op. cit., p. 160, 
si Ibid., p. 160. 

82 Ibid., p. 160. 
( 3C. P. TripatHi: Op. cit., p. 33. 


The sect of the Khakis arose from among a group of the 
followers of Dadu. The reputed name of the founder is Kilh 
who is mentioned by Nabhajl among the disciples of Paiharl 
rikrisnadasa. But nothing more is known about him. 

Maluk Das is made out by Wilson as a disciple of Kilh, 
but the editor of the Santa-hdpi Pustak. Afa/d, regards him as 
the disciple of Vitfhaldas, a Dravida Saint. Who this 
Vi$haldas was it is difficult to ascertain. Nabhaji mentions 
one Vifthaldas who belonged to the sect of Raidas and was a 
member of Ramanuja's 3ri Sampradaya, and Rice speaks of 
a Vifthaldas as a Vaisnava singer among the Kanarese poe:s 
of the sixteenth century. Malukdas was born in 1574 in thr 
reign of Akbar and after a long life of one hundred and eight 
years died in 1682 A.D. Kara in the district of Allahabad 
is his birth-place. He married and had a daughter, and 
founded a sect which consists wholly of laymen without any 
ascetics. His order is said to have monasteries at Kara, 
Jaipur, Isfahabad (Gujarat), Multan, Patna, Kattak, Sfta Kayal 
(Deccan), Kolapur, Nepal, and Kabul. 

Malukdas taught the same religious doctrines which by 
his time had become prevalent all over India. He condemns 
the externalia of religion pilgrimage, idol worship, good 
works, and others. He teaches that the true religion :; 
inward faith, that Maya is the enemy of man, and God's name 
is the only protection against it, that the world is transitory and 
the worldly relations of no avail, that man is born of dust 
and will return to dust, that those who are not devoted to 
spiritual life are the dogs of the world, that salvation is ob- 
tained by knowing the self, killing pride and egotism, con- 
trolling passions, trusting the Guru, and lovin.g God. Thi i 
his definition of the true ascetic (darufish.) 

" He who lives apart from the five elements, is the belov- 
ed of God, who gives water to the thirsty, his worship is 
considered great by Muhammad. 

He who feeds the hungry, soon finds the Lord. He whp 
abandons passion and dies while alive, to him 'Izra'il bows. 


He who* considers all men's pain as his own, Malukdas 
regards him as the true ascetic/' 34 

He too taught oneness of religion and the unity of the 
Hindu and the Muslim ; says he, 

** Where is the string of beads (mala) and the rosary 
(tasblh), now awake and rely not on them. 

Who is infidel (k a fir) and who is barbarian (malechchha) look 
upon sandhyd (Hindu worship) and the prayer (namaz) as one. 

Where does Yama live and where is Gabriel? He him- 
self is the judge (Qdzi), who else keeps accounts? 

He calculates the good and the evil deeds, and renders 
account and sends one where he deserves to go. 

Malukdas, why art thou in error, Rama and Rahtm are 
the names of one." 315 

Sundardas was a disciple of Dadu. He was born in 1596 
A.D. at Deosa near Jaipur in Rajputana, in the family oF a 
Bania. It is related that when Sundardas was six years of age 
Dadu came to Deosa. He saw the child and was struck with 
his handsome face. Since then the. child became known as 
Sundar (handsome), and lived with Dadu as his preceptor at 
Naraina. He soon became known for his precocious genius 
as a saint and poet. But on the death of Dadu in 1603 A.D. 
he left Naraina and returned home. After spending some 
time at Deosa he went to Benares where he remained engaged 
in his studies till the age of thirty, and then came back to 
Rajputana and worked with his co-disciples Pragdas and 
Raj jab to spread the religion of Bhakti as taught by Dadu. 
He settled down at Fatehpur ShekhavatI and became friendly 
with Nawab Alif Khan and his sons Daulat Khan and Ta'bir 
Khan. The Nawab was himself a Hindi poet, and he highly 
appreciated the talents of Sundardas. In later years he took 
to travelling and visited numerous places in Rajputana and 
Panjab. He died in 1689. 

34Maluk das ki Bam, p. 22. 
< as^bid., p. 27, 


Sundardas was a Sanskrit scholar ; he had studied Persian 
and the languages of the North-Western Provinces of India 
also. His work Sundarvilasa is divided into twenty-four 
chapters. Some of the chapters deal with the six philosophic 
systems of the Hindus, and the paths of action and know- 
ledge, and show their inadequacy for the salvation of man. 
In the constructive parts he dwells upon the teaching of 
Dadu, but draws most of his arguments and illustrations from 
purely Hindu sources. Sundardas was a man. of culture and 
a fine poet unlike many of the other religious leaders, but his 
outlook was not so broad and his spiritual experience not as 
rich as theirs. In the following poem he describes the self- 
forgetfulness of man. 

*' As the fish swallows the flesh overpowered by greed, 
and distinguishes not the iron hook from the worm ; 

As the monkey puts his hand into the jar and keeps his 

fist firmly closed, and does not open it forced by the 

temptation of taste ; 
As the parrot fixes his beak into the cocoanut and remains 

hanging on it, and puts himself into trouble on 

account of his avidity ; 
So the man united with the body, falls into the power of 

senses, and urged by his desires for pleasure forgets 

that He is himself ."' 

36 Maluk Da* kl Bant, p. 94. 


A CONTEMPORARY of Dadu was Birbhan, who founded the 
famous sect of the Sddhs or Satnanus. He was born in 1543 
A.D. at Bijesar near Narnaul in the South-eastern Punjab. 
He was affiliated through Odhodas to Raidas. He was a 
strict monotheist, he called God by the name of Satnam the 
true name. 

He looked upon his Guru as the inspirer of his teachings, 
and spoke about himself as Udho Kd das, the servant of Odho 
whom he describes as the Mcflik Kd Hufem, i.e., the order of 
the Lord, the personified word of God. The teachings of the 
sect are in Hindi Bhasa, and their collection is known as the 
Pof/i? (the book), which is reverenced like the Grantha of the 
Sikhs. The book is read in a Jumldghar (house of assembly) 
or a Chaukj (station), and the evening service is attended by 
men, women and children. 

The Sadhs do not observe distinctions of caste and rank, 
they eat and drink together, and marry inside their sect. They 
permit divorce for offences in which the penalty is expulsion 
from the sect. They adore one God under the name of 
Satnam, do not keep any material representation of Him, and 
they do not bow before idol or man. Their worship consists 
of meditation and the practice of virtue and their ultimate aim 
is absorption in God. They abstain from intoxicants and animal 
food, maintain a strict standard of morals and do not allow 
the oppression of one by the other. They believe in earning 
one's living by lawful means only, they discourage inequalities 
of wealth and give their charities in secret. 

Their chief seats are at Delhi, Rohtak in the Punjab, 
Agra, Farrukhabad and Mirzapur in the United Provinces 
and Jaipur in Rajputana. They became very prominent in 
the reign of Aurangzeb, when they broke out into rebellion 
in 1672 A.D, Khafl Khan in his notice of the rebellion gave 



them a very good character, but Iswardas Nagar calls them 
filthy and wicked ; the head and front of their offending was 
that they made no distinction between Hindus and Musalmans. 
Their twelve Hu^ms or commandments which are given 
in the Adi Updesh (first precepts) are deserving of full re- 
production. They are given below: 

1. Acknowledge but one Cod who made and can 

destroy you, to whom there is none superior, and 
to whom alone therefore is worship due ; not to 
earth, nor stone, nor metal, nor wood, nor trees, 
nor any created thing. There is but one Lord, 
and the word of the Lord. He who meditates on 
falsehoods, practises falsehoods and commits 
sin, and he who commits sin falls into hell. 

2. Be modest and humble, set not your affections on 

the world, adhere faithfully to your creed, and 

avoid intercourse with all not of the same faith, 
eat not of a stranger's bread. 

3. Never lie nor speak ill at any time to, or of any- 

thing, of earth or water, of trees, of animals. 
Let the tongue be employed in the praise of God. 
Never steal, nor wealth, nor land, nor beasts, 
nor pasture : distinguish your own from another's 
property, and be content with what you possess. 
Never imagine evil. Let not your eyes rest on 
improper objects, nor men, nor women, nor 
dances, nor shows. 

4. Listen not to evil discourse, nor to anything but the 

praise of the Creator, nor to tales, nor gossip, 
nor calumny, nor music, nor singing except 
hymns ; but then the only musical accompani- 
ment must be in the mind. 

5. Never covet anything, either of body or wealth : 

take not of another. God is the giver of all 
9 things, as your trust is in Him so shall you 



6. When asked what you are, declare yourself a Sdc//i, 

speak not of caste, engage not in controversy, 
hold firm your faith, put not your hope in men, 

7. Wear white garments, use no pigments, nor colly- 

rium, nor dentifrice, nor mehndi (henna), nor 
mark your person, nor your forehead with sec- 
tional distinctions, nor wear chaplets, or rosaries 
or jewels. 

8. Never eat nor drink intoxicating substances, nor 

chew pan, nor smell perfumes, nor smoke tobac- 
co, nor chew nor smell opium, hold not up your 
hands, bow not down your head -in the presence 
of idols or of men. 

9. Take no life away, nor offer personal violence, nor 

give damnatory evidence, nor seize anything by 

10. Let a man wed one wife, and a woman one hus- 

band, let not a man eat of a woman's leavings, 
but a woman may of a man's, as may be the 
custom. Let the woman be obedient to the man. 

11. Assume not the garb of a mendicant, nor solicit 

alms, nor accept gifts. Have no dread of necro- 
mancy, neither have recourse to it. Know before 
you confide. The meetings of the Pious (Sddhu) 
are the only places of pilgrimage, but understand 
who are the Pious (Sddhu) before you so salute 

12. Let not a Sadh be superstitious as to days, or to 

lunations, or to months, or the cries or appear- 
ance of birds or animals ; let him seek only the 
will of the Lord. 1 

Commentary on these commandments is superfluous ; their 
sturdy commonsense is as evident as their puritanism which 

% 1 Wilson: The Sects of the Hindus. Vol. 1. * 


borrows from Islam and goes beyond it. The voice of Birbhan 
must have sounded like a claripn blast gathering together all 
those who were fighting for light and reason against superstition 
and darkness. It must, indeed, have been a wonderful age 
which could produce Kablr and Nanak, Dadu and Birbhan 
together and which could render it possible for them to spread 
their purifying gospel broadcast. The account of the Sddhs 
may be closed with one of their hymns, which illustrates the 
deeply devotional aspect of their faith : 

** My frame aches without thee ! 1 am wailing at thy door ! 
Now appear and let me see thee. 

my Lord ! I pray thee make no delay ! 

1 have become restless through weeping and wailing. 
1 cannot live without the sight of thee. 

Flames rise within me and consume my frame. Who can 

endure my pain? 

I am full of faults and sin ; do thou have mercy upon me. 
Take not my faults and failing into thy regard ! 
O! thou that freest the soul from sin, maintain my honour! 
Forget me not even for a moment, and have mercy upon me 
Show me thy form and forget my sins of the present ! 

Cast thine eyes full upon me, and sever not thy love from 

me/' 11 

La Id as and Baba Lai flourished about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The founder of the Ldldatl sect belong- 
ed to Alwar and came from a predatory tribe known as the 
Meos. His teachings ran on the same lines as those of Kablr, 
The teachers of the sect are married men, and the singing of 
hymns accompanied with music plays an important part in 
their worship. 

Baba Lai who was a Kshatriya was born in Malwa about 
the reign of Jahangir. Hia preceptor was one C ha i tana, whom 
he followed to Lahore. He settled down at Dehanpur near 
Sirhind where he built a temple and a monastery. The 

* - RusseT : The Castes and Tribes of Central India. Vol. IV, p., 250. > 


unfortunate Dara Shikoh, who was one of his pupils, had many 
interviews with the saint in which he obtained instruction on 
religious questions. The results of these were embodied in 
a book entitled Nadir- un-Nuk<*t written in Persian. The 
teaching is in the form of a dialogue between Dara Shikoh and 
Baba Lai 

What was the creed of Baba Lai ? He answers the question 
in these words : 

" The creed of the lover differs from other creeds. God 
is the faith and creed of those who love Him, but to do good 
is best for the follower of every faith/' And he quotes the 
verse of Hafiz approvingly : 

'* The object of all religion is alike. 
All men seek their beloved 

What is the difference between prudent and wild ? 
All the world is love's dwelling, 
Why talk of a mosque or a church? " :t 

Baba Lai and Laldas were not by any means the only 
representatives of the religious synthesis which attempted to 
reconcile Hinduism with Islam in the seventeenth century. 
There were numerous saints and teachers who advocated the 
same ideas ; but unfortunately the names and writings of most 
of them have disappeared ; Muhsin Fan! has, however, re- 
corded the names of some with whom he came into contact 
or of whom he learnt by reputation. Writing of Pirana 
Kohaly he mentions the Vairdgis and their beliefs, ** This sect 
do no harm to any living being . . . They do not admit the 
Avatar as (incarnations), and say that God is exempt from 
transmigration and union ; and according to those who profess 
the belief in the unity and solitariness of the Supreme Being, 
he is not susceptible of intimate friendship/* 4 And again of 
the Nardyariis a sect founded by Haridas who died in 1055- 

3 Wilton: Op. cit., VoL 1. p. 349. 
* iJioyer and Shea: DabUtan-i-MazaHib, pp. 195-%. * 


A.H. (1644 A.D.) he says : " This sect knows nothing of idols, 
nor of temples, nor of the Ka'bah, nor of any sort of worship ; 
they do nothing towards obtaining the knowledge of, or union 
with, God ; they confine themselves to the veneration of 
Narayav or the Supreme Being, from which they derive the 
name of Ndrayanian. They do not occupy themselves with 
the affairs of the world ; abnegation and solitude is their law/* 5 
He gives the following account of Gosa'in Jam and his 
disciples : 

They call their master Jahan, and his followers, com- 
posed of Hindus and Musalmans, adopted the creed of 
Kisriaoi. This is as follows : " They hurt no living being ; 
they avoid fellowship with men of another creed among the 
Hindus and Musalmans ; they pray five times a day, with their 
face towards the east ; they have the names of God, of the 
divinities, of the Prophet upon their lips, such as Allah, 
Mlka'il, 'Izra'il, Jibra'il, Muhammad, and others ; they bury 
their dead ; they confer benefits upon others to the extent of 
their power, a number of their dervishes pretend to be afflict- 
ed with maladies and beg alms, and whatever they so collect 
they distribute to the blind and lame, and to people of that 

He goes on to speak of many others who were equally 
independent in their ideas, among them were Siuarina, 
Shidayl, Hariram Pun, Sathra. Jadu, Partapmel Chadah, 
Binavali son of Hlraman Kayastha, Azadah a Brahman, and 
Mihirchand a Sunar. 

To the latter half of the seventeenth century belonged 
Dharnidas and Pran Nath whose lives extended on to the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. Dharnldas was born in 
1656, and lived at the village of Manjhi in the district of 
Chhapra. He was a Srivastavya Kayastha by caste, and a 
disciple of Chandradas, His teachings are contained in hi 

~ Troyer and Shea : Dabittan-i-Mazahib, p. 232. 

bid,, p. 233. * 


two works Saiga Pratyai and Prem Prakai. The followers of 
his sect are to be found all over India even to-day. The 
following poems illustrate his thought : 

" The lamp is within the house (body), it has neither wick, nor 

oil nor flame, 

DharnT one should attach himself to Him in thought, word 

and deed 
There (in the abode of God) one walks without feet 

and cheers without hands, 
Without eves one sees the sight, and without ears hears 

the voice, 
DharnT climbed up only half the height, when he saw 

the form of light arise. 
And he beheld the fascinating image of exceedingly 

incomparable form. 
DharnT the throne is in the body, and the Lord (Sultan) 

is seated on it, 
There he accepts in audience (Mujra) all life and world 

(Jahdn) to its uttermost limits." 7 

He created you from water, hear, O ! my foolish mind, 
Such is the husband who is known as Khuda. 
You burnt for ten months (within the Mother *s womb), 
And when you became helpless you moved. 
You then promised with your own tongue, and vainly 

had the letters (of fate) written. 

And then you promised, O ! my foolish mind, that you 
woujd obey Him this time, if you were released 

from pain." s 

Pran Nath, founder of the sect of DharnTs, was a Ksha- 
triya who lived in the latter part of the seventeenth century 
in the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb. He acquired great in- 
fluence over Chhatrasal Raja of Panna by the discovery of a 

"Santa bam Sangrah : Vol. J, p. 115. 
* .'Ibid., Vol. II, p. 125. 


diamond mine, it is said. He was well acquainted with the 
sacred books of Islam, and he attempted to propagate a faith 
which should combine the two religions. In his Qulzum 
Sarup, a work in the Gujrata language, he brings together texts 
from the Qoran and the Vedas and shows that they are not 
incompatible. His creed proclaims the abolition of the 
worship of idols, of caste restrictions and the supremacy of 
the Brahmins. As a test of a disciple's assent to the real 
identity of the Hindu and Musalman creeds, the ceremony of 
initiation consists in eating in the society of both religions. 
He wrote fourteen treatises all in verse ; some extracts from 
his Qiyamat-nama are given below : 

Go to the followers (urnmcrf) and tell them, rise the 
faithful ones, for the day of resurrection has come. 
1 tell you in accordance with what the Qoran says, and 
1 relate before you the story. 

He who is a special leader of the following should stand 

I will only give this warning, that in the eleventh century 

(of the Hejira) you will become fearless 

All of you, whether Hindus or Muslims, will have a 

common faith . ' * 

He describes the history of the last eleven centuries, how 
Jesus Christ came first and then Muhammad and after him 
the Imams ; and then continues to give the story of Adam's 
fall, and Satan's ('Azaz'tVs) determination to destroy the race 
of man ; and then goes on to discuss the various prophecies 
Judaic, Muslim and Hindu which foretell the coming of the 
last prophet, who comes with this mission : 

" There was strife in the two worlds, and the path of 
action (Karma Kan<Ja) and of law (Shan' at) prevailed, he made 
known to all the path of reality (haqlqat) and gnosis (mafrifat). 
He cleared away the clouds from the sky, illumined the universe 
with the sun of light, and united the peoples of the world. 
The whole creation calls upon Khuda, makes its statement 


to Him and accepts His command. All worship the word 
(Suraf) of the Lord, or the Kalam (Word) of Allah. " 

The active careers of Jagjivan, Bulla Sahib, Kesava, 
Charandas, his two lady disciples Sahjo and Dayabai, Gharib- 
das, Shivanarayaii and Ram Sanehi, lay in the eighteenth 

JagjTvandas was born at Sardaha in the Barabanki district 
of the United Provinces in 1682 A.D. He was a Chandel 
Thakur and belonged to the school of Kablr. He spent most 
of his life at Kotwa between Barabanki and Lucknow. His 
teachings are contained in his three principal works /nan 
PrafoZs, Mahdpralaya and Pratham Granth. His disciples were 
drawn from all classes of people Brahmin, Thakur, Chamar 
and Muslim. ** He succeeded in establishing some community 
of thought between himself and Islam. Two at least of his 
disciples were Musalmans." 10 

He either re-organised the older Satnami sect which had 
suffered defeat from Aurangzeb's armies, or set up a new one 
with the same name. 

He taught the doctrine of the unity of God, whom he 
regarded as beyond all qualities (nirguna). He laid great 
stress upon self -surrender and indifference towards the world. 
He held that the goal of human endeavours was absorption in 
God through the help of a spiritual guide (guru). Truth, 
gentleness, and harmlessness were the main virtues in his 
moral code. 

In the following hymn he preaches the inwardness of 
religion : 

*' Oh what avail is the wearing of a rosary, or the 

putting on of the mark on the forehead ; 
Of what avail is the abandonment of food and fasting, 
or feeding on milk alone. 

Growe : MatHura, Aajawat NamaK. 
i lOGriwon: Satnimfe, E. R. .. Vol. XI. 


What is the use of mortification before five fires, of 
wearing skins, 

Of standing with face turned upwards or sitting in smoke 
or giving up the use of salt. 

What is the value of sitting and standing or of keeping 
silence and repeating the names ; 

Of being a learned man or a lecturer or of acquiring 
much knowledge. 

Why abandon wife and retire into forest, and practise 
asceticism ; 

The world forgets that without love all is fruitless. 

Stay at home, do not run away in all directions, medi- 
tate on the One who is beyond thought and 
beyond support ; in the expanse of the mind's 
sky His image is seen. He is different from all. 

He whose belief attains to Him, has ensured his destiny ; 
O Jagjlvan, place your head on the feet of the 
guru and then you will escape from the net of 
errors.'* 11 

How to meditate on God is told here : 

" Give up all thinking (fik r )< and become absorbed in 

meditation (zik r )- 
Make the parrot of attention (sruti) sit in the sky, and 

repeat the name of Han and thus teach him. 
The Lord (Sd'tn) is one, know Him as one. 
Never allow your mind to have any doubts 
Says Jagjivandas, see there the word (aru(r'), 
Fold the two hands together and adore the Lord/' 18 
And all human beings are recognized as essentially 
equal : 

" O Sadhu, the one Light shines in all, 

Think it over in your mind, there U no second. 

11 Jagjivan Sahib Kt&abdavali, p. 38. 
1 12 Ibid., p. 49. 


The blood and the body are the same, there is no 
Brahman or Sadhu ; 

Some are called men and some women, the Invisible 
(ghaibi) Purus (male) is in all." 13 

Bulla Sahib whose real name was Bulaqi Ram was a 
Kunbl by caste, who was employed for ploughing the fields 
of Gulal Sahib ; but the latter, struck by his piety and devotion, 
became his disciple. Bulla was a disciple of Yarl Sahib, and 
set up as a teacher in Bhurkuda, a village in the Ghazipur district 
of the United Provinces. His utterances are full of references 
to Yogic exercises, and he seems to have regarded the control 
of breath as an important part of worship. Apart from this, 
however, he is a Bhatya of the usual type. Here is an illustra- 
tion of his teachings : 

One who is mad (d'wana) after the Beloved (Mahbjb) 
drinks the cup, in the abode (khana) of the Un- 
conditioned (nirgun). 

The Unconditioned is the abode, the Tri^uti is the goal, 
and the association of the devotees the means of 

Every moment one should go to the Unconditioned 
abode, and should remain drunk during the eight 
parts of the day. Speak to the people of the 
Unconditioned form, O Bulla, and you have found 
the secret of the heavens/' 14 

And this is how he expresses his dependence on God from 
day to day : 

** O Lord, take my roll-call (hoziri), and enter it into 
the register (daftar). I am a poor neglected 
soldier, give me something day by day.** i:> 

lajagjivan Sahib Ki Sabdavali, p. 108. 
14 Bulla Sahib Ka Sabda Sar. p. 13. 
Klbid., p. 29. 


Kesavadas was a Bania by caste, and belonged to the 
order of Yarl Sahib, a Muslim saint (1668 1723) who lived and 
taught at Delhi. His warning (chetaVant) is given below : 

He maintains wealth (daolat), standards (nishan), dis- 
play, egotism (khudl) and pride, 

He shows no mercy to any soul in the world. 

He knows well that all this magnificence is transitory, 
and that Death goes about with its net to kill in an 

All this encampment of tents and elephants and horses, 
all these furnishings are illusory. 

Except the name of //an none of them will be of any 
use at the time of departure. 

I warn you over and over again, give up pride and the 

love of maya (world), why, O KesaDfl, are you 

agitated with the delusions of desire. " 1<; 

Charandas was born in 1703 A.D. at Dehra in Mewat, 

Rajputana. He was a Dhusar Bania by caste, and he founded 

his order at Delhi about 1730. He lived the life of a house- 

holder and accepted both men and women disciples. Of the 

latter Sahjo and Dayabai have acquired fame by their 

utterances (barn). His teaching is similar to that of Kabtr. 

it emphasizes the unity of God, the value of reliance upon His 

name, the need of devotion and the necessity of having a guru 

who is to be regarded as divine. He died in 1780. 

Charandas denounced idolatry. He says : 

** Keep your eyes on the Husband, what have you got 
to do with any other man ? 

Leave all the gods alone, and repeat the name of 

10 Sant Bant Sangrah, Vol. II. p. 176. 
*7 ibid., Vol. I, p. 147. 
P. U 


He had unlimited reverence for the preceptor : 
" Guru is like Siva who awakens you. 

Guru is Brahma, guru is Visruu, he fills up your empti- 

Guru is like the Ganges which washes away all sins, 
Guru is like the Sun which draws away all darkness." 3S 

Here is an illustration of his devotion : 

*' O benefactor of the poor (Gharib-nivaz), protect my 
honour, who will put my affairs straight, for every- 
thing is wrong with me ? 

O Han, you are called the lover of B/iafefas, the saviour 
of the fallen, fulfil the aspirations of thy people, 
look at them with eyes which will cool their 

You are a ship, 1 am your crew. I cannot leave you 
and go elsewhere. 

O Han, if you will punish me and throw me overboard, 
I shall never find a place of rest. 

O Lord, the whole world knows that Charandas has 
thrown himself on Your protection. 

If he is then laughed at, it will bring slight on You, please 
think of it." 1 * 

Sahjo and DaySbal were two sisters belonging to the same 
caste as Charandas who was their guru. Their hymns are 
full of tenderness and love. 

Gharibdas lived from 1717 to 1778 A.D. in the village of 
ChhudanI, Rohtak district, ther Panjab. He was a ]dt by caste 
and a householder in life. He belonged to the school ol 

Bam Sangrah, Vol, 11, p. 179. 
ibid.. Vol. II. p. 185. 



Kabir, and consequently his verses abound with Persian terms 
and Sufi allusions, for instance : 

** O Sahib (Lord), hear the sound of my prayer in your 
highest heaven ( % arsh). 

You are my father (pidar) and mother (madar) and you 
are bestower of favour (]^ar/m), it is becoming the 
Father to protect the honour of the son. 

I pray to you with folded hands, O Creator, 

My body and mind and wealth are an offering to You, 
vouchsafe to me your sight (cfie/ar)." 20 

And again 

Good conduct, patience, discrimination, understand- 
ing, mercy, and continuous dharma, and maintain 
also, intelligence ('aq/), certitude (yoqin), and 
faith (rman), and you will obtain the object which 
is their reality."- 1 

Ramcharan, the founder of the Ram Sane/it order, was 
born in 1718, at Surasena, in Jaipur territory. He was at first 
a Ramawat, but later became a staunch opponent of idol 
worship, and was therefore persecuted by Brahmins. The 
headquarters of his sect are at Shahpur, but they are represent- 
ed in several other places. The order consists of Sadhus 
only, and there are no lay members. They '* do not worship 
images. Their religious services are to some extent similar 
to those of the Muhammadans. Five services are held every 
day in their shrines.*'- 2 The order admits men of any caste, 
their religious and moral discipline is strict, and they have 
regular officers to enforce it. 

The Shwanarayarn order was established about the middle 
of the eighteenth century (1734 A.D.). The founder, Swam? 

20Sant Bam Sangrah, Vol. I, p. 193. 

31 Ibid., Vol. 1, p, 193. t 

22 BhatticKarya ; Hindu Castes and Sects, p. 447. 



Narayana Singh, belonged to the Naraunl Rajput tribe and was 
an inhabitant of Chandravar near Rasra in the Ballia district. 
The order has three monasteries in the Ballia district and one in 
Ghazipur. The Shivandrayariis adore the Absolute (Para Brahma) 
alone, and hold their Granth (book) in reverence. Persons 
cf all denominations are admitted without any distinction of 
caste or class. When a member of the sect dies his body is 
disposed of according to his instructions by burial, cremation 
or throwing in a river. Muhammad Shah the Mughal Emperor 
was a disciple of the founder, which is borne out by the 
following couplet : 

** He taught the word to Muhammad Shah, 

And obtaining his seal propagated the sect." 23 

The adhesion of the emperor gave a prestige to the order, 
which obtained popularity for it. The seal is still kept in the 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century and the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth, flourished Sahajanand, Dulandas, 
Gulal, Bhlka, and Paltoodas. They were among the back 
washes of the great wave which had arisen with Kablr in the 
fifteenth century, and which spread with great force and 
rapidity all over India in the succeeding three centuries, and 
which as the eighteenth century wore towards its close gradu- 
ally ebbed away, creating a cultural hollow into which 
European currents began to pour down. All of them were 
devotees inspired by the same ideas, they were reiterators 
and popularisers, they hardly added anything new to the 
religiousness or anything of great value to the rich treasures 
of devotional poetry. The social impulse was exhausted, *he 
empire was crumbling to pieces and society was torn by con- 
flict and disorder. In such circumstances men's minds were 
benumbed and their activities were clogged. India ceased to 

V ^ 

23Grier9on: ShivanlrSyama, J R.A.S., 1918, p. 114. 


Sahajananda, the founder of the Swarrii Nardyarii sect, 
was born near Ajodhia in 1780 A.D. He taught the worship 
of one God whom he called Krisna or Ndrdyana, and whose 
incarnation he was himself. He prohibited killing and the use of 
animal food or liquor or drugs, he insisted upon strict sexual 
relations, and denounced theft, robbery, false accusations, 
suicide and other evils. He observed no distinction of caste, 
and he rejected the worship of images. His priests were celi- 
bate. His ideas spread among Kolis, Bhils and Kathls of 
Western India. He was persecuted by the Maratha Peshwas, 
but he taught the doctrine of suffering injury without retalia- 
tion, and consequently many of his followers were beaten to 

Dulandas was a disciple of Jagjivandas who reorganised 
the Satndmi order. He was a SombansT Kshatriya, and lived 
in the district of Rai Bareli. He speaks of Mansur, Shamsi 
Tabriz, Nizamuddm, Hafiz, in his poems, one of which is 
given below : 

44 Now the sorrow of the heart has vanished, the 
Beloved has come into sight. 

Living in the company of saints, I have bowed my head 

before the true leader (hddi). . . . 
Every moment I have His face in my imagination 

(tasavvar), and His image shines in my heart, Bu 

'All Qalandar, Farfd and Tabriz have all sung of this 

same faith. 

With sincerity and patience, he has shown me Allah 
who is beyond space ({a mafedn) and beyond 

See, O peoples, Dulan, whose guru (preceptor) is Jag- 
jivan, has taken the Beloved to his heart. 

And the unique Husband, the Invisible Pretence 
hudhur) has entered into my heart/' 24 

24 Sant Bin! Sang rah. Vol. 1!, pp. 166-67. 


Gulal, who was born in the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century, hailed from Bash an, Ghazipur district. He belonged 
to the Kshatriya caste, and was a disciple of Bulla Sahib. The 
following lines give an idea of his poetic skill and religious 
beliefs : 

** The bee of the mind plays Vasanta, 

The unstruck music sounds in infinite space. 

The lotus opens and the bees make a noise, 

The Light expands its illumination. 

The heart is filled with joy to see it again and again ; 

When the mind becomes entangled, then it is enmeshed 

in the net. 

The current of Light flows in wave after wave, 
My heart is placed at the lotus feet. 
It does not come (take birth), nor does it go, the soul 

dies not, 

Gladly it drinks the immortal nectar again and again. 
The Lord is beyond reach, beyond perception, beyond 


I have found the Lord by seeing him with my eyes. 
Says Gulal my desire is fulfilled, 
I have triumphed over Varna and obtained an abode 

in Light.*' 25 

Bhlka was a disciple of Gulal. He taught in the district 
of Ghazipur, after the death of his guru, as his successor. His 
pantheistic outlook is, expressed in the following poem : 

** He himself (Khud) is the earth, from which a multi- 
tude of vessels are made, by the potter, whose 
creation has a wonderful variety. 

The name is like gold, it becomes ornament and appears 
as other, 

But whether it is pure or impure, the basis is gold 

25 Sam Bfini Sangrah. Vol. H, p. 205. 


The foam, the bubble, currents and waves are many, 
Know that the water is the same, whether it is sweet 
or salt. 

The soul has one caste, Bhtka holds this opinion. 
The robbers belong to His government (Sar^ar) as well 
as the travellers."- 

Paltoo Das was a resident of village Nagpur Jalalpur in 
the district of Faizabad. He belonged to the Kandu Bania 
community and was of the School of Bhikii. The following 
lines describe his career : 

" He took birth in Nanga Jalalpur, and dwelt in OuJh 
says Paltooprasad, his birth created a stir in the 

He destroyed the four castes and laid the root of Bhakii 
and in the garden of Guru Govinda, Paltoo the 
flower blossomed. 
He became a monk in Jalalpur city, and in Oudh broke 

the belt. 
God carries on transactions in the heart, Paltoo says, 

he is the Unconditioned trader/*- 7 

He showed the same familiarity with Sufi ideas as Kablr, 
and attempted the same kind of reconciliation of the two faiths 
as his great predecessor had done. He says. 

I have known Ndsut, Mal^ai, and Jabrut, 
and 1 have tested the delights of Lahut. 
The mature devotee is one whose heart is illumined, 
And who takes his seat in the Spaceless abode (lamer 


The secret of heaven has been opened, 
And the soul cries in the heart, Haq (the true), Haq. 

2GSant Bant Sangrah, Vol. (I, p. 213. 

27 Paltoo S5Hib Ki Bam, Vol. I, Life, p. I. . 


Paltoo Das says, he sees every minute and on all sides, 
Mecca." 28 

And with regard to Hindus and Muslims : 

** They say Rama is in the east, and Khudd in the west. 

Who then lives in the north and the south > 

Where is the Tx>rd, and where is He not? 
Why do the Hindus and Muslims raise a storm? 

The Hindu and Muslim have engaged in struggle, 
And the two faiths run into two opposing camps. 

Paltoo the slave says, the Lord is in all, 
He is not divided at all, this is the truth. "- ! * 

Here the account of the radical reformers of Hinduism 
must close. It was noticed before that there were two 
classes of religious leaders in India ; in the first class were 
Kabir, Nanak and others whose careers have been traced 
above, and to the second class belonged those whose thought 
was of a more conservative type. Among the latter were 
some who adored Rama and others who worshipped Krisna 
or Krisna and Radha. In all human societies there are groups 
of men of different spiritual needs ; for instance, it is im- 
possible for one group of men to conceive of God except in 
absolute terms, and their intellectual bias excludes from that 
conception every human quality ; then there is another group 
which supremely feels the want of a God who has something 
in common with themselves, who is not a mere abstract im- 
personal entity, an abstract and impersonal consciousness, 
command, or love, but something that is personal, a teacher, 
a ruler, a father, a lover ; still others need an even more 
concrete personality on whom they can depend, a person 
who can stand before them as an idea], or a person in whose 
history they can take a living interest, in short an incarnation 
of God who dwells amidst men and shares with man his 
sorrows, griefs and burdens. 

28P*hoo Sahib Ki Bant, Vol. II, p. 44 (1). t 

% 2 l\ud., Vol. tt, p. 5. 


The Hindus call the first group the worshippers of the 
absolute (Nirguna upasaka), whether their path be that of 
action or knowledge or devotion ; and the second group the 
worshippers of the qualified Brahman (Saguna), among them 
some believe in incarnations and the others do not. The 
absolute may again be transcendent or immanent or both. 
The radical reformers were generally speaking worshippers 
of the absolute who was both transcendent and immanent and 
as the Muslim Sufis had the same conception of God, the two 
came together and saw that there was no essential difference 
in their religions. 

The second group among the Hindus was that of wor- 
shippers of Sioa and Visnu, the last in his two manifestations 
as Rama or Krisna. They had their counterpart among 
orthodox Muslims who regarded God as the Lord and Ruler ; 
but it was impossible for these two to make any approach 
towards an understanding, because both were entrenched 
behind fixed systems of revealed books, inspired and irrevoc- 
able commands, and divinely sanctioned rites and institutions. 
To this group mainly belonged the conservatives, the learned 
on both sides, and the priests whose interests were vested in 
the maintenance of a particular social and economic order 
But the presence of Islam in India could hardly fail to impress 
even them, and they too shov/ed in certain aspects its influ- 
ence. In an earlier chapter it has been shown how Hinduism 
in the south reacted towards Islam, how contact with Islam 
accentuated its monotheism, tended to remove disqualifications 
of caste, strengthened the movement of devotion, introduced 
new elements in its doctrines about the teacher, relaxed the 
rigours of the cult without entirely abolishing it, and encourag* 
ed the use of the popular languages. 

In the north the same features appeared. It is hardly 
necessary to enter into a detailed analysis of the literature 
of the two schools, the one regarding Rama as the 
supreme deity to be adored and the other, Kriina. Raman and a 
and Vallabha were the founders of the two schools* in *lhe 


north, but the best exponents of their ideas in the Hindi 
language were Tulsidas and Surdas. Both have wielded an 
enormous influence upon the Hindu mind, but as the objecc 
of this thesis is not to describe all the sects which were deve- 
loped in Hinduism, but only those which show the distinct 
influence of Islam, they fall outside its ambit. It may how- 
ever be remarked that the language of both Tulsidas and 
Surdas shows evident traces of this influence, for both use 
quite a number of words v/hich had been made current by 


OUTSIDE the vast region in which Hindi or some dialect of 
Hindi is spoken, among the peoples whose language is 
Marathi or Bengali, movements similar to that already discussed, 
arose. In Bengal the MusaJmans appeared in the twelfth 
century and in Maharastra a hundred years later. Their 
presence in both regions created upheavals social, political 
and religious. 

In Bengal at the time of the arrival of the Muslims, Bud- 
dhism was undergoing a complete transformation. The old 
faith was being replaced by either Pauraqic Hinduism or a 
strange mixture of many cults, Buddhist, &aiva and Tan/rife, 
The revival of Hinduism which took place under Pala and Sen 
Kings and which was not unaccompanied with persecution 
led to the establishment of Brahman supremacy, caste differ- 
ences and image worship. Sanskrit was the medium of its 
expression, and it naturally discouraged the language of the 
common people. But side by side with Paurartic Hinduism 
the old cults continued to exist, although in veiled forms* 
When, therefore, the Muslim conquest took place, it gave a 
definite check to Brahmanism, but encouraged the half- 
suppressed ancient cults, stimulated the movement of reform, 
and encouraged the growth of Bengali literature. 

Dinesh Chandra Sen in his monumental history of Bengali 
language and literature handsomely acknowledges the debt 
which the language owes to the patronage of the Muslim 
rulers. He says, 

** This elevation of Bengali to a literary status was 
brought about by several influences, of which the Muhain- 
madan conquest was undoubtedly one of the formosl. If 



the Hindu kings had continued to enjoy independence 
Bengali would scarcely have got an opportunity to find its 
way to the court of Kings.*' 1 The Muslim rulers of Bengal 
appointed scholars to translate the Ramayana and the Maha- 
bharata from Sanskrit into Bengali which they spoke and 
understood. The translation of the Mahabharata was under- 
taken at the order of Nasir Shah who ruled at Gaur till 1325 
A.D. Vidyapati, the celebrated Maithili poet, dedicated his 
song to Nasir Shah and spoke with admiration of Sultan 
Ghiyas Uddm. Raja Kans whose successor became a convert 
to Islam, patronised Krittivasa, the translator of the Ramayana ; 
" his court was stamped with Moslem influence/'- The 
Bhagwata was translated under the patronage of the Emperor 
Husain Shah : the translator Maladhar Vasu received from him 
the title of Gunraja Khan. Husain Shah's general, Parangal 
Khan had another translation of the Mahabharata made by 
Kavlndra Parameswar. Parangal Khan's son ChhutI Khan, 
governor of Chittagong, employed Srikarana Nandi for trans- 
lating the Asoamedha Parva of the Mahabharata. 'Alaol 
a Musalman translated Malik Muhammad Ja'isi's Hindi Padma- 
vata into Bengali, as well as some Persian work. ** Instances 
of like nature, where Muhammadan emperors and chiefs 
initiated and patronised translations of Sanskrit and Persian 
works into Bengali, are numerous, and we are led to believe, 
that when the powerful Moslem sovereigns of Bengal granted 
this recognition to the Vernacular language in their courts, 
Hindu rajas naturally followed suit . . . Thus the appointment 
of Bengali poets to the courts of Hindu Rajas, grew to be a 
fashion after the example of the Moslem chiefs." 3 

1 Dinesh Chandra Sen : History of Bengali Language and Literature, 
p. 10. 

2 Ibid., p. 12. 

a Hid., pp. 13-14. 


The results of Muslim intercourse with the Hindu popu- 
lation appeared early in the history of Hindu sects in Bengal. 
The representatives of the older faiths were highly gratified 
with the suppression of Brahmanism and even with Muslim 
vandalism. The followers of the Dharma cult, a modified form 
of Mahay dnism, could hardly contain themselves with glee at 
the chastisement which their erstwhile oppressors suffered. In 
their sacred book entitled Sunya Puraqa and written in the 
eleventh century by Ramai Pandit, there is a chapter headed 
" the anger of Niranjan " (Niranjancr Rukhm), and evidently 
interpolated in the fourteenth century, which refers to a free 
fight between the Muhammadans and the Brahmanas at 
Jajpur. It is thus rendered by Dinesh Chandra Sen, " In 
Jaipur and Maldah sixteen hundred families of Vedic Brah- 
mins mustered strong. Being assembled in groups of ten or 
twelve they killed the Sat-Dharmis (Buddhists) who would not 
pay them religious fees, by uttering incantations and curses. 
They recited mantras from the Vcdas and fire came out of 
their mouths, as they did so. The followers of Sai~Dharma 
trembled with fear at the sight thereof, and prayed to Dharma ; 
for who else could give them succour in that crisis? The 
Brahmins began to destroy the creation in the above manner, 
and acts of great violence were perpetrated on the earth* 
Dharma who resided in Baik^nfha was grieved to see all this. 
He came to the world as a Muhammadan. On his head he 
wore a black cap, and in his hand he held a cross-bow. He 
mounted a horse and was called Khoda. Niranjana incarnat- 
ed himself in Bhest (heaven). All the gods being of one mind, 
wore trousers. Brahma incarnated himself as Mohammad, 
Visriu as Paigambar and Siva became Adamfa (Adam). 
Ganesa came as a Gdzi, Kdrtikfl as a Kdzi, Ndrada became a 
Sekha and Indra a Moulana. The Risia of heaven became 
Fakirs. The sun, the moon, and the other gods came in the 
capacity of foot-soldiers, and began to beat drums. The god- 
dess Chandi incarnated herself as Hay a Blbi and PadmavatT 
became Bill Nur. The gods being all of one miftd eStered 


Jajpur. They broke the temples and mafias and cried ' seize/ 
* seize.' Falling at the feet of Dharma, Ramai Pandit sings, 
** O \vhat a great confusion.*' 4 

The Dharma Gajan and Bad a Jandrii songs bristle with 
spite and jealousy against the Brahmanas, and are interspersed 
with Muslim ideas. There is a Dehdra Bhanga (breaking of 
a temple) song entitled Dharma Pujd Paddhati (the method of 
worshipping Dharma) : 

** Then of Dehara Bhanga, 

The Khonkara is worshipping with his face towards 
the west. 

Some worship Alia, some 'All, and others Mamud Sai 

The midn kills no living things nor eats dead ones. 
He is cooking his food over a slow fire. 

The caste distinction will slowly be broken for, 
behold, there's a Mohammedan in a Hindu 
family ; 

Khodas Rahman has called a meeting. 

The crow is asking and Dharma is deciding where 
Khodd was first born. . . . 

Thou art, O Khodd, I know, superior to all others. 

How 1 wish to hear the Qoran from thy lips ! 
Niranjana transformed to Alia will confer blessings. 

May the enemies of A mm fall under the wrath of 

The Bada Jandrii (proclamation) ends thus : 

" May PIT Paygambara shower his blessings on our 
heads and may our formidable enemies fall and 
die under the wrath of Qufub. 

4Dines)i Chandra Sen: Op. cit , pp. 36-37. 


Thus has Ramai Pandit sung only the Proclamation, 
(and he hopes that) the Lord will confer boons on 
the leader. " 3 

The worship of Sica was at one time a leading factor in 
the religion of Bengal ; as early as the times of Hiuen Tsiang 
Sasanka, a Saiva ruler of Bengal, persecuted the Buddhists, 
destroyed their temples and set up images of Siva in place of 
those of Buddha. Since his times the worship had grown in 
great favour. But with the changes produced by the Muslim 
conquest Siva worship declined, and new beliefs grew up. In 
the words of Dinesh Chandra Sen, " the Muhammadans with 
their vigorous living faith, had by this time come to Bengal. 
Their Qoran which they believed to be inspired, lays it down 
that the God of Islam helps believers and destroys unbelievers. 
The strong belief of Islam in a personal God had to be count- 
eracted in this country by forms of religion in which the 
personal element of divinity predominated. So the 5<ifefa and 
the Vaisriava religions flourished and the Saiva religion with 
its impersonal ideal and mysticism in which man rose to the 
level of his God in the Advaituada, was gradually thrown into 
the background, as the masses did not comprehend its 
speculative features.** 

As a result of this interaction of Hinduism and Islam 
curious syncretic cults and practices arose. The Hindus 
offered sweets at Muslim shrines, consulted the Qoron as an 
oracle, kept its copies to ward off evil influences, and cele- 
brated Muslim feasts, and the Musalmans responded with 
similar acts. 

Out of this close comradeship grew the worship of a 
common God, adored by Hindus and Musalmans alike, name- 
ly, Satya Plr. The Emperor Husain Shah of Gau<Ja is sup- 
posed to be the originator of the cult, and if that is so, he may 
be regarded as a precursor of the illustrious Akbar. 

6 Bcnoy Kumar Sarkar : Folk Element in Hindu Culture, pp. 22629, 
6D. C Sen: Op. cit., pp. 234-35. > f 


But of far greater importance was the effect of this inter- 
action on the movement inaugurated by Chaitanya. The 
conditions of religious life before the birth of Chaitanya are 
thus summarised in the History of Bengali language and 
literature : ** The power of the Brahmans had become op- 
pressive. The rules of caste became more and more stringent 
as Kulinism was stereotyped. While better ideals in religion 
were upheld by the Brahmins, the gap between man and man 
was widened by caste restrictions. The lower strata of 
society groaned under the autocracy of the higher, who shut 
the portals of learning against the inferior classes. They were 
also debarred from. having any access to a higher life, and the 
religion of the new School (PaurapiJt) became the monopoly 
of the Brahmins as if it were the commodity of the market- 
place.'* 7 

The simple faith and the democratic ideals of Islam in- 
fringed upon this society and produced a ferment which was 
focussed by Chaitanya. 8 He was born of Brahmana parents 
at Nadia in 1485 A.D. His father died when he was quite a 
child, his mother sent him to school, where he became pro- 
ficient in grammar and logic. He was married at the age of 
eighteen, and he set up as a teacher when he was twenty. 
But later the spirit which has called so many earnest Hindus 
away from the world came upon him ; he left home and 
wandered over the whole country. In his travels he came into 
touch with Sddhus and Faqirs. In his biography written by 
Krisnadas a meeting with Pathans near Brindaban is thus 
described, " One of the Muslims, a grave man clad in black 
and called a Pir, was melted at heart on seeing the master 
(Chaitanya). He propounded monotheism and one common 
God, on the basis of his holy book/' but of course the master 
refuted him. " There are various incidents in the life of 
Chaitanya which prove conclusively that he dearly loved the 

?D. C. Sen: Op. cit., pp. 415-14, 
ftgadunath Sarkar: Chaitanya, p. 226. 


** But whether he loved the Yaoana or not, it is 
undoubted that his teaching was affected by the Yauana'a 
ideas. He died in 1533 A.D. 

The essence of Chaitanyism is given in two sentences by 
Krisnadas, ** if a creature adores Krisna and serves his Ciuru, 
he is released from the meshes of illusion and attains to 
Krisna' s feet/* 10 and. " leaving these (i.e., temptations) and 
the religious systems based on caste, (the true Vaiinava) help- 
lessly takes refuse with Krisna-" n Chaitanya thus condemn- 
ed the whole ritualistic system of the Brahmanas, and preached 
faith in Hari. According to him worship consisted in love 
and devplion, and song and dance, producing a state of 
ecstasy in which His presence was realised. All men were 
competent to perform this worship, irrespective of caste and 
creed. Chaitanya had disciples from the lowest strata of 
Hindu society and from among Musalmanft, three of the 
principal ones Rup, Saiiatan and Haridasa being Muslims. 

From the school of Chaitanya branched out the sect of 
Kartabhajas. The founder of the sect was a Sadgop named 
Ram Smaran Pal known as Karta Babn. He was born about 
the end of the seventeenth century, near Chakdaha in Nadia. 
/His birth was foretold by a Muslim Faqlr, who also brought 
him up. Karta lived for eighty-four years and died in a 
village near the place of his birth. He left behind twenty- 
two disciples (Bd'ts Faqlr), one of whom named Ram Dalai 
succeeded as the head of the sect ; in him the spirit of the 
Muslim Faqir was incarnated. He organized the sect and 
laid down its precepts in a series of songs. The doctrines 
of the Kartabhajas are : 

(1) There is only one God, who is incarnate in Karta. 

(2) The Mahdsaya or spiritual guide must be all in all to 

his Baratl or disciple. 

! Jadu Bhathacharya : Hindu Castes and Sc-U, p. 464. 
Kijadunath Sarkar : Op. cit., p. 278. 
f 11 Ibid., p. 281. t 

R 15 


(3) The Mantra or religious formula of the sect must be 

repeated five times a day as a means of salvation 
and of obtaining material prosperity. 

(4) Meat and Wine must be abstained from. 

(5) Friday must be held sacred and should be spent in 

religious meditation and discussion. 

(6) There is no distinction in the cult between high 

caste and low, or between Hindus, Musalmans 
and Christians. A Musalman has more than once 
risen to the rank of a teacher. The members of 
the sect eat together, at least once or twice in 
the year. 

(7) No outward sign of adherence to the sect is required. 

A Hindu may retain his sacred thread, and a 
Musalman need not shave on becoming a member 
of the sect. 

(8) Fervid love or Bhakti is the only religious exercise 


About the end of the thirteenth century the Muslims 
began the conquest of the Deccan. By the middle of the 
fourteenth century they had not only completely subjugated 
it, but they had also established an independent Muslim kingdom 
there. The Bahmam rulers of the Deccan like their contem- 
poraries in Bengal, fostered the growth of the literature and art 
of the people whom they governed. The Marathi language was 
used in the offices of the *Adil Shah! and Qutb Shahi king- 
doms, and Marathas were employed as revenue officers and 
even as commandants. Qutb Shah was a patron of culture 
and himself a poet of considerable power, and wrote exten- 
sively in the Dakhm language which was a mixture of Hindi 
and Persian. The intercourse of Hindus and Musalmans 
produced the same cultural phenomena in Maharastra as it 
had done in Hindustan and Bengal. 1 - The Marathi saints and 

12 Census of India (1901, Vol. VI. Bengal). 


hymn-singers effected the same kind of synthesis of the two 
faiths as was done by Kabir and Nanak in the north. Ranade 
describes the beginning of the movement thus: ** The severity 
of the monotheistic creed of the Muhammadans was distinct- 
ly impressed upon the minds of these prophets (Kabtr, Nanak 
and others). The worshippers of Dattatraya or the incarnation 
of the Hindu Trinity, often clothed their God in the garb of 
a Muhammadan Faq'ir, This same influence was at work with 
greater effect on the popular mind in Maharaatra, where 
preachers, both Brahmans and non-Brahmans, were calling the 
people to identify Rama with Rohim, and ensure their free- 
dom from the bonds of formal ritualism and caste distinctions, 
and unite in common love of man and faith in God." l<{ 

The history of religious upheaval in Maharastra goes back 
to the times of Jnanesvar who completed his Marathi com- 
mentary of the Bhagvad Gita in 1290 A.D. Jnanesvar had a 
tremendous influence on the language and thought of Maha- 
rastra. but the first of the saintly array of men who changed 
the faith of the country and turned the minds of men from 
the priest-ridden ceremonial of a narrow creed to freedom and 
love was Namdev. He is remembered by every saint of 
Maharastra, Hindustan, Rajputana and the Punjab as the first 
historic name in the long list of fi/iafefas. The dale of his birth 
according to tradition is 1270 A.D., but Bhandarkar for very 
good reasons assigns him to the fourteenth century. 

Bhakti in Maharastra centred round the shrine of Vithoba 
at Pandharpur on the banks of the Bhtma. But although thus 
associated with a particular temple and a particular image, it 
was really not idolatrous in its character, Vithoba was a 
symbol and a convention but not an idol. Thus the character- 
istics of the Krisnaite religion of devotion in Maharaslra were 
hardly distinguishable from those of the radical reformers of 
the north. Its results as summarised by Ranade were the 
development of the vernacular literature, the modification of 


13 Rlnlde: Rise of the Maratha Power, pp. 50-51. 


caste exclusiveness, the sanctification of family life, the ele- 
vation of the status of women, the spread of humaneness and 
toleration, partial reconciliation with Islam, the subordination 
of rites and ceremonies, pilgrimages and fasts, learning and 
contemplation to the worship of love and faith, the limitation 
of the excesses of polytheism and the uplift of the nation to 
a higher level of capacity both of thought and action. 14 

Namdev was a disciple of Khechar who was definitely 
hostile to idol worship ; he received the following instructions 
from his Guru : 

" A stone-god never speaks. What possibility then of 
his removing the disease of mundane existence? 
A stone image is regarded as God, but the true God 
is wholly different. If a stone-god fulfils desires, 
how is it he breaks when struck? Those who adore 
a god made of stone lose everything through their 
folly. Those who say and hear that a god of stone 
speaks to his devotees, are both of them fools. 
Those who extol the greatness of such a god and 
call themselves his devotees, should be regarded as 
worthless persons, and their words should not be 
heard by the ear. If, by chiselling a stone, a god 
is made of it and is worshipped with care for many 
years, will he be of use at any time? Do reflect on 
this well in your mind. Whether a holy place is 
small or large, there is no God but stone or water. 
In the village of DvadasT (Barsi) instruction was 
given that there is no place which is devoid of God. 
That God was shown to Nama in his heart, and thus 
Khechar conferred a blessing on him." 15 

"Ranade: Op. cit., pp. 50-51. 

l 5 Bhandarkar : Vaisnaviam and Saivism, p. 99. 


This is now Namdev exposes the inefficacy of the external 
acts of religion : 

" Vows, fasts, and austerities are not all necessary ; nor 
is it necessary for you to go on a pilgrimage. Be 
you watchful in your hearts and always sing the 
name of Hari. It is not Accessary to give up eating 
food or drinking water ; fix your mind on the feet of 
Han. Yoga or sacrificial ceremonies or giving up 
objects of desire is not wanted. Realise a fondness 
for the feet of Han'." 

The following hymn describes the goal which Nama desired 
to attain : 

Now all my days with joy I'll fill 
Full to the brim. 

With all my heart to Vitfhal cling 
And only him. 

He will sweep utterly away 
All dole and care ; 
And all in sunder shall 1 rend 
Illusion's snare. 

O ! altogether dear is he 
And he alone, 

For all my burden he will take 
To be his own. 

Lo ! all the sorrow of the world 
Will straightway cease. 
And all unending now shall be 
The reign of peace. 

For all the bondage he will break 
Of worldly care, 
And all in sunder will he rend 
Illusion's snare. 

10 Bhandarkar : VaisnavUm and Saivism, p. 90, 


From all my foolish fancies now 

Let me be free. 

In Vitthal, Vi^hal only is 

Tranquillity. 17 

Namdev was the leader of a goodly host f which carried 
forward the traditions which he handed over to them. Among 
these saints a few were women, a few were Muslim converts 
to Hinduism, nearly half of them were Brahmins, while the 
remaining ones were drawn from all the other castes 
'* Maratha, Kunbi, tailors, gardeners, potters, goldsmiths, re- 
pentant prostitutes, and slave girls, even the outcaste 
Mahars." 1 * 

Namdev's spirit breathed in their teachings. This is how 
Chokhamela, a Mahar, replied to the remonstrances of a 
Brahman priest on entering the temple of Pandharpur. He 
said : ** What availeth birth in high caste, what availeth rites 
or learning, if there is no devotion or faith? Though a man 
be of low caste, yet if he is faithful in heart, and loves God, 
and regards all creatures as though they were like himself, 
and makes no distinction between his own and other people's 
children, and speaks the truth his caste is pure, and God is 
pleased with him. Never ask a man's caste when he has in 
his heart faith in God, and love of men. God wants in his 
children love and devotion, and he does not care for his 



Bahiram Bhaf twice changed his religion in order to find 
the truth that would satisfy the cravings of his heart. Both 
Hindus and Muslims found fault with him for these changes 
of faith, but he disclaimed being either Hindu or Muslim. 

The followers of Shaikh Muhammad who became 
Bhatytas observe both the Ramzdn and the EfeaJasi fast, and 
make pilgrimages both to Mecca and to Pandharpur. 

i"Macnicoll : Hymns of the Maratha Saints, p. 47. 

: Op. cit., p. 146. 
p. 154. * 


Tukaram who after Namdev was the greatest of Maratha 
saints, and who wields the widest influence in Maharastra, 
was equally eclectic. He was a contemporary of SivajT and 
one of the inspirers of the spirit which welded the Marathas 
into a people united in common aims and aspirations. He 
was born at Dehy, near Poona, about 1608 A.D. He belonged 
to the Maratha caste, and came from a family which had 
been for several generations devoted to the worship of 
Vithoka. His father was a petty trader, who entrusted his 
business to him when he was only a boy of thirteen. On the 
death of his father four years later the business fell into con- 
fusion, out of which it was rescued for a time through the 
help of one of his wives. But this prosperity did not last 
long, he gave away his money to a needy person who was 
threatened with imprisonment and himself became bankrupt. 
A famine followed, and one of his wives was starved to death. 
Tukaram became intensely disgusted with worldly life, gave 
up all business and devoted himself completely to contempla- 
tion and devotion. His life of piety and service made him 
popular with the people all round. But the Brahrqanas became 
jealous of his fame and subjected him to persecution. Sivaji 
whose star was just rising, however, became his admirer and 
tried to offer him wealth, comfort and ease, which of course 
was refused. 

Tukaram's teachings are embodied in his numerous 
Abhangas which number between five and eight thousand. They 
deal with all aspects and every problem of religion as it pre- 
sented itself to the peoples of India in that period, the nature 
of God, His relation with the world and man. His grace, the 
destiny of man, the method of realization, the standard of 
virtue, the path of devotion, the obstacles, sufferings and 
triumphs of the devotee, the emotions accompanying various 
stages of religious life, the snares of the world and of sense, 
the character of saints, the need of the preceptor, the use- 
lessness of externalia, the iniquity of social distinctions and 
so on. _ t 


Tukaram's conception of God was almost identical with 
that of Kablr. He says : 

*' He has neither form nor name, nor place of abode ; 
He is present wherever we go, Vifthal our mother 
and sister. He knows neither form nor change 
of form, He pervades the moving and immovable 
world. He is neither with nor without attributes ; 
who, indeed, can know Him? He will turn to 
none says Tuka, who has not faith in Him.'*- 

The immanence of God and the sanctity of life and the 
offering of all actions to Him are taught in the following 
hymn : 

** We see Thy footprints everywhere ; form, name and 
shape belong all to the cloud-coloured one. If 
we roll on the ground it is nothing but a place 
for God's images to stand on ; because our mind 
is fully fed on Thy love, every moment of time 
is auspicious to us. Thou art all to us, O God ; 
our life, our hope and our vocation. When we 
finish our meal and eat fruit or betel nut, it is 
all an offering in Thy honour. When we walk 
we are walking round 1 hy image ; in sleep we 
are prostrate before Thee, like a rod on the 
earth. When we meet people to talk with them, 
we see Thy image in every one. Lakes, rivers 
and wells to us arc holy places, full of the water 
of the Ganges. Palaces, storeyed mansions and 
huts of grass are all temples of Go3. Every 
sound that we hear is Hans name, whatever 
words are or have been uttered. Tuka says, we 
servants of Visnu are fully fed on His love/' 21 

SOFraser and Marathe : Hymns of Tukaram, Vol. II. p. 154. 
% 31 Ibid., Vol. II, pp. 169170. * 


God's grace is spoken of thus : 

They need not ask God for anything ; He comes 
running to serve them/'-- and 

44 At a call Thou art drawn to Thy worshippers. So 
sure is Thy mercy, says Tuka, that with Thee 
there can be no delay."-'' 1 

In a number of Abhangas** he indicates the nature of 
true worship, and rejects ceremonies, offering Vedic sacrifices, 
visiting holy places, worshipping stones, putting on saints' 
guise, fasts, and austerities. And this is how he describes 
the goal of human life : 

** Calm is life's crown ; all other joy beside 
Is only pain. 

Hold Thou it fast, Thou shalt, whate'er betide, 
The further shore attain. 

When persons rage and we are wrung with woe 
And sore distress, 

Comes calm, and then yea, Tuka knows it lo ! 
The fever vanishes."- 1 " 

Tukaram's attempt at reconciling Hindu and Muslim 
faiths is evidenced in the hymns translated below : 

44 What Allah wishes that is accomplished, O! my friend 

(Babd), the Maker is the sovereign of all. 
Cattle and friends, gardens and goods all depart. 
My mind dwells, O ! friend, on my Lord (Sahib) who is 
the Maker, 

I ride there on the back of 
self becomes the horses 

-a Fraser and Marfithe : Op. fit., Vj 
33 Ibid.. Vol. II. p. 190. 

iMlbid., Vol. II. pp. 411, 415. 
** -'"> Macnicoli : Op. cit., p. 80. 


O ! friend, meditate (zifcr) on Allah, who is in the guise 
of all, 

Says Tuka, the man who understands this becomes a 


First among the great names is Allah, never forget to 

repeat it. 
Allah is verily one, the prophet (nabl) is verily one. 

There Thou art one, there Thou art one, there Thou 
art one, O! friend. 

There is neither I nor thou." 27 

20Tukaram: AbKanga (Godbole's edition), p. 86. 
27 Ibid., p. 85. 


RELIGION and art are expressions of culture in two different 
media. The evolution of culture may, therefore, be traced 1 
equally well in either of them, for the consciousness of a race 
changes organically and in all parts together. Perhaps art is 
a more sensitive indication of change than even religion, 
which in its nature is more subjective, while art lives in objec- 
tive form alone. In estimating then the influence of Islam 
upon Hindu art, it is essential to understand the formative 
influences which mould civilizations and shape their aesthetic 
needs and values. 

Civilization is the organization of experience, which man 
gains by working both in harmony and in conflict with nature. 
Common pursuit with and struggle against nature are the 
warp and woof from which is woven the stuff of civilization. 
The character of a particular civilization depends upon the 
disposition and temperament of man as well as the nature of 
his environment, and on their mutual and dynamic interaction. 
Men are fundamentally alike everywhere : they all possess 
similar psychological endowments, they are all moved by the 
same set of instincts, impulses and feelings, and they all 
function intellectually in a similar manner. But, although 
essentially alike, men have enormous differences in the 
strength and temper of their emotional, intellectual and voli- 
tional powers. Living together in similar surroundings for 
long periods tends to develop in different groups, different, 
types of character and mentality, which distinguish one com- 
munity from another. 

Thus it happens that, in spite of the unity of human 
nature, diversities of culture are produced. Although the in- 
stincts remain the same they are differently stimulated, the 
flow of emotional energy occupies different channels, senti- 
ments are organized from different groups of emotions, intej- 

220 * 


lect is exercised on different elements of perception and 
thought, and the mutual relationship of the conative and 
affective aspects of the mind so varies as to produce from 
similar elements entirely different attitudes and behaviours. 
The different groups organize differently the psychological 
facts of their experience and entertain dissimilar outlooks upon 
life, and, although no two individuals are alike in a community, 
each community as an organism differs from the others in its 
institutions and ideals. 

Each distinct community so organized has a history. It 
develops from an inner impulse of its life and its course is 
directed, stimulated or retarded, by its environment which itself 
is changing. Then the communities interact upon one an- 
other, for they do not live in isolation. They coalesce, absorb 
or conquer. New material is always pouring into the old 
casts, and either breaking them up or taking their mould. 
Thus the world process continues, and out of the conflict of 
races and the clash of civilizations new communities and new 
civilizations grow. 

Every civilization which is thus formed passes through a 
cycle of change. It starts with definite, although unconscious, 
tendencies which it seeks to realize in its career. It attains the 
period of its highest expansion, when its capacities are matur- 
ed and their expression is most adequately achieved. Then 
follows a downward movement ; the original impulse is ex- 
hausted and either the civilization decays and dies out or its 
life is renewed by the appearance of a new impulse. The 
impulse whether sociological or intellectual may come from 
within or without. The character of the new civilization will 
be determined by the power of the new impulse, which may 
be so violent as to revolutionize the old civilization or it may 
only modify it. 

The history of the Balkan peninsula affords the aptest 
illustration of the principles enunciated here. The /Egean 
peoples who were originally settled there took nearly two 
thousand years to pass through the many stages of their \:ul- 


ture, and then they developed a highly characteristic civiliza- 
tion whose magnificent monuments are to be seen at Mykenne, 
Tiryns and Crete. When they had apparently attained the 
climax of their achievement, the Greek races broke through 
the Balkan passes and put an end to their development. Then 
the Greeks started on the path of civilization, and out of the 
alchemy of the mixing of races grew Athens and Sparta and 
the city states of Greece. It took several hundred years to 
accomplish the process of assimilation and then a new culture 
arose which, in the instance of Athens, mounted the crest of 
the wave in the Periclean age. Then followed the stasis of 
Hellenism, of that culture which was as different from the 
Mykenian as from any other that the world has ever known. 
Although Hellenism spread beyond the bounds of Hellas and 
became a world culture, the civilization of Greece became 
moribund. Later in the same land, another civilization, 
the Byzantine, passed through its cycles of growth and decay ; 
and the future may yet see in the same theatre the enactment 
of the drama of the rise and fall of the new Greek race. The 
/Egean, Hellenic, Hellenistic, Byzantine and modern Greek 
civilizations succeeded one another and yet each differs 
fundamentally from the others. 

Greece is the epitome of world history. For humanity is 
like a sea in which billows arise under the urge of wind and 
moon and cosmic forces, and they gather volume and speed, 
and they travel. For a while on their crest appears the play 
of light and spray and of wondrous scenes, and then they 
gradually begin to fall and become slow, until they settle down 
and disappear in the deep calm of the sea from which they 
rose. And so the process of human life goes on. 

What part has India taken in this world process, and how 
has its civilization been shaped under the age-long effort of 
humanity to explore the most varied avenues and to sound the 
most profound depths of human experience? How has the 
Indian mind sought to grasp reality and what insight and vision 
have helped to illumine its art and culture? * 


To understand the Hindu mind it is essential to know its 
environment. Warde Fowler noticed the wide difference in 
the development of the Indo-Germanic races in Asia and 
Europe, and sought its cause in the nature of the terrain on 
which the Aryan tribes entered. The Greeks and Italians 
settled down in small river valleys separated by mountains 
and seas, and the Persians and Indians in vast plains unending 
and unlimited. The first crystallized into small city states 
where life became intense and the bonds of community 
close, while the second spread out into loosely joined, free and 
easy tribal organizations ruled by autocratic sovereigns. 
Rabindranath Tagore f searching for the secret of European 
culture, the fierce antagonisms of its nationalities, the almost 
complete anarchy of its domestic and personal life, the won- 
derful order and discipline of its social and political organ- 
izations, the peculiar character of its analytic intellect most 
victoriously working itself out in science and industry, finds 
it in the walls and moats which surrounded the cities of 
Europe, and which were at once the symbols of defiance and 
strife, protection and order. 

Such being the influence of man's surroundings it id neces- 
sary to understand the Hindu's environment. Vast, flat, un- 
ending plains watered by broad slow-moving rivers, the 
horizon limited in the far distance by lofty mountain chains 
covered with white eternal snows, or thick, impenetrable 
forests, or inhospitable barren hills such is the outward 
aspect of the land. Nature plays upon it in fierce but well- 
regulated moods. Summer, rains and winter follow one an- 
other in unfailing succession. The intense heat of the tropical 
sun dries up all vegetation and leaves the open plains naked, 
bare and lifeless ; and when man and earth are panting with 
thirst come the rains with storm and thunder suddenly, swiftly 
and widely but on almost the appointed day, and in the 
twinkling of an eye the whole aspect of the land is changed, 
life is re-born with an abundance and luxuriance whicji 
are utterly bewildering. Then follows the mild, exhilarating 


winter with its sowings, swift ripening and joyful harvesting 
when the heaps of corn % lie thick upon the ground and over- 
flow the granary. The sky of India is always bright, and its 
nights wonderfully, unspeakably, beautiful ; for when the sun 
sets swiftly ushering in the night, the silent procession of a 
myriad stars gradually comes out filling in the dark mysterious 
firmament, and it whispers unutterable mysteries to those who 
lie listening under the vault of heaven gazing into the im- 
measurable immensities above. Day follows night, one 
season another, the exuberance of rains, the drought of sum- 
mer, and the wheel of life moves on its regular, uninterrupt- 
ed rhythm. 

What wonder then if the clear and strident notes of a 
nature so distinct and unique playing on the human instru- 
ment age after age should have evoked in him a music 
attuned to its own peculiar assonances. It would be surpris- 
ing, indeed, if the Hindu mind had not evolved a culture, a 
view of life and a system of society peculiar and individual. 
The very conditions of living were peculiar. The hamlets and 
villages in which dwelt India's teeming millions, or the her- 
mitages where abode her seers, poets and prophets, were 
cradled in the thick copses of plants and trees, or deep glens 
of crowded forests. The impress that nature made on their 
souls in the morning freshness of their lives they bore in the 
ripeness of their age. The stamp of the forest became affixed 
upon the Hindu mind. 

Indian consciousness developed a sense of time and space, 
and a conception of reality peculiarly its own. To the Hindu 
reality functioned in a time which was full and continuous 
and cyclical in its measure, and in a space which abhorred 
emptiness and which was sinuously curved like the soft ten- 
drils of the lotus ; and both his time and space had many 
orders. His universe ran riot in inexhaustible form and 
throbbed with the intensity of life, it was a universe of infinite 
subtle distinctions ,of innumerable interweaving shapes, begin- 
ningless and endless, and yet a cosmos and a whole. * 


Another feature of this consciousness, noticeable in the 
triumphs as well as the defeats of Indian civilization, was its 
mystical intuitionalism. The dominant fact in the conscious- 
ness of Europe is the will to act, in that of India the will to 
know ; and the peculiar emphasis of each has profoundly in- 
fluenced the growth of their civilizations. Religion, philo- 
sophy, art, custom and institutions all bear the same mark, 
and all reiterate in their different languages that fundamental 
concept of reality which forms the stuff of Hindu consciousness. 

Religion and philosophy have been dealt with elsewhere, 
it is now necessary to turn to art architecture, sculpture and 
painting. But religion and art are inseparably linked together, 
they are but two aspects of the same vision of reality. The 
one gives significance to life, the other to form. All changes 
in the religious consciousness affect the expression of art, and 
whenever art forms change they imply a corresponding modi- 
fication in faith. Human mind is a unity and an organism 
and it acts and reacts as a whole. How then did the Hindu 
religion inspire Hindu art? 

The Hindu is a spiritual anarchist. His faith is intensely 
personal and individualistic. His worship consists in ardent 
self-communion, it implies an abstraction from all outward 
phenomena and realization in mystic ecstasy of the identity of 
the self with Cod ; and when this vision of inner unity is gained 
he returns to the world and reduces the multiplicity into oneness 
again. He is a pantheist who sees God as Hiranyagaibha, 
the golden germ of creation and the Kirdf or the total aggregate 
of all. His pantheism is moreover an intellectual translation of 
his primeval sense of the forest. Every twig and branch, every 
little flower and leaf that is born is a form in which the forest 
manifests itself ; every twig and branch, flower and leaf 
changes rapidly and constantly, while the forest as such goes 
on for ever transcendent and eternal. And like the flower in 
a forest is the life of man in the universe. He, too, must live 
and die and be born again until he has exhausted all possibi- 
lities tt of action either through a whole series of lives or by 


intense and deliberate self-realization at once, in either case 
his final goal being unification with that Universal reality which 
is his primal source. And when this consummation is reach- 
ed the cycle of life is ended to be followed by another one, 
perhaps similar, perhaps different. 

Hindu architecture is the objectification of this conscious- 
ness in solid mass. It is a twofold symbol of the mystery and 
splendour of the deity. The shrine inside is a small dark 
cell, with overhanging roof and heavy columns and overladen 
with sculptural forms. In the bosom of the cell furthest re- 
moved from the entrance, without a ray of light falling direct- 
ly upon it, is the image standing, seated or reclining. Scarcely 
more than a man may enter into the dim, silent mysterious 
arcana of the temple. In the shrine of the heart the soul of 
man must stand alone face to face with the mystery. Out- 
side, the temple luxuriates in form : plinth stands upon plinth, 
base upon base, mouldings and friezes and bands in unending 
succession, the walls broken into numerous vertical steps, not 
an inch of empty space anywhere ; and above the shrine rises 
the pyramidal dome, or tower, tier upon tier, and each tier 
studded with niche and figure, and the tower decorated with 
miniature towers on every face. The treatment of the walls 
is reproduced in the pillars, and each pillar is a model of the 
temple itself ; on the bases are shrines of the guardians of the 
quarters, the shaft is divided by bands and friezes represent- 
ing religious scenes, one capital is topped by another, and 
between the lower brackets and the achitraves the space is 
spanned by caryatid figures. The doors and windows are ^en- 
cased in jambs of numerous members on which are designed 
floral, geometrical and other conventional patterns. The 
slanting eaves projecting from the walls and the mouldings 
cut deeply into the building give the happy play of light and 
shade on the surface, the vertical lines of the aspiring sikhara 
and the horizontal lines marking the roof of the mantfapa 
emphasize the feelings of sublimity and stability, the low 
columnar porches or storeys of pillared halls, and the* un- 

F. 16 


bounded opulence of detail and ornament all serve to manifest 
the Reality which is the transcendent totality of all forms. 
Altogether, the temple has a strong virile exterior, which 
inspires the sentiments of dignity, grandeur and majesty. 

This general aesthetic feeling of the Hindu found its ex- 
pression in the many styles of architecture which flourished in 
the period just before the conquest of India by the Musalmans, 
from about the beginning of the eighth century to the end of 
the thirteenth. These Hindu styles, which were derived 
from earlier styles of the Buddhist period, may be classified 
according to the region in which the monuments were erected, 
into three main divisions: (I) North-Indian, (2) Deccanese or 
Chalukyan, and (3) Southern or Dravidian. Then there are 
subordinate styles under the main divisions and transitional 
ones between them. The distinctions of the styles are mainly 
due to the difference in the form of the roof or spire. In the 
North-Indian temples the spire is a lofty tower with curvilinear 
sides narrowing towards the top and crowned with a large, 
fluted, bulbous block called the amalasila, over which rises 
the finial in the shape of a vase or kalasa. The whole is 
richly ornamented with carvings in horizontal courses and on 
bold vertical bands or ribs and the corners. Examples 
of this style are the Orissan temples of Bhuvaneswara, the 
Central Indian temples at Khajuraho and Cwalior, and the 
temples of Rajputana and Gujarat. Sometimes the lines of 
the sikhara are straight as at Gay a, and in most sikharas one 
of the ornaments consists of the reduplication of the form on 
the 'faces. 

In the Dravidian style the pyramidal roof rises in several 
stages and is crowned by a small dome either circular or 
polygonal. The vimdna of a Dravidian temple could have 
any number of storeys up to fifteen. In the earlier times each 
storey had a number of residential cells, but later the cells 
became merely ornamental, and thus the gopuram was evolv- 
ed from the pyramidal tower. The later temples of the south 
are Distinguished by having many enclosures with gopurams 


over the gates, and cornices having a double curve. The 
earliest examples of this style are the monolithic rathas at 
Memallapuram and the Kailas temple at Ellora, the Firupafcsa 
temple at Pattadakal, the RajrajesWara temple at Tanjore and 
others ; while of the later style the examples are the temples 
of Madura, Srirangam, and others. 

The Chalukyan style is transitional between the northern 
and southern styles. The sil^hara has lost the distinctively 
Dravidian storeyed form and become stepped without acquir- 
ing the continuous line of the northern style, and forming 
pyramids of different heights. The sanctuary usually has a 
star-shaped plan and is raised upon a broad terrace ; the 
deeply stratified lower parts of the walls are covered with the 
most lavish sculpture, and perforated stone screens are set 
between the columns. The temples of this style extend over 
the Deccan including Mysore, the Kanarese districts and 
the territories of the Nizam, as far as Nagpur. The 
most magnificent examples are the temples at Halebid 
in Mysore. 

An analysis of the Hindu buildings of this period will 
reveal the character of thSir architectural achievement. The 
usual plan on which the temple is arranged consists of a square 
cell (garbha griha) which contains the image and forms the 
basis of the tower, and a porch (man^/apo), and between them 
an intermediate chamber (antardlo) ; in larger temples the 
porch may be a Hall and then it will have a second porch in 
front of it and a roofed verandah may surround the shrine. 
The walls are divided into plinth, basement and face up to 
the entablature, and stepped by deep projections. They are 
built in two shells, the outer with the mouldings and the inner 
dressed smooth, and they have unequal thickness in different 
parts, being thick at the back and sides and thin at corners. The 
proportion between the space occupied by the walls and that 
by the enclosed rooms is fixed by rule, in Orissan temples 
the t ratio being four-tenths and six-tenths. The result of thi* 
proportion is that the walls are extremely solid and stable. 


The openings of the Hindu temples are rectangular, 
columns and lintels being employed for spanning the spaces. 
In the doors the usual proportion of the height to the width 
is two to one. The jambs are carved into antepagments or 
vertical mouldings some of which are projecting and others 
recessed. The door-frames may have three or five or nine 
fasciae. Their decoration consists of creepers and leaves, 
lozenge-shape ornaments or squares and circles, animals, 
dancing human figures, and other devices. In the ancient 
Buddhist, Jain and Hindu caves the facade of the entrance 
is elaborately treated, over the rectangular gate they have 
pierced arches whose intrados are divided by purlins and the 
meeting point of the curves is elongated to give it a pipaJ leaf 
shape. The use of pillar, bracket and lintel, however, is uni- 
versal and strongly marks the trabeate character of the Hindu 

In order to cover larger spaces and rooms two methods 
of roofing are employed. The simplest form of the first 
method is to erect four pillars and place stone beams on them 
and then cover the opening by a slab, but this is only pos- 
sible when the space is small, and therefore the next step is 
to reduce the extent of the central space by cutting off its 
corners by triangular stones placed in each angle of the square, 
this process can be carried on by heaping tier upon tier 
till the area is diminished to the required size. The second 
method is to arrange the columns at the corners of an octagon 
to support the lintels, and to raise a dome upon them in suc- 
cessive diminishing horizontal courses, laid flat upon one 
another and corbelling inwards. When necessary the octagon 
is reduced to a polygon of sixteen sides. The interior of the 
dome is always richly decorated with carved mouldings run- 
ning in horizontal circles and marking the joints of the masonry, 
and pendants hang from the centre of the dome. The 
exterior of the dome is treated symbolically. The shrine of 
iVisnu has a standing (sthdmfci) image and therefore an elevat- 
ed spire with vertical ribs (sit^hara), that of Siva a seated 


image, and a domical roof or a terraced roof and dome with 
horizontal mouldings, and that of N dray ana a recumbent 
(say ana) one, and consequently a roof like a waggon vault or 
an upturned board or a parallelepiped, with pointed arch 
gables at the ends. 

Vaulting by means of radiating voussoirs is not found, 
although it was probably known. The dread of the lateral thrust 
exerted by that kind of construction forced the use of the 
principle of building in which only vertical loadings were 
encountered : the substantial walls sufficiently supported it 
and the weight of the coping amalaka and kalasa served to 
lock the sides of the si^hara together. The dome and the 
spire are never kept plain, the whole surface being covered 
with most 1 elaborate carvings and profuse sculpture. In the 
ancient Stupas and the Dagabas of the Chaitya halls, however, 
the bulbous profile was maintained. 

The columns and pillars of Hindu architecture exhibit 
an infinite richness and variety. They may be square, penta- 
gonal, hexagonal, eight or sixteen-sided, or circular. The'xr 
orders are rigidly fixed as well as the proportions between the 
diameter and the height and the intercolummatioiv The 
various parts, pedestal, base, shaft, capital and entablature 
and the innumerable mouldings, square, semi -circular, convex, 
concave, are all made according to rules. In general the 
parts of the pillar correspond to the members of the walls. 
The pillars may have double capitals, capitals of different shapes 
of animals and bells and fruits, and they carry brackets which 
support lintels upon which rests the roof. Their corbels may 
be used as rests for the lower tenons of bracket figures, usually 
GandharVas, and to support the wreath-arches (tor anas). 
Their decoration is extremely rich and varied niches of 
LokapalaB, gods and goddesses or in the case of Ja^nas their 
Ttrthankaras and saints, friezes of scenes of worship, bands 
with animals, lotus leaf members and so on. 

The cornices are boldly projecting eaves or dripstones 
resting upon brackets, and usually slanting from the walls A 


an angle of 45. They may be corrugated or shaped (especi- 
ally in the south) into a double curve. They protect the walls 
from weather and serve to throw off rain. The panels be- 
tween the brackets under the cornice are usually ornamented, 
and the brackets are carved beautifully. 

The variety of mouldings and the richness of ornament 
are extraordinary ; no other school of architecture in the world 
can rival the opulence of the Hindu. In the ornament, organic 
forms, vegetable and animal dominate, and the human 
figure is freely employed. In fact the whole building is so 
entirely covered with decoration that its only purpose appears 
to be to set off the exuberant form in which life manifests 
itself. In spite, however, of this abandon, ornament is never 
allowed to hide the essential features of the structure or to 
depreciate the value of the unified mass as a whole. This is 
achieved by the observance of those laws of predominance 
and subordination of masses, of the relation and grouping of 
parts, of the proportion and symmetry of members, which make 
the harmony and unity of an architectual monument, and 
which evoke the feelings which inspire the master-builder, 
and give expression to the aesthetic purposes to which he 
attaches value. 

The character of Muslim consciousness is as different 
from that of the Hindu as possible. It has been remarked 
that Islam is the religion of the heat belt, perhaps it will be 
more accurate to say that Islam flourishes in the region of 
scanty rainfall. The vast stretch of territory which includes 
the whole of Africa north of the line of latitude twelve degrees 
above the equator, Arabia, South-Eastern Persia, the Aralo- 
Caspian region, the Gobi and Tokla Makan deserts, has a 
rainfall of less than ten inches in the year ; while Asia Minor, 
Mesopotamia, Northern Persia, Afghanistan, Southern Siberia 
and Eastern Turkestan have a rainfall of between ten and 
twenty inches. This arid expanse of land bordering on the 
Atlantic in the west and the Chinese wall on the east is the home 
of MUslim peoples. Here Musalman inhabitants are either in 


total possession or in overwhelming majority ; outside these 
regions they are found in great numbers but mixed with 
followers of other faiths and numerically in a minority. Here 
from the dawn of their history they have lived and erected 
the great fabrics of their cultures, here are situated all the 
great cities which contributed to the building of these cultures 
Samarqand and Bokhara, Ghaznl and Herat, Isfahan. Tabriz 
and Shlraz, Baghdad and Damascus, Mecca and Medina, 
Cairo, Tunis and Cordova. 

What is the character of these lands and how has it im- 
pressed itself upon the mentality of the peoples inhabiting 
them? The Muslim lands are not all absolutely alike. Central 
Asia is a basin of some ancient depression, Persia a plateau, 
Asia Minor a mountainous tract with deep river valleys, Syria 
and Hedjaz desert and sea coast, Iraq and Misr river valleys ; 
but there is one thing common to all, the lands of fertility are 
oases large or small, surrounded by howling wastes of sand. 
The contrast between the patch of land which is productive 
and the barren, stony or sandy desert which encloses it is 
tremendous. The vast extent of the infinite stretch of arid 
expanse all round, the immensity of the cloudless sky over- 
head, the day with its dazzling splendour and the night filled 
with innumerable brightly glowing stars, the regular succes- 
sion of seasons, the cruelty and economy of a stern nature, 
the tremendous effort to keep vegetation alive and to save 
the intricate system of irrigational canals and hard-won pieces 
of garden and pleasance from destruction, the nomadic life 
fostered by the scanty pasturage and desert and the sedentary 
occupations intensely pursued in the city and the fertile 
spot, all leave deep marks upon the mind of men living in 
these regions. The transcendence and masterfulness of the 
Reality, the insignificance of man and his works, the stretches 
of emptiness between instants of time and points of space, 
the sense of directness moral and intellectual, the periodicity 
of passionate energy and pathetic lethargy, the abstractness of 
thinking logical and geometrical, the absence of plastic fefl- 


ing, the devotion to pure ideas and abhorrence of iconism and 
anthropomorphism, clarity and definiteness in seeing outHnes, 
infinite elaboration of detail, a mystic faith in the immutable 
order of nature, a quiet resignation and a calm dignified sub- 
mission to divine will are the leading characteristics of the 
Muslim mentality in its original phase. The Byzantine, 
Christian, Mongol, Indian or Hispano-Roman influences might 
colour it and diversify it, but cannot completely transform it. 
This consciousness finds expression in religion, literature and 

A fierce monotheism, an 'Intolerance of other religions, a 
clear demarcation between the faithful and the infidels, 
a unique eschatology, one birth, one death, a resurrection 
followed by eternal reward or punishment, an absence of 
hierarchy, religious or social, such is its relig ous aspect ; 
and in literature the Ghazal with its infinite variations upon 
the same theme, with its amazing cleverness in the selection 
of polished word and appropriate rhyme, w'th its subtle inter- 
relation of verse and verse by means of sound like the inter- 
laced pattern of Muslim geometrical ornament, is the poetical 
expression of the same consciousness. 

Muslim art like Indian or any other art is conditioned by 
certain practical needs of religion and worship. The Muslim 
worshipper must have a house of worship embodying his vision 
of reality. It must be a symbol of transcendent majesty, of 
vast spaciousness, of sublimity and purity, and it must be a 
shelter for the combined prayers of an assembled congregation. 
its forms must suggest to him one-pointed devotion, and the 
all-enveloping nature of the Reality. 

These feelings are realized in the mosque, whose pointed 
arch, aspiring dome, tall minaret, lofty portals, pillared naves 
and aisles, clear-cut outlines, bereft of all sculpture and 
possessing a minimum of mouldings, but adorned with surface 
decoration of conventional arabesques, interlaced geometrical 
patterns, and beautiful calligraphic inscriptions, whose well- 
proportioned and symmetrical exterior often covered with 


enamelled tiles or faience and cool, shaded and spacious 
intei/.or fulfil all the aspirations and longings of a devout 
Muslim's soul. The impression of these elements on the 
existing local schools of architecture, resulted in the growth 
of different styles of Muslim art in Maghrib, Egypt, Syria, 
Persia and Turkey. 

On the soil of Ind a the clash of the two divergent mental- 
ities and their cultures resulted in the creation of a new culture 
whose religious aspect has already been considered. In art 
a similar development took place. Hindu and Muslim ele- 
ments coalesced to form a new type of architecture. The 
buildings erected by the Musalmans for religious, civil or 
military purposes were not purely Muslim-Syro-Egyptian, 
Persian or Central Asian, nor were the Hindu buildings, temples 
or palaces or cenotaphs purely Hindu. The simple severity of 
the Muslim architecture was toned down, and the plastic 
exuberance of the Hindu was restrained. The craftsmanship, 
ornamental richness and general design remained largely 
Hindu, the arcuated form, plain domes, smooth-faced walls, 
and spacious inter ors were Muslim superimpositions. The 
artistic quality of the buildings erected since the thirteenth 
century whether by Hindus or by Muslims is the same, although 
differences are introduced by considerations of purpose and 
use, and styles are varied according to d fferences of local 
tradition and regional peculiarities. 

In all the Indian Muhammadan styles of F'ergusson's 
academic classification at Delhi, Ajmer f Agra, Gaur, Malwa, 
Gujarat, Jaunpur and Bijapur whether the local rulers were 
Arab, Pathan, Turk, Persian, Mongol, or Indian, the form and 
construction of the domes of mosques and tombs and palaces, 
as well as the Hindu symbols which crown them ; the mihrabs 
made to simulate Hindu shrines ; the arches Hinduised often 
in construction, in form nearly always ; the symbolism which 
underlies the decorative and structural designs all these tell 
us plainly that to the Indian builders the sect of the Prophet 
of Mecca was only one of the many which made up tht 


synthesis of Hinduism : they could be good Muhammadans 
but yet remain Hindus/' 1 Havell has so brilliantly sustained 
this thesis in his works on Indian art that it is hardly necessary 
to expatiate upon it. 

It must, however, be remembered that although some of 
the elements of Muslim architecture the pointed arch and the 
bulbous dome were probably derived from Hindu origins and 
Fergusson- has described the process by which the Jaina 
temple was developed into a Muslim mosque, the Muslim 
aesthetic feeling is decidedly different from the Hindu ; and 
whatever importance may be attached to origins of elements 
it cannot be gainsaid that in the mediaeval art of India the 
effect of Muslim impact was to transform the ancient Hindu 
aesthetic values. 

The earliest Muslim constructions were the two great 
mosques at Delhi and Ajmer built by Qutb-ud-Dln Aibak 
about the end of the twelfth century, and from this time on- 
wards every city which the Muslim armies occupied was 
adorned with mosques, palaces, tombs and other buildings 
belonging to the new Hindu-Muslim styles of architecture. 
The overthrow of most of the northern Hindu kingdoms and 
the constant pressure on those that successfully withstood the 
early onrush of the Muslim armies were not conditions favour- 
able to indulgence in expensive architectural display. Conse- 
quently for the two centuries which followed the building of the 
last great monument of Hindu architecture, the temple of 
Vastupala and Tejahpala at Girnar (1230 A.D.), no building 
of great importance was erected in Northern India. About the 
middle of the fourteenth century a kind of political equilibrium 
was reached. The high tide of conquest had receded, and 
the Tughlaq Empire after Muhammad's brilliant but un- 
fortunate experiments was breaking up into provincial king- 
doms ; the Hindu princes of Rajputana and Bundelkhand 

1 Havell : Indian Architecture, p. 10!. 
Fergusson : Eastern Architecture, Vol. II, p. 69. 


who had never been subdued took advantage of the oppor- 
tunity and acquired surrounding territories and obtained com- 
mand of large resources in men and revenue. Their political 
importance was soon established, they treated the Muslim 
rulers of Gujarat, Malwa and Jaunpur on equal terms, they 
harassed their frontiers, fought with them, made alliances with 
them and were no longer menaced with extinction by the 
power of the Empire at Delhi. With the restoration of self- 
confidence and prosperity they were again able to devote their 
energies to the patronage of art, and at the commencement of 
the fifteenth century they began to erect monuments which 
set the example to their co-religionisis throughout India in 
the succeeding generations. 

For the selection of style they had the alternative of 
either reviving the ancient Hindu style whose examples were 
still standing around them both in Rajputana and in Bundel- 
khand, or adopting the new Hindu-Muslim style which the 
Muslim patrons and Hindu artists had combined to create. 
They wisely or perhaps inevitably chose the latter course. 
Probably the earliest example of a Hindu structure in which 
this departure from ancient traditions makes its appearance 
is the temple at Ranpur* near Sadarl in the Godwar district of 
the Jodhpur State. The temple was built by a Jain named 
Dharanaka in 1439 A.D. during the reign of Kumbha, Rana of 
Me war. 

The temple which belongs to a group situated in a lonely 
but picturesque valley of the Aravelli mountains is overlooked 
by the fort of Kumalner, the favourite residence of Rana 
Kumbha. It is nearly square in plan and is raised on a lofty 
basement which with the exception of a few horizontally conti- 
nuous string courses is without any other decoration and thus 
exhibits the newly-acquired feeling for plain surfaces which was 
taking possession of the Hindu mind. The temple encloses 

3 Burgess : Archaeological Survey, Vol. Vil. The Muhammadan 
Architecture of Ahmadabad, p. 32. 


four courts and five shrines, the great one in the centre 
and the others at the four corners. The shrines are covered 
with domes, the central one being carried on a third storey. 
A range of cells for images each with a pyramidal roof of its 
own surrounds the whole. The pillars of the shrine which 
support the domes are almost identical in design with those 
of the Jami mosque of Ahmad Shah ; and the exterior of the 
domes is left plain and undecorated like those of the Muslims. 
In spite of the want of ornament on the exterior faces, Fergus- 
son admits, " I know of no other building in India, of the 
same class, that leaves so pleasing an impression.*' 4 

The ruins of Rana Kumbha's palace at Chitore show 
amidst Hindu balconies and crested walls scattered over the 
terrace, kiosks covered with plain and segmented domes 
resting on lintels and columns. 5 

To the same period, that is, the pre-Mughal, belong the 
fort and palaces built by Rana Man Singh of Gwalior, <; who 
ruled from 1486 to 1516 ; and the palace of his successor 
Vikramaditya Singh built in 1518. The Bdrddarl in the fort was 
45 feet square and had a stone roof supported on twelve pillars. 
It was, besides, singularly interesting from the expedients to 
which the Hindu architect was forced to resort to imitate the 
vaults of the Muslims." 7 

The Man Mandir in spite of its ruined state makes a 
magnificent pile with projecting towers, open pillared bal- 
conies, arrow-headed cresting. It is 360 feet long and 160 feet 
broad, and rises 100 feet above the ground. The chief en- 
trance called the Hathiyd Paur (elephant gate) is made of four 
handsome pillars on which rests a fine dome. Flanking the 

4Fergusson: Op. cit, Vol. II, p. 47. 
5 Rousselet : Lea Jndes des Rajahs, p. 232. 

Griffin : The Monuments of Central India. Cole : Preservation of 
National Monuments, India, plate 2. Cunningham : Archaeological Survey, 
Vol. I. Gwalior State Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part IV, by Luard and Dwarka- 
nath Sheopuri. 
* ? Griffin: Op. cit., p. 46. 


gate are two projecting towers surmounted by domes resting 
on fine clustered pillars. The handsomely carved balconies 
and the windows enclosed between graceful pilasters with 
wreath-arches between them greatly enhance the pictures- 
queness of the exterior, " Its ornament .... reveals the same 
eclectic spirit that characterized the buildings of Akbar.** s 

Inside the palace are two artistic courts. The first court, 
which is a square of 33 feet by 33 feet, has rooms opening on 
it. One of the large rooms has a curious pitch roof which 
rests on a paling of perforated screen work, and is supported 
by a colonnade of sixteen pillars with fan capitals. Over the 
colonnade runs a balcony with sloping balustrade. The west- 
ern room has an entrance of three handsome arches resting 
on stout piers beautifully carved. The southern room is 
roofed with a flat topped arch, and the room at the south-west 
corner has a roof composed of Saracenic arches. 

The second court is slightly larger, having a side of 37 feet. 
The small room in the eastern face is open on all sides, the 
openings being arcuated. The roof is a vault composed of 
four semi-circles. 

Both the courts are richly decorated, every part of the 
structure is carefully treated corbels, brackets, caves, bal- 
conies, arches and walls and both trabeate and arched forms 
are freely employed. 

When Babur visited Gwalior in 1526, he greatly admired 
the palace and noted that it was, " a building with five domes* 
and round about them smaller domes t the small domes are on 
each side of the greater according to the custom of Hindus- 
tan/' 9 The domes were covered with gilt copper and the 
walls were inlaid with green painted tiles, while the front 
was covered with white stucco. The palace of Man Singh 
furnished points of imitation to Babur's successors as well as 
the Hindu builders. 

* Griffin : Op. cit., p. 48. 

9 Erskine : Babur's Memoirs, p. 384. * 


Under Akbar 's enlightened rule a great impetus was given 
to the reconciliation of the Hindu and Muslim cultures. The 
buildings of Fathpur Slkri are the expression of the same 
spirit as inspired the Dln-i-Ilahi. The Ranch Mahal was 
the translation into stone of the Allah Upanisad. By his en- 
couragement a number of temples were built, which show that 
the Hindu builders had at last overcome the hesitance and 
incomplete mastery of Muslim constructional methods which 
they had exhibited at Gwalior. Of these temples three at 
Brindaban 10 and one at Govardhan 11 were built in the reign 
of Akbar and one at Brindaban in that of Jahangir. 

The temple of Govind Deva at Brindaban was built by 
Raja Man Singh Kachwaha, the celebrated general and 
governor of Akbar, in the year 1590. The plan of the build- 
ing is cruciform, the length of the nave and the breadth across 
the transcept are nearly equal, measuring 1 17 feet and 105 feet 
and its porch is covered by a vault with radiating arches a 
truly Muslim feature. Although the spire has fallen down, 
the external appearance of the building is remarkable. The 
accentuated corners, the boldly projecting balconies, the com- 
bination of vertical and horizontal lines, the use of both lintel 
and arch, the unsculptured plain surfaces all impart to it a 
unique strength and grandeur. 

The temple of Madan Mohan is in ruins. The vaulted 
roof has disappeared, as well as the choir tower. The gate 
of the mandap is a rectangle set inside an arch whose soffit 
is ornamented. The walls of the facade are plain, but two 
balconies project on either side of the arch ; the spandrils 
have no decoration except for a lotus in the middle. The 
tower over the sacrarium is a lofty octagon of curvilinear out- 
line tapering towards the summit and is quite plain. The 
chapel tower is similar in form but enriched with carved 

l & 11 Fcuhrer : Archaeological Survey, Vol. Xfl. Growse : Mathura. 
Ben : Les civilisations de I'lnde. Impey : Delhi, Agra and Rajputana. 


panels, in which are placed medallions and diamonds but no 
human figures. 

The temple of Gopmath was built by Ra'isil of the Shaikhd- 
Vati clan, an officer in Akbar's service. The history of the 
clan is interesting. Mokal Rana was long childless. He 
became a father through the blessings of Shaikh Burhan and 
called his son Shaitthji and he became the patriarch of 
Shaikhdvati race. ** At the birth of every male infant a goat 
is sacrificed, and while the l^alima is recited the child is 
sprinkled with blood. He is invested with the Baddhiya, or 
cross strings, usually worn by little Muhammadans ; and when 
he laid them aside, he was bound to suspend them at the 
Saint's Dargah, still existing six miles from Achrol. For two 
years he wears a blue tunic and cap, and for life abstains 
from hog's flesh and all meat in which blood remains." 1 *-' 
The temple is in ruins. 

The temple of Harideva at Govardhan was built by Raja 
Bhagwan Das. The nave of 60 feet by 20 feet has five arches 
on either side with clerestory windows above, and was cover- 
ed with an arched vault. 

The temple of Jugal Kishor at Brindaban was erected in 
1627. Its plain walls, unornamented conical tower, arched 
niches and absence of sculpture clearly point to Muslim 
aesthetic inspirations. 

The Jaina temples of Sonagarh 11 ' in Bundelkhand date 
from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. There is <* 
great variety of styles among them, but the immense influence 
of Muslim architecture is distinctly visible. The body of the 
edifice usually stands on a terrace and is surmounted by one 
or more spires, which are encircled by a row of gables, 
chhatris and bell-towers. The ancient sikhara overloaded 
with ornament is rare, and has been replaced either by a 

i-Growse: Op. tit., p. 131. 

13 Griffin : Op. cit. t 


modern plain spire conical in shape and strongly marked with 
horizontal mouldings, or domes of various shapes. One 
temple (Griffin's Monuments of India, Plate LXXI) which is 
reached by a high flight of stairs, has a facade in which there 
is an arched gateway planted by two smaller arches, and the 
wings are decorated with blind arcades. All the arches are 
cusped. The facade is surmounted by a waggon-shaped 
vault in the middle and small domes at either side. The rib- 
bed dome over the sanctum rises behind them. Not a single 
sculptured figure adorns the temple. The other temples show 
similar features. 

The temples of Muktagiri 14 near Gawilgadh in Berar are 
like the Sonagadh temples of the domed style copied from 
Muslim art. 

Further south in the Madras Presidency the influence of 
Islamic styles appears in the civil buildings of the Hindu 
rulers, in the palaces and pavilions of Vijayanagar and 
Chandragirl, Madura and Tanjore. The temples and other 
sacred buildings continued to be built on traditional lines 
although in the north even their style was modified in accord- 
ance with the new tastes. 

In spite of the fact that the Vijayanagar Kingdom was con- 
tinually at war with the neighbouring Muslim kingdoms there 
appears to have been much religious tolerance and great 
appreciation of each other's cultures. The 'Adilshahl Sultans 
of Bljapur, like their more illustrious successors the Mogriul 
emperors, were notorious for their leanings towards Hinduism, 
and both the 'Adilshahis and Nizam-Shahis of Ahmadnagar 
freely patronized Maratha chiefs and employed Hindu officers 
for their administration and Hindu troops for their armies. 
The latter gave a great impetus to the Marat hi language by 
making it the language of their official transactions. The 
Hindu rulers of Vijayanagar reciprocated these feelings, they 
took Muslim troops in their employ, encouraged Muslim 

* HFerguaaon: Op. cit.. Vol. II. p. 45. 


traders and built mosques for their worship. In their civil 
architecture they borrowed the arch from their neighbours. 
A photograph of one of the pavilions built before the downfall 
of Vijayanagar in 1565 A.D. is given by Fergusson (Vol. I, 
p. 417), who remarks about it : ** It is a fair specimen of that 
picturesque mixed style which arose from the mixture of the 
Saracenic and Hindu styles/* 15 Its repeated cusped arches, 
slanting dripstones and unornamented walls are an eloquent 
proof of the justness of the remark. 

The successors of the fallen Vijayanagar dynasty settled 
at Chandragiri 1 " in the North Arcot district. There they built 
their palaces, the principal one of which presents a well- 
balanced facade of three storeys surmounted by turrets of 
pleasing form. Each floor consists mainly of a pillared hall, 
the piers are arched across both ways, corbelled at the angles 
and closed with flat domes. The walls pierced with arches 
are built of brick, but the vaults are worked in stone. 

Tirumalai Nayak's palace at Madura 17 which belongs to 
the seventeenth century is one of the most magnificent piles 
erected in the Hindu-Muslim style. The principal apartments 
are situated round a courtyard measuring 160 feet east and 
west by 100 feet north and south, and surrounded on all sides 
by arcades of very great beauty. The pillars which support 
the arches are of stone, 40 feet in height, and are joined by 
foliated brick arcades of great elegance of design, carrying 
a cornice and an entablature. The Celestial pavilion (Swarga 
Vildsam) stands on the west side of the court and measures 
235 feet by 105 feet. It is arranged on the plan of a great 
mosque with three domes, ** in fact the whole structure, if 
not first erected as a splendid mosque is marvellously like 
one." 18 The central dome is supported on twelve columns 

15Ferguson: Op. cit., Vol. I, p. 416. 

16 Ibid., p. 4)7. 

17 Ibid., p. 41! ff. 

18 Ibid., p. 413. 

F. 17 


linked together by massive Saracenic arches. Four similar 
arches are thrown across the corners and above these rests 
the octagonal drum which is pierced by clerestory windows. 
The drum is carried up and then changed from an octagon 
into a circle over which the dome is built. A second hall 125 
feet by 69 feet is placed at the north-west corner of the main 
building, and the two together correspond to the Dlwan m i~ 
Khds and Dlwan-i-'Am of Muslim palaces. 

The palace at Tanjore 19 was commenced by the Maratha 
chief who established his dynasty in the last quarter of the 
seventeenth century. It follows the arrangements of the 
Madura palace and belongs to the same style. 

In the north the seventeenth century saw the erection of 
a number of noble edifices in the states of the Hindu princes 
of Raiputana and Bundelkhand, at Amber, U Jaipur, Bundi, 
Dattiya, and Orchha. Apparently the new style had now 
become universal and architecturally it was henceforward im- 
possible to distinguish a building erected by the Hindus or 
the Muslims. Another effect of this cultural synthesis was the 
construction of tombs among the Hindus. It is impossible to 
fix the date of the earliest structures of this type, but the 
mahdsatis and chhatns (cenotaphs) to commemorate the dead 
begin to make their appearance about this period. As burial 
has never been a Hindu custom the new departure can be only 
ascribed to the influence of the Musalmans. 

The palace at Amber 20 was commenced by Raja Man 
Singh who ascended the throne in 1592 A.D., and was com- 
pleted by Jai Singh (16251666). It ranks after the great 
Gwalior palace as the finest piece of architecture among the 
Rajputs, The palace stands in a valley which slightly mars 
the effect of impressiveness, otherwise it contrasts favourably 
with the contemporary work of the same kind at Fatehpur 

Idpergutaon: Op. cit., Vol. I, p. 415. 

20Rouaelet: Op. cit,, p. 277 ff. (English Edn., p. 278). Impey : 
Op. cit.. Plate 42, 


Sikri. Its elephant capitals, figure sculpture and use of colour 
and 1 mirrors make it very picturesque. 

Udaipur became the capital of Mewar after the sack of 
Chitor by Akbar in 1568. Maharana Udaya Singh began the 
building of the new capital ; the great palace called the Baft 
Mahal 21 was erected by Amar Singh I in 1597. It is a five- 
storeyed stone edifice. The superstructure is made of marble, 
which is fancifully wrought into corbelled windows and 
trellis screens, resting on a marble string course, and decorated 
with elephants carved in low relief. The later Maharanas 
added pavilions and kiosks. The palace stands on the verge 
of the Pichola Lake which is surrounded by charming hills. 
In the lake there are two other palaces situated on an island. 
The palace of Jag Niwds was built by Rana Jagat Singh in 
white and black marble, and the principal chambers, accord- 
ing to Rousselet, were decorated with historical frescoes of 
great value. The use of the Bengali bent cornice, cusped 
arches, domes, kiosks, balconies and open terraces gives to it 
a unique charm. The other palace Jag Mandir was built by 
Rana Karan, son of Rana Amar Singh, for Shah Jahan who 
was in rebellion against his father and had sought refuge with 
the Rana. The whole island is ** a fairy's mirage with its 
lines of domes and of palms reflecting in the water. f * 2 - 

The palace at Bundi 23 of about the same age as that at 
Udaipur, almost equals it in architectural effect. Its situation 
is very similar to that of the Baft Mahal on the side of a lake 
which has an islet on which stand temples. The distinguish* 
ing feature of the palace is its bold and richly decorated 
balconies, and the principal halls have double rows of columns 
of serpentine. 

The palace at Datia 24 in Bundelkhand was built at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century by Bir Singh Deva, the 

21 Cole: Op. cit.. Plate 1. Rousaelet : Op. cit., p. 195. 

22 Rousselet : Op. cit., p. 167. 

23 Ibid., p. 188. * 

24 Griffin : Monument* of Central India. 


Bundela chief of Orchha, It is a square structure built of 
granite. The base is a vaulted terrace on which rises the 
seven-storeyed pile. The first four storeys consist of im- 
mense halls with arched roofs supported by numerous pillars, 
in the middle of which rises a square tower crowned by the 
central dome. Blr Singh Deva built another palace at Orchha 
similar in style but more varied in outline, and also the temple 
of Chaturbhuj. 25 

The plan of the temple is a reversed Latin cross. A 
large flight of steps leads up to the porch, which forms a 
pavilion projecting from beyond the main front. Behind it 
is the main front which is divided into four storeys by large 
ogives and flanked by two square towers which are surmount- 
ed by steeples. Two similar towers are at the other end of 
the temple, and the flat roof of which they form the four 
corners has in its centre a large round cupola with a small 
lantern at its summit. The granite terrace on which the 
temple stands is fifty feet high. There is no ornament on the 
exterior, but the magnitude, and the proportions are 

The mausoleum of Blr Singh Deva at Orchha 20 is a 
gigantic structure. It is a large square block flanked by two 
massive towers, and crowned by an enormous dome, of which 
a portion only was extant when Rousselet visited it. There 
is no sculpture or decoration upon the facade, which has 
three arches in the middle, and is pierced with rectangular 
recesses in which blind dentelled arches are carved. The 
mausoleum in its imposing grandeur resembles the Pathan 
edifices of the same kind. 

To the next century belong the palaces of Raja Sawa 
Jai Singh at Jaipur 27 and Raja Suraj Mai at Dig. The last 
according to Fergusson, wants " the massive character of th< 

25 Griffin : Op. cit. 

26 Ibid. 

27lmpey: Op. cit., Plate 46. 


fortified palaces of other Rajput states, but for grandeur of 
conception and beauty of detail it surpasses them all/'- 8 
The cenotaphs of Sangram Singh at Udaipur,- 9 of Suraj Mai at 
Govardhan 30 between Mathura and Dig, of Chhatrasal and his 
queen KamalavatT, the Jaina temple at Delhi/* 1 Ahalyabai's 
temple at Ellora, 82 and the temple at Kantanagar aa near 
Dinajpur in Bengal, all exhibit in their architecture the same 
elements of the Hindu-Muslim style which are found in that 
of their predecessors. 

The temple in Bengal is probably the first Hindu building 
of the kind raised during Muslim rule which imitated the 
style of the mosques of Gaud and Malda. It was built 
between 1704 and 1722 A.D. It is of considerable dimen- 
sions, and is of square design ; it has three storeys and above 
the third rises the central tower with its pyramidal spire. The 
first two storeys have four octagonal towers at the corners. 
The pointed arch prevails throughout. The whole surface is 
covered with terracotta, but no figure sculpture is seen any- 
where. The curved lines horizontal and vertical, and the 
arcuated forms give a unity to the whole which is very 

The influence of the style spread in the eighteenth century 
to all parts of India. Even far off Nepal did not escape the 
contagion. According to Le Bon's classification, the third 
category of Nepal temples consists of stone shrines from which 
Chinese influence has disappeared and on which Hindu in- 
fluence has become sensible. Among these temples there 
are some in which traces of Muslim influence may be observed 

2*Fergus8on: Op. fit.. Vol. II. p. 178. 
20 Rousselete : Op. cit. t p. 2JO. 
aolmpey: Op. cit., Plate, 39. 
SlFergusson: Op. cit., Vol. II, p. 66. 

32 Burgess : Archaeological Survey, Vol. Ill, Western India, Plates 
LVI, LVil. 

33Fergusson: Op. cit., Vol. JI, p. 159. 


from the presence of the dome. The temple at Khatmandu 34 
furnishes an illustration. 

The palaces, cenotaphs and temples of the nineteenth 
century, whether built in the west at Jamnagar 35 or the east at 
Calcutta or in the Pan jab by the Sikhs, or in Central India by 
the Jains are all in the same style of the Hindu-Muslim architec- 
tuie. The Viseswar temple at Benares, 36 the Golden Temple 
of the Sikhs at Amritsar, 37 the temple built by Sindhia's mother 
at Gwalior, 38 the Pagoda at Calcutta, 39 the palaces of Maharaja 
RanjTt Singh at Lahore, 40 of the Rao of Jamnagar in Kathia- 
wad, of the Raja of Chhatarpur 41 in Chhatarpur, of the Seths 
of Ajmer, 42 the mausoleums of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 43 
Maharao Umed Singh at Kota, 44 Maharaja Bakhtawar Singh 
at Alwar, 4r ' Maharana Sangram Singh at Udaipur, 46 of the 
Bharatpur Rajas Randhir Singh and Baldeva Singh at 
Govardhan 17 ; in fact, almost every building of architectural 
importance erected in modern times, except of course those of 
the Western styles, follows the Hindu-Muslim style. Even the 
Jain temple of Hutti Singh at Ahmedabad 48 which may appear 
to be an exception is not really one ; its unsculptured spires, 

34 Le Bon : Op. cit. 

35 Burgess: Op. cit., Vol. II. Western India. 
30 Le Bon: Op. cit.. Fig. 291. 

37 Ibid., Fig. 294. 

SSFergusson: Op. cit., Vol. II. 153. 

39 Le Bon: Op. cit.. Fig. 297. 

40 Ibid., Fig. 276. 
4ilbid., Fig. 298. 
42Rousselet: Op. cit.. p. 246. 
43 Le Bon: Op. cit., Fig. 275. 
44Fergusson: Op. cit.. Vol. II. p. 169. 
45 Impey : Op. cit., Plate 53. 
46Rousaelet: Op. cit, p. 210. 

47 Growse : Op. cit. 
t 48 Le Bon: Op. cit., Fig. 295. 


unornamented walls, and smooth-surfaced domes are enough 
testimony to the failure of the attempt, if any was made, to 
revive an ancient taste, and to the compelling force of the new 
art values and aesthetic feelings. And not only did this Hindu- 
Muslim style become dominant in the monumental art of 
India but it also acquired the same hold over all utilitarian 
architecture houses, streets, landings and bathing places 


The history of Indian painting is but the history of Indian 
architecture. Pre-Muslim Indian paintings Hindu, Jain or 
Buddhist have a character of their own. The vision of reality 
which inspires them and gives significance to their form is 
their own. They are the aesthetic expression of a culture which 
grew out of the synthesis of the racial experience, a synthesis 
which implies a balance between opposing tendencies 
joy and sorrow, pleasure and pain, success and failure, world- 
liness and other-worldliness, attachment to life and renuncia- 
tion of life, domination by sense and control of sense, 
ambition, activity and passion, and satisfaction, passivity and 
calm serenity. It is not true that the Hindu culture is more 
religious or less materialistic than other cultures, but that the 
quality and content of its religious consciousness is different, 
the point of equilibrium between the opposing forces of life 
is differently situated. The whole mentality is cast in a differ- 
ent mould and naturally all that issues from it has a different 
stamp. What the character of this consciousness was, has 
been delineated above, it remains to describe how it mani- 
fested itself in Indian painting. 

The frescoes of Ajanta are almost the only surviving re- 
mains of the Indian art as it was practised in the ancient 
period, although the legendary accounts refer its oiigins to 
Brahma as Viswakarmd the architect of the gods. Scholars have 
discovered references to the art in the pre-Christian literature, 
for instance, in the Vinaya Pitaka, and in later Hindu poetry, 
Mahabharata, Ramayana, Safyuntala and so forth. There are 
actual fragments of paintings belonging to great antiquity 
* existing in various caves, but the only adequate remains which 



truly reflect the character of the art which at one time was 
spread widely all over India and was extremely prolific in its 
output, are found at Ajanta. The paintings adorn the ceilings 
and walls of the temples excavated out of living rock. In all 
probability all the twenty-nine cave temples were embellished 
with paintings but the ravages of nature and time and the 
vandalism of man have destroyed the greater part. They 
were executed during the first six centuries of the Christian 

Who were the artists who painted these pictures and what 
was the motive of their work? It has been suggested that the 
artists were priests who were engaged in self -edification. If 
that is so they were absolutely unlike any other priests whom 
India at any rate has known. The Brahmins or the Hindu 
monks would never have dreamt of such pursuits, and it is 
not probable that their Buddhist or Jain confreres whose 
life was more or less modelled on theirs would have done so. 
The whole work is really much too professional to have been 
left to the amateurs of the monasteries. The Chaitya halls 
were excavated by a professional class of architects and 
masons, as they were constructed on the ground, and again 
a professional class of sculptors and painters must have 
decorated the edifices built or dug by their brother craftsmen. 
The wealth of kings and merchant princes must have been 
poured out in order to create the works in which both ambition 
and piety were satisfied. 

The conditions of production are reflected in the creation 
itself. The walls and ceilings were covered with scenes drawn 
equally from the life of the court and the world and the life 
of the devotee and the history of religion. The first class of 
pictures are inundated with joy in life, they throb with the 
aspiration and glory which are of the here and the now. They 
delight in the pomp and splendour of the Royal state, 1 in the 

1 Griffiths : Ajanta Frescoes. Plates 5 and 74. 


pride and triumph of war 2 and chase, 3 and are eagerly in- 
terested in the daily concerns of life, in the romance of love- 
making, 4 in the delights of feasting, singing and dancing, 5 in 
the busy hum of the market with its haggling over prices, its 
purchase and sale. They represent the noontide iit the life 
of man and society when the sap of youth, ambition and 
power runs violently in the veins. But life is not all noon, 
for the sun must run its course and the shadows must lengthen 
as the evening advances. The synthesis of culture is incom- 
plete without the wisdom of age and of detachment, and so 
there are the second class of pictures which depict the mild, 
unexciting, tranquil and serene life, which with its suggestion 
of the infinite and the beyond gives healthy tone and proper 
perspective to the first world. They are pictures of Buddha's 
life, 7 of his struggles and eventual victory, 8 of the crowded 
career of beneficence and propagation of faith, 9 of the stories 
of previous lives, 10 and of allegories that point the teachings. 11 
But the two worlds do not lie apart, they weave and 
interweave with one another, for they are both part patterns 
of the same fabric. 

The artistic treatment of the two is informed with the same 
aesthetic purpose. That consciousness of the intense pressure 
and throng of life which is observable in the Hindu archi- 
tecture is present in their paintings. The figures crowd upon 
one another, men, women and children in all postures and 

- Herringham : Ajanta Plate 17. 
3Jbid.. Plate 33. 

4 Griffiths: Op. cit.. Plate 83. 

5 Ibid., Plate 12. 

6 Ibid. , Plates 30, 15. 

7 Ibid., Plate 41. 

s ibid,, Plates 45, 54. 
9 Ibid.. Fig. 64. 
10 Ibid., Plates 49, 80. 
' * 11 Ibid!,, Plate 85. 


attitudes are put together in bewildering confusion, their 
numbers are beyond tale or count, as if the artist was oppress- 
ed with the illimitable, inexpressible fecundity of the reality 
that was life and was struggling to grasp and render it. 12 
Every form, animate or inanimate, rock or stream, bird or 
beast, flower or tree, man or superman, is equally interesting, 
equally sacred, for all form is the articulation of the One. This 
sanctity of all expresses itself through the wonderful intimacy 
which the artist establishes between his human and non- 
human figures, between man and landscape, man and archi- 
tecture, man and animals and plants, and between all of them 
together. The cows and bulls listen to the Buddha's teach- 
ing, 13 the geese tell their story to the prince, 14 the angels and 
gods hover round the teacher, 15 all the creatures of earth and 
heaven crowd round him with eager attention 10 ; Rdfesaaas 
and birds and men are engaged together in strife, 17 the lion and 
the snake and human crowds are united in anger and terror 18 ; 
processions of elephants, horses and soldiers with arms and 
banners pass in and out of city gates and the wall and gate and 
animals and men swing with the same rhythm of movement 111 ; 
men and women stand amidst rocks and the overspreading 
branches of the trees darken the glen and a calm passivity 
rests upon them all 20 ; the roots of plants are hidden in 
the crevices of rocks, their soft tendrils and slender stalks wind 

12Herringham: Op. cit., Plate 25. 

Griffiths: Op. cit., Plates 6, 28, etc. 
13 Griffiths: Op. cit., Plates 19. 50. 
nHerringham: Op. cit., Plate 25. 
15 Griffiths: Op. cit., Plates 37, 38, 51. 
10 Ibid., Fig. 64. 
IT Ibid., Plate 67. 

18 Ibid., Plate 57. 

19 Ibid., Plates 69, 71. 

20 Ibid.. Plate 55. 


upwards almost clinging to them 31 ; the river flows amidst 
crowded scenes and the fishes and 'boats and swimming 
creatures animate its surface,- 2 women peer through small 
oblong windows and look like medallions decorating panels 
in the wall, 23 the bananas stand along with courtiers and 
ambassadors and officers in the halls of reception. 24 The 
same feeling works itself out in the grotesque bogeys, fright- 
ful looking figures, creatures half man, half horse, half man, 
half bird, mermaids, and celestial beings flying through air 2r> ; 
in the scenes of strife where bears hug men 2(l snakes attack 
elephants, 27 and bulls fight 2S ; and in the attempt to render 
the features of all known races of men and of beings of the 
superior and inferior worlds. 

The medium through which the intensity of this throng- 
ing and unified life is rendered is the line. It is one of the 
unexplained mysteries of civilization why Europe chose 
colour and Asia line as the language of its art. Whatever the 
reasons the results have abundantly justified the choice. 
Each civilization has attained its supreme success in its own 
medium. Thus what colour is to the West, line is to the 
East, for its schools are divided according to the character of 
their line. The line employed by the artists of Ajanta is 
unique for its firmness, breadth and sweep, it moves over vast 
spaces with an unhesitating assurance, unhaltin.g swing, uni- 
form and rhythmical. It is equally efficacious in rendering the 
calm, passionless rapture of an illumined Buddha and the agitat- 
ed, eager, trembling emotion of the devotee of song and dance. 

21 Griffiths: Op. cit., Plate 63. 

22 Ibid., Plate 34. 

23 Ibid., Plate 76. 

24 Ibid., Plate 5. 

25 Ibid.. Plate 60. 
2<Ubid.. Fig. 28. 
27 Ibid., Fig. 31. 

' 28 Ibid.. Plate 114 


The artist employs it with the same knowledge and success 
whether he has to render the tenseness of flight through the 
air, the upward spring of plant and tree, the waving trunk of 
an elephant, or the wonderful gestures of the hands, and he is 
equally at home in creating with it types or individualities, 
forms of man or of nature, idealistic or realistic. In fact, it is 
impossible for the purpose that of painting on large surfaces, 
on ceilings and walls to suggest a line of character different 
from the one he has used. The line of the Indian painter, in 
the suppleness of its form, in the gentle sinuousness of its 
curve, shares indeed the plastic character of Indian sculpture 
and architecture. 

The process of the Ajanta frescoes consisted in first pre- 
paring the ground by two layers of plasters ; the layer below 
was made of a mixture of clay, cow-dung and pulverised trap 
rock, and occasionally of finely-chopped straw or rice husks. 
This was applied to the thickness of one-eighth to three- 
quarters of an inch to hide the rough-hewn surface of the 
walls. Over this ground was laid an extremely thin egg-shell 
layer of white plaster which was polished. The next step 
was to paint the surface thus prepared, and for this purpose 
a combination of fresco and tempera methods was used. 
The dry surface of plaster was thoroughly drenched with water 
the night before, and the next morning it was again wetted 
with lime water. On the damp surface the painting was made 
with the pigments which included metallic and vegetable 

The outline was first freely sketched out in red on the 
plaster, but was subsequently corrected in black or brown as 
occasion demanded. Then a semi-transparent green glaze was 
applied to the surface, over which the local colours were 
washed in flat. The colours used were white sulphate of 
lime, ferruginous red, green iron silicates, and blue ultra- 

The treatment of the various motifs used in the paintings 
is worthy of attention. The human figure i slepder*and 


supple without muscularity or anatomical details. The eyes 
are long, almond like, hands full of meaning, attitudes grace- 
ful " of stylistic breeding/' hair done in ringlets or tied in 
chignons at back or in loops at side and usually adorned with 
flowers. Side, back and half -averted views are not avoided. 
The dresses vary from the diaphanous translucent drapery of 
the high placed to the coarse jackets and tight-fitting breeches 
of soldiers and servants, and the headgear is of many kinds. 
Jewellery is profusely used. Many animals are represent- 
ed : the elephant is drawn with wonderful insight, the horses 
have rounded; full-bodied, high-crested and Roman-nosed 
heads, hogged manes, tails sometimes neatly clipped, legs 
adorned with bangles, 29 the deer have calf-like broad faces, 
the lions are crude, resembling distantly the Assyrian variety ; 
the buffaloes, bulls, monkeys and others do not call for parti- 
cular notice. Among the birds the geese and peacoks are 
noteworthy. In the landscape the rocks are made in masses 
of rectangular forms with ends broken in fret like pattern ; 
the water is conventional like basket work or flowing wave 
scroll, fishes, tortoises and mermen are added as symbols ; the 
clouds have folds and masses of rounded forms, edged with 
shapes like petals of rose, or scales of fish. In plant life the 
banana, betelnut, palm, asoka, banian, piped ; among fruits the 
mango, custard apple, pomegranate, gourd, and among flowers 
the lotus are most frequent. 

The art of Ajanta continued to exist after the last fresco 
was painted, but hardly any examples of it remain to show 
what developments it underwent. A few Jain an.d Buddhist 
palm-leaf manuscripts illuminated with religious paintings of 
unrecorded dates, a Nepalese or Beharl manuscript of Asia" 
sahasrika Prajnaparamita dated 1090 A.D., 30 the coloured 
panels of Man Mandir at Gwalior from the end of the fifteenth 

2f> Griffith*: Op. cit, p. 12. 

30 Vredenburg : The Continuity of Pictorial Tradition in the Art of 
Inplia; Rupam, January 1920. 


century, 31 Tara Nath's history, and indirectly the fragments of 
paintings from the sand-buried cities of Serindia these show 
the continuity of the ancient tradition. In reality, however, the 
second period of Indian art of painting begins with the 
Chaghta'i rulers of India after an almost unfilled gap of nearly 
nine hundred years. The painting of this period belongs to 
a new style, a style created by the absorption of new elements 
from across the frontiers of India into the ancient traditions. 

Before discussing this new school of Hindu-Muslim art 
it is necessary to enquire into the characteristics of paintings in 
the Islamic schools of Samarqand, Herat, Ispahan, and Baghdad. 
It is not possible here to disentangle the ramifications by which 
Muslim art is affiliated to the antique and the Christian art of 
the West and the arts of China, Khotan and Gandhara in the 
East ; but, when this art appears in its full-fledged form in the 
fourteenth century, it is so deeply coloured with eastern hues 
that it might almost be mistaken as a branch of the Chinese 
art. Under Timur this Muslim Mongol style becomes more 
individualized, more independent, and then by insensible 
gradations passes into the Safavid and Bokhariot schools. The 
father of the Tlmuride school was one Gung entitled Naqwat* 
ul-Muharririn, whose pupil was Jahanglr of Bokhara, who was 
the master of Plr Sayyid Ahmad. The last had for his disciple 
Bihzad the greatest glory of the school. Bihzad was born in 
the middle of the fifteenth century and became the court 
painter of Mansur ibn Baiqara, the Tlrnuride ruler of Khorasan. 
He migrated from Herat in 1506 and took service under Shah 
Isma'il Safavl and continued in the service of the Safavid till 
he died about 1526 A.D., residing mostly at Tabriz. 

When Babur conquered India the star of Bihzad was in 
its zenith, his style was the standard of perfection ; naturally 
the connoisseurs of art, Babur and his companions, and, after- 
wards on the return of Humayun from his enforced exile from 
Persia to India, the Chaghta'i nobles set Bihzad before Indian 

31 Griffin : The Monuments of Central India. 


painters as the master in whose footsteps they should follow 
and whose paintings they should copy. Bihzad and his school 
thus became the exemplars of Indian painters and the elements 
of the Tlmuride school were engrafted upon the traditions of 

The character of this art is its intense individualism. This 
art is not interested in masses and crowds, it has hardly any 
direct interest in composition. It sees things limned in clear 
light and in definite outline, it looks at every detail of the 
individual figure and takes infinite pains with it, it feels the 
urge of life with tremendous force an.d it communicates this 
passionate energy to what it delineates, but inter-relations of 
form and the infinite multiplicity of form it does not feel and 
does not care for. Its life has a different pulse and a different 

This art, born and cradled in the courts of Changlz and 
Timur, the world-shakers of their age, could not conceivably 
be soft and sentimental. The scenes of battle 3 - and siege and 
hunt and of man and animal battues are naturally frequent. 
But chivalry and romance, 33 the loves of Laili and Majnun, 
Shlrin and Farhad, youths and maidens dallying in the garden 
by the side of a stream, 34 gorgeous receptions in princely 
courts,'* 5 feasts and merriment where the wine passes freely 
round and toothsome viands are spread in plenty 30 are repre- 
sented equally. And of piety and mysticism there is no lack, 
for in that curious age of self-abandonment the transformation 
from the intense pleasures of life to the rigourous discipline 
of sainthood was never difficult ; the Shah (king) and the Gadd 

32 Martin: The Miniature Painting of Persia, India and TurJce;. 
Plates 60-61. 

33 Ibid., Plates 68, 79, 95 96, 112. 

34 Ibid., Plate 105. 

35 Ibid. Plate 147. 
, 30 Ibid., Plate 71. 


(beggar) were the two poles between which the individual 
constantly moved. The Sultan of to-day may be the DarWiah 
of to-morrow, nay the king was always an ascetic at heart. 
Hence the frequency of the scenes where the Darwish is 
depicted: the Darwish living in wild forests and lonely caves. 87 
the Darwish as the miraculous master leading fierce animals 
like lambs, 3S and the Darwish dancing in the ecstasy of 
mystic joy. af) Then like every age of romance, conquest and 
mystery, this age was greatly interested in the supernatural 
and the marvellous. 40 Genii, goblins, monsters and fairies 
moved amidst men as common, well-known familiar figures. 
They were the stock in trade equally of the stdry-teller and 
the painter. 

And in every scene the mark of individualism is unmis- 
takable. There is system and order and arrangement some- 
times fatal to composition, but each man has a fixed status 
and recognised position, and each one is engaged in his own 
pursuits energetically. It is the action of each which gives 
action to the whole and not the movement of the whole mani- 
fested through each. Here is the picture of a siege 11 : one 
man is brandishing his huge axe and giving mighty blows to 
the closed gate, he is utterly oblivious of the missiles des- 
cending from the top ; a pair of men is climbing up a ladder 
and never were men more self-confident and self-centred, the 
stars in heaven may stop in their revolutionary course, but 
nothing will deter them or daunt them, they know not how to 
stop ; the horseman on his charger charges madly up the boards 
that have been thrown across the moat, and so on. 

37 Martin : Op. cit., Plate 165. 

38 Ibid., Plate 59. 

39 Ibid. 

40 Ibid., Plate 148. 

41 Shah Namah, Khuda Bakhsh Library, Bankipore, Folio 153-A.^ 
F, 18 


Take the picture of a chase : 42 the riders form round a 
semi-circle, in the middle in the large broken space the royal 
huntsmen pierce the victims with their spears, each deer is 
separately rendered as well as each rider ; there is no melee, 
no confusion. Again the builders 43 are busy erecting a mosque, 
one labourer mixes the mud plaster, two or three water carriers 
placed round in a circle pour water out of their skins, one man 
is carrying a tray of plaster, another of bricks, on the walls 
masons are dressing bricks or putting them in layers, the 
ladder occupies its individual position along the wall, there is 
activity all round but no hubbub. In the feasts 44 each man 
receives attention separately, even the dancers and the musi- 
cians do not get mixed up. Why let the warriors fight 45 and 
they will arrange themselves in a symmetrical pattern, with 
the horses rearing, the spears crossing and the curved swords 
dangling by the side. Even the leaves of the trees spread 
themselves out so that each may be separately counted. 40 

This interest in individuality grows to such an extent that 
painting becomes merely portraiture, portraiture however of 
such amazing cleverness that it becomes itself a marvel. 

As in the case of Ajanta so here, the line is the mediium 
of expression. Yet what a vast difference between the character 
of the two lines ! Here the line bends and breaks, thins and 
broadens, makes circles and angles, in short does all that the 
requirements of a fastidious calligraphist demand. The 
geometrical and epigraphist bias of the Muslim surely would 
make calligraphy his own. 

The elements which combine to make these paintings are 
very different from those found in the work of Ajanta. Of 
men, not only is the racial type different, but the proportions 
of the body and the limbs and their rhythm, too, are different. 

42 Martin: Op. cit., Plates 60-61. 

43 British Museum : Persian Paintings, C. 100. 

44 Martin : Op. cit., Plate 71. 

45 British Museum : Persian Paintings, C. 101. 
' 46 Martin: Op. cit, Plate 66. 


The attitude is extremely graceful and the product of high 
culture. Its drapery in the simple flow of line is charming. 
In the rendering of animals the horse receives special atten- 
tion : swiftness, lightness and slenderness are the ideals, 
as in depicting gazelles and antelopes ; the lion is powerfully 
drawn. Slender flowering trees with overhanging boughs, 
blossoming creepers twined round them, and trees with knots 
and gnarls and almost always bent out of the straight line, and 
grounds strewn with flowers are characteristic. The clouds 
are usually Chinese swirling lines like those of the sea shell, 
the rocks have rounded cactus-like shapes, the trees and bushes 
and shrubs grow on the surface, the grounds are rolling, narrow 
streamlets are lined with stones, and a single tree stands usual- 
ly in the foreground. The architecture is Persian, highly de- 
corated with faience and geometrical patterns, and with 
railings separating it from the garden behind and on the 
sides. Architecture plays an important part in the picture, it 
gives a setting to the scene, but it is not intimately related 
with the characters. 

The meeting of these two art-consciousnesses under the 
fostering care of the Mughal emperors was productive of a 
new style. Upon the plasticity of, Ajanta were imposed the 
new laws of symmetry, proportion and spacing from Samar- 
qand arid Herat. To the old pomp new splendours were added, 
and to the old free and easy naivete of life a new sense of 
courtly correctness and rigid etiquette. In the result a certain 
amount of the energy and dynamic of both the Hindu and the 
Muslim were sacrificed, and a stiff dignity was acquired, but 
along with it a marvellous richness of colour and subtlety of 

The evolution of the new style was rapid. Probably 
Babur introduced the models of the Tirmlride school to the 
Hindu and Muslim artists of India at Agra. Under Humayun 
the copying was continued, so that when the Dattan of Amir 
Hamzah was produced in twelve volumes with illustrations 
for no leas than one thousand and four hundred passages 1 


there was a sufficient number of trained artists to commission, 
for the work. Among them were Persians and Qalmaqs cer- 
tainly, but not exclusively. The work was of prodigious 
volume and was probably finished in the early years of Akbar's 
rule. It is interesting to find even in this early school called 
the school of Humayun by Clarke an unmistakable Indian 
feeling. The manner of the Timuride style is dominant, in 
the delineation of landscape and architecture, in the rendering 
of clouds, rocks, water, trees, and animals; but in the selection 
of racial types, drapery, and attitudes there is greater freedom 
and in grouping still more. 

The later artists of Akbar must have been trained in this 
school, probably under the four Muslim masters mentioned by 
Abul Fazl 47 Farrukh Qalmaq, 'Abdus Samad of Shiraz, Mir 
Sayyid *All of Tabriz and Miskln. The pupils who were 
Hindus were in all likelihood painters who had acquired pro- 
ficiency in traditional methods and were possessed of sufficient 
repute to be summoned to the Imperial court. They had only 
to transfer their talents to the services of their new masters 
and paint the pictures that pleased them. This explains why 
so early in Akbar's reign the new Hindu-Muslim school made 
its appearance fully developed. The names of Daswant, 
Basawan, Keso Lai, Mukund, Madho, Jagan Nath, Mahes, Khem 
Karan, Tara, Sanwalah, Haribans, and Ram are recorded in 
the A'ln m i-Altbari. Many other Hindu names appear on the 
paintings of the period, for instance, in the Timur Ndmah 4 * 
which is a history of Timur and his successors till the twenty- 
second year of Akbar's reign. Among the illustrators of the 
manuscript now preserved in the Khuda Bakhsh Library at 
Banklpore occur the names of Tulsl, Surjan, Surd as, Isar, 
ankar, Ram As, Banwah", Nand, Nanha, JagjTwan, Dharam- 
das, Narayan, Chatarman, Suraj, Deojiva, Saran, Ganga 

47Blochmann and Jarrett : A'm-i-Akbari, Vol. I, p. 108. 
48 Timur Namah : Khuda Bakhsh Library, Bankipore, (Photgraphic 


Singh, Paras, Dhanna, Bhim, etc. In some cases the place 
from which the artists came is denoted, and it is interesting 
to find only Gwalior, Gujarat and Kashmir mentioned. These 
three were pre-eminently centres of Hindu culture during the 
early Mediaeval period, and the fact that the painters of Akbar 
came from these places confirms the tradition that the Hindu 
art continued to flourish after Ajanta ; it also clearly establishes 
the contention that the Mughal art was not altogether an 
offshoot of Central Asian and Persian styles, but a develop- 
ment of the anciet art under new impulses. 

Under JahangTr the Indian school completely freed itself 
of imitation, portrait painting acquired unusual fineness, and 
scenes of hunting became very popular. The reign of Shah 
Jahan saw the culmination of the art, the rules of perspective 
and forshortening, of modelling and shading were introduced, 
the finest brushes and the most costly colours were used. 
Again among the artists the Hindus were more numerous, the 
Hindus Kalyan Das alias Chatarman, Anup Chatar, Ra'i 
Anup, Manohar, and the Musalmans Muhammad Nadir 
Samarqandi, Mir Hashim and Muhammad Faqlr Allah Khan 
are selected by Smith 40 for special mention. In Muhammad 
Nadir Samarqandl portraiture attained its highest develop- 
ment. After Shah Jahan taste gradually declined and deca- 
dence set in. 

The artists of the court were usually engaged in painting 
either portraits or scenes. In portraiture the principal aim of 
the artists was the natural and truthful delineation of the feature* 
of the face and the character of the individual as revealed 
through them. Most of the portraits were drawn in profile, in 
some three-quarters of the face was shown, in all the position 
of the body was conventional with the exception of the hands 
which were always charmingly rendered. Of the portraits 
those of Akbar and Maharajah Jaswant Singh by some un- 
known artist and that of Asaf Khan by Muhammad Nadir 

49 V. A. Smith : A History of Fine ArU of India and Ceylon, p. 482. 


Samarqandl might be selected to show how different types of 
men of action were portrayed with such keen insight. 

Among the scenes in the early period war and conquest 
received the greatest amount of attention, especially in illus- 
trating works like Darab Namah, Timur Namah, 51 Razm 
Ndmah (Mahabharata) 52 ; hunting and forest scenes also 
abounded ; later a taste for durbar, mythological, genre, 
domestic and fanciful (e.g., pictures of beauty), pictures deve- 
loped. Through them all a mystic interest always remains in 
evidence ; religious incidents, portraits of DarWishes, scenes 
of princes learning divine wisdom from ascetics, of prayers in 
mosques or of studying the holy book by candle light, or of 
assemblies of saints, are scattered through the albums and 
picture collections from Akbar's time onwards. 

Of this Hindu-Muslim style, related on the one hand with 
the mural art of Ajanta, and with the true miniature painting 
of Samarqand and Herat on the other, there were many 
offshoots differing in their character as they approached the 
one or the other pole of this style. The Rajput and Pah.apli 
styles of Jaipur, Kang^a and the Hindu states of the Hin\alayan 
hills had a greater inclination towards the ancient Hindu ; the 
Qalams of the Deccan, Lucknow, Kashmir, Patna gravitated 
more towards the Muslim ; the Sikh Qalam was somewhere 
between them. They are all, however, sub-styles derived from 
the parent stock which is the style of the court at Delhi or 

It would not have been necessary to stress the point, but 
for the fact that Coomaraswamy has unduly emphasized the 
difference between the Rajput and Moghul schools. The differ- 
ences of technique are negligible, the processes of painting 
whether Persian, Mughal or Rajasthdrii are alike. The choice 

fiODirab Namah: British Museum, Or. 4615. 

51 Timur Namah. 
' % 

Q2*Razni Namah : Hendley's Jaipur Art. 


of subjects was conditioned by the traditions of the prince ; in 
the Hindu courts Hindu mythology afforded opportunities to 
the painter which in the Imperial courts were offered by the 
glories of conquest. Both arts are essentially courtly for in 
either case the patrons are princes. There is undoubtedly 
greater freedom and variety in the Rajput schools because 
their social manners differed from those of the Mughals, but 
the aesthetic quality of the two arts is much the same. The 
line of the Hindu retains more of Ajantan feeling in a certuin 
class of pictures/' 3 otherwise the beauty of life is envisaged 
in the same sharp, intense, well-defined, individualized man- 
ner as by the Mughal artist. The illustrations 54 of Rajput 
paintings given by Coomaraswamy themselves testify to these 
facts. The setting of the three first and crudely though force- 
fully executed pictures is exactly like that of any of the Mughal 
school. The Ragiriis and /Vayafeas 50 are Rajput ladies sitt- 
ing like Persian maidens 57 under overhanging branches of 
blossoming trees. The -clarity of outline, the emptiniess of 
spaces, the devotion to details like the ornaments and drapery 
the picturesque scenery, the graceful pose are all Hindu 
versions of the Persian art. The subject-matter may belong 
to Hindu society ; the draughtsmanship, the setting, the colour- 
ing is Mughul or Hindu-Muslim. In fact, in painting the same 
synthesis took place as in architecture. If Akbar adorned the 
palaces of Fatehpur Sikri with paintings on the walls, the 
Maharajas of Blkaner and Udeypur followed his example, and 
not only were the edifices alike, but the adornments were also 
of the same character. The Muslim rulers set the example of 
patronage of art and literature, and the Hindu princes imitated 

S3 Coomaraswamy : Rajput Painting, Plate X, LI, LII, 
("ibid., Plate* I, II, III. 

55 Coomaraswamy : Selected Examples of Indian Art Plates IV, CV, 

50 Ibid., Plate CXLVIH. 

67 Martin: Op. cit., Plate* 101, 111. 


them. Naturally it followed that the style created by the 
Hindu and Musalman artists of the Mughal court was copied 
with local variations by the court artists of Jaipur, Jammu, 
Chamba, Kango!a, 'Lahore, Amritsr, and distant Tanjore ; 
and a common style prevailed throughout India. 


(i) General 
Hopkins, E. W. : 
Barth. A. : 
Maedonnel, A. A. : 
Frazer, R. W. : 
Sir Henry Elliot: 
Oltramare, P. : 

Deussen. P. : 
Farquhar, J. N. : 

Nlcol Macnicoll : 
Monier Williams. M. 
Weber, A. : 
Barnett, L. D. : 
Barnett, L D. : 
Wilson, H, H, : 
Colebrooke, H. T. : 

(ii) Vedic 

Macdonnel, A. A. : 
Macdonnel and Keith, A. B. 
Bloomfield, M. : 
Bergaigne, A. : 
Wilson, H, H. : 
Buhler, G. A. : 

Buhler. G. A. : 

Buhler, G. A. : 
Oldenburg, H. : 
Hume. R. E. : 

Deussen, P. : 


The Religions of India. 
The Religions of India* 
/ The History of Sanskrit Literature. 
Indian Thought. 
Hinduism and Brahmanism. 

L' Histoire des Idees theosophiques dans 

Outlines of Indian Philosophy. 

An outline of the religious literature of 


Indian Theism. 

Vedism, Brahmanism, Hinduism. 
X History of Sanskrit Literature. 
Heart of Hinduism. 
Indian Antiquities. 
Miscellaneous Essays. 

Vedic Mythology. 
The Vedic Index. 
The Religion of the Vedas. 
The Rig Veda. 

y Translation of the Rig Veda. 
y Sacred Laws Part 1, Apastamba and 

Gautam, S. B. E., Vol. 2. 
Sacred Laws Part II, Vasishta and Bau- 
dhayana. S. B. E.. Vol. 14. 

> The Laws of Manu, S. B. E.. Vol. 25. 
Grihya Sutras. S. B. E., VoU. 29, 30. 

> Translation of Thirteen principal Upani- 


Philosophy of the Upanishads, translated 
by A. S. Gedcn. * 



(iii) Epic 

Hopkins, E. W. : 
Monier Williams: 
Fausboll, V. : 
Buhler. G. and Kir ate, J. 
Vaidya, C. V.: 
Earth. A.: 
Roy, P. C. : 
Dutt, M. M. : 

(iv) Philosophical 
Max Muller, F. : 
Royce, J. : 
Keith, A. B. : 
Rama Prasad : 
Chatterjea : 
Garbe : 
Thibaut : 
Cowell, E. B. : 

(v) Early mysticism 
Shag-wan Das : 
Barnett, L. D. : 
Grierson, G. A. : 

Seal, B. N. : 
Ram Prasad Chanda. : 
Ham Prasad Chanda. : 
Shrader, F. O. : 

Bhandarkar, R. G. : 

Sinha. N. : 
Cowell, E. B. : 
Grierson, G. A. : 
Wilson, R H. : 
Wilson, H. H. : 
. N.: 

The Great Epic. 

Indian Epic Poetry. 

Indian Mythology. 

Indian Studies. 

Epic India. 

Quarante ans d' Indianisme. 

Mahabharata (English translation). 

Hart Vamsa (English translation). 

X Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. 
The World and the Individual. 
Slmkhya System. 
Yoga, S. B. H. 
Hindu Realism. 
Karma Miman&a E. R. E. 
Vedanta Sutras, S. B. E., 34, 38. 48. 
Sarvadarsana Sangraha. 

Translation of the Bhagwad Gita. 

Translation of the Bhagwad Gita. 

The Narayaniya Section of the Santi Parv 

of the Mahabharata. 
Indo-Aryan Races. 

Memoirs of Archaeological Survey No. 5. 
Introduction to Ahirbudhnya and Panch- 

ratra Samhitas. 
X Vaiinavism, Saivism and other minor 


Narada Bhakti Sutras, S. B. H. 
Sandilya Bhakti Sutras Bib. Indica. 
Monotheistic religion. 
The Vis*nu Purana (English translation). 
The Puranas, works (English translatiori> 
Agni Purana (English translation). 



Pargiter, F. E. : 
Dutt, M. N. : 
Pargiter, F. E. : 

(vi) Buddhism and Jainism 

Kern : 

Rhys Davids : 

Oldenberg, H. : 

Poussin, Valle de la : 

Suzuki : 

Rhys Davids (Mrs.): 

Rhys Davids (Mrs.): 

Jaini, J. B.: 

Stevenson, S. : 

Jacobi. H. : 

(vii) Reformed Hinduism 
Bhashyacharya, N. : 
Krishnsvamy Aiyar, C. N. : 
Anandagiri : 
Deussen, P. : 
Thibaut, G. : 

(viii) Mysticism in the South 
Purnalingam Pillai : 

Srlnivasa Aiyangar : 
Kingsbury and Phillips : 
Pope. G. U.: 
Rajgopalachartyar, T. : 
Govindacharya, H. : 

Srinivasa Aiyangar, M* B. 
Rangacharya, M, ; 
Aiyangar, K. S. : 
Rajgopalachariyar, T. : 

Markandeya Purana (English translation). 
Bhagwat Pur an. 

The Purana text of dynasties of the Kali 

Manual of Indian Buddhism. 
History of Indian Buddhism. 
y Buddha, 

The way to Nirvana, 
Outlines of Mahayan Buddhism. 

Psychology of Buddhism. 
Outlines of Jainism. 
The heart of Jainism. 
Jainism, E. R. E. 

Age of Sankara. 

Sankara and his times. 

Sankara Vijaya. 

Outline of Vedanta. 

The Vedanta Sutras, S. B. E. 

Ten Tamil saints. 

Some milestones in the history of Tamil 

Tamil Studies. 

The hymns of the Tamil aivite saints. 
Mamkka Vacagar. 
The Vaisnava reformers of India. 
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Nttyanusandhanam series. 
Life and teachings of Ramanuja. 


Thibaut, G. : 
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The teaching of Vedanta according to 

Theism in Medieval India. 

Folk songs of Southern India. 

(ix) Islam 

The Encyclopedia of Islam : 

Hastings ; 

Hughes : 

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Houdas, et Marcais : 

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Amir 4 Ali, S. : 

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Dictionary of Islam. 

The Qoran (translation). 

The Qoran (translation). 


Mishkat ul Masabih. 

The spirit of Islam. 


Early development of Muhammadanism. 


Historical development of the Qoran. 

Essays on Islam. 



Teaching of Qoran. 

Muhammad and Muhammadanism. 

The development of Muslim Theology. 

Vorlesungen den Islam, translated by 

Felix 9\rin. 
Contributions to the history of Islamic 

History of Muslim philosophy, translation 

by E. R. Jones. 

Development of Metaphysics in Persia. 
Essai sur lea ecoles phiiosophique* des 


Melanges de philosophic juive et arabe. 



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Mustafa ibn Khaliqdad 
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Nicholson, R. A. : 
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Histoire des philoaophes et oe th^ologiens 


Ghazali, the Alchemy of Happiness. 
Aver roes et Averroisme. 
I a philosophic musulmane. 
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Moslem Schisms and sects. 
Heterodoxies of the Shiites from Ibn 

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A historical enquiry concerning the origin 

and development of Sufism, J, R. A. S. 


Tarjuman ul Ashwaq of lbri-ul-'Arbl. 
Studies in Islamic mysticism. 
Diwan Shams-i-Tabrlz. 
Kitab ul Tawa Sin. 
Awariful Ma'arif of Suhra-wardl. 
Oriental mysticism. 
Literary history of Persia. 
Gulshan-i-Raz of Shabistan. 
Jalal Uddin Rumi's MasnavT m'anavT. 
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History of Persia. 
The Derwtshes. 
The Caliphate, its rUe, decline and Ml.* 


Berlein, H. : 
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Seal : 

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Dei remery and Sanguinetti : 

de Meynard, B. and de 
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Major : 
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A narrative of a year's journey through 

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Arabian Society in the middle ages. 

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Memoire geographique et historique, etc. 
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et Persans. 

Georgraphie d'Aboul Feda. 
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a 1' extreme Orient. 
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authors. *, 

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Manual of Trichinopoly district. 

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Madura, district manual. 

Madura, Madras Dist. Gaz. 

Tanjore, Dist. Gaz. 

Tinnevelly, Madras district Manual. 

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Salem, Madras district Gaz. 

South Canara, Madras district Manual. 

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IX, part II. 
Castes and tribes of Southern India. 

South India and her Muhammadan 

The beginnings of S. Indian history. 
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Histoircal sketches of ancient Dekhan. 
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Histoire de la literature hindouie et 

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Anthology of Urdu poets. 


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History of Bengali language and Literature. 

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Jaya Singh's astronomical observations. 

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Recherches pour servir a 1'histoire des 

sicences mathematiques chez les 


Memoire pour servhr 1'histoire comparee 
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History of Arab medicine. 
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History of Medieval Vernacular literature 
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Lalla D!oda. 

Kabir ; 

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Singh of Rewah. 

Bijak, with Trijya of Devidasa, Lucknow, 
Siddhanta Dipika collected by Anante 

Das, Ranch!. 
Sakht. collected by Yugalananda, Luck 

Gyan GudrT and Rekhtas, Belveden 

Press, Allahabad. 
Ashtanga Yoga, edited by Yugalananda 




KabTr : 

KabTr : 
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KabTr : 

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Kabir : 
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Lai of Cole; Lucknow. 

Bijak with commentary of Purandlt. 
Collection of hymns by K. M. Sen, Sanli- 

KabTr Manshur, life and teachings of 
KabTr and the doctrines of the Kabir 
Panth, by Parmananda Das. 

Bljak. Ahmad Shah. English translation, 

Bijak, translated into English by Prem 
Chand, Calcutta. 

100 poems, translated into English by 

RavTndra Nath Tagore. 
KabTr and KabTr Panth. by H. C. West- 

KabTr Bachanavali, by Ayodhya Singh 

Upadhyaya, Allahabad. 
The Sikh Religion. 

History and Philosophy of the Sikh 
religion (English). 

Nanak Parkash (in Urdu). 
Belvedere Press, Allahabad. 
Belvedere Press. Allahabad. 
Edited by Sudhakar Dvivedl. 
Edited by Chandrika Prasad Tripathi. 
Belvedere Press, Allahabad. 
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Mira ba'i ki Bani : 
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Dayaba'I ki Bani: 
Rajjabdas ki Bam: 
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Malik Muhammad JayasT : 
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Benoy Kumar Sarkar : 
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Macnicoll, N. : 
Fraser and Marathe : 
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Row, H. A. : 

Russel, R. V. : 
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Risley, H. H. : 
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Mrs. Mir Hasan 'All: 
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Oman, J. C. : 
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Fletcher, B. : 
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Belvedere Press, Allahabad. 

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Belvedere Press, Allahabad. 

Belvedere Press, Allahabad. 

Ram Charita Manas. 

Akharavat, Benares. 

Sujan Raskhan, Benares. 

Folk elements in Hindu culture. 


Rise of the Maratha power. 

Hymns of the Maratha Saints. 

Hymns of Tukaram, 3 Vols. 

Hindu castes and sects. 

A glossary of the tribes and castes of the 

Pan jab. 
The tribes and castes of the C. P. of 

The tribes and castes of the N. W. P. 

and OudH. 

The tribes and castes of the Bengal. 

Dabistan i-Mazahib of Muhsin Fan!. 
QanQn-Hlslam, edited by W. Crookes. 

Memoiires sur les particularies de 1 

religion musulmane dans 1'lnde. 
Observations on the Indian Musalmans. 

The Brahmans, Theists and Muslims < 

The mystics, ascetics and saints of Indi 

A History of architecture. 
Histolre de {^architecture. 
Architecture, mysticism and myth. 
Architectural Composition. 
Religion and ait. 

A dictionary of architecture and buildi 
Les cupoles d'orient et d'occident. 



Spiers, R. P. : 
Dieulafoy. M. : 
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Saladin, H. : 
Gayet, A. : 
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SimakorT : 
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Olufsen, O. : 

Coste, P. : 

Coste, P.: 

Fergusson. J. : 

Le Bon, G. : 

Maindron : 

Rousselet, L : 

Ram Raz : 

Prasanna Kumar Acharya : 

Cole, H. R: 

Griffin, L. H. : 
Smith. V. A. : 
Havell, . B. : 
Havell, E. B. : 
Haveil, E. B. : 
Growse : 
Golubev, V. : 
Cunningham, A. : 

Burgess, J. : 
Burgess, J. : 

Burgess, J. : 

Burgess, J. and Cousens, H. 

Architecture, east and west. 
L'art antique de la Perse. 
L'art Arabe. 
Moslem architecture. 
Manuel d'art Musulmaa. 
L'art Persian. 
L'art Arabe. 

L'art dans 1'Asie rent rale. 
Lea arts Arabe 8. 

Old and new architecture in Khiva, 
Bukhara and Turkestan. 

Architecture Arabe. 

Monuments modernes de la Perse, 
t History of Indian and Eastern architecture. 

Les civilisations de 1* Inde. 

L'art hidien. 

Les Indes des Radjahs. 

Architecture of the Hindus. 

A summary of Mansara. 

Illustrations of ancient buildings in 
Mathura and Agra. 

Famous monuments of Central India. 

A hrstory of fine art in India and Ceylon, 

Indian architecture. 

A study in Aryan civilisation, 
v 'Benares. 

Modern Indian architecture, 

Ars Asiatic a. 

Archaeological Survey reports A. S. of 
India, Vol. 1-23. 

Survey of Belgam and Kaladgi Districts. 

Survey of Belgam, Vol. II, and Kathiawsr 
and Kuch. 

Survey of Belgam. Vol. Ill, and Bidar 
and Aurangabad. 

Antiquarian remains of Bombay Presi- 


Burgess, J. : 

Burgess, J. : 

Burgesss, J. and Cousens, H. 

Cousens, H. : 

Fuhrer, A. : 

Fuhrer, A. : 

Smith, E. W. : 

Martin, F. R. : 

Migeon, G. : 
Griffiths, J. : 
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Coomarswamy, A. K. : 
Coornarswamy, A. K. : 
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Miniatures : 

Muhammadan architecture of Baroch, 
Cambay and Dhalka. 

Ahmadabad architecture. 
N. Gujarat, architecture. 
Bljapur architecture. 

Sharq? architecture. 
Monuments of N. W. P. and Oudh. 
Fatehpur Sikri. 
Miniature painting of Persia, India and 


Manuel d*art musulman. 
Ajanta cave paintings. 
Ajanta frescoes. 
Indian sculpture and painting. 
The ideals of Indian art. 
/ Indian painting. 
Buddhist art. 

Memorials of Jeypore exhibition. 
Alwar and its art treasures. 
Arts and crafts of India and Ceylon. 
Indian drawings. 

Selected examples of Indian art. 
Rajput painting. 
Ideals of the east. 

The Bodleian Library : 

MSS. Ouseley Add 166, 167, 169, 170, 171. 172, 173, 17*. 
MSS. Laud, Or. 149. 
MS. Elliot, 254. 
MS. Pers. b. I. 

2. The British Museum: 

Or, 4615, Shah Namah (Darab Namah). 
Reproductions of Persian and Indian paintings. 

3. The India Office Library : 

f Johnson : Collection of 65 albums. 


4. The Victoria and Albert Museum, South-Kensington, Indian section : 

(a) Clarke MS. of Akbar Namah. 

(b) Dastan-i-Amir Hamzah. 

(c) Miscellaneous paintings on cotton and paper. 

Photographic Reproductions of illustrations from the three MSS. 
Badshahnamah, Shahnamah, Timurnamah. 



p. 239 
Amalasila the large-fluted bulbous 

block the characteristic of N. 

Indian temples, p. 236 
Antarala or intermediate chamber in 

a Hindu temple, p. 237 
Brackets, tor anas in Hindu architec- 
ture and their use, p. 239 
Columns of Hindu architecture, 

p. 239 
Cornices in Hindu architecture, 

pp. 239-40 
Dome, the Hindu and its construe- 

tion, p. 238, thenever kept plain, 

p. 239 
Garbha griha the square cell which 

contains the image, forms the basis 

of the temple tower, p. 237 
Gopuram evolved from pyramidtcal 

tower a characteristic of the 

Dravidian style of architecture, 
p. 237 

Kalafo the finial in Hindu temple 
p. 236, p. 239 

Mandapa. or porch, p. 237 

Ornaments in Hindu architecture, 
p. 240 

Rathas monolithic at Mamalll- 

puram. characteristic of the Dravi- 
dian style of architecture, p. 237 

Sifcnara straight at Gay a a charac- 
teristic of N. Indian style, p. 236, 
in the Chalukyan style, p, 237, 
p. 238, p. 239, in the temples at 
Sonagarh in Bundelkhand, p. 249 

StupEs, 3. 86, and the Dagaba, 
p. 239 

Vimana, chief feature of the Dravi- 
dian style temple could have any 
number of storeys, p. 237 




Acaryaa according to Jains, p. 19 
Acharya abhimana complete trust 

Bhakti, p. 1, p. 21, its history and 
principles, pp. 2328, Schools 
started in the South, p. 84, the 

in the preceptor, p. 102, p. 113, devotees of Siva and Visnu d~v?- 

closely connected with prapatti, loped the cult of in the Sou'h, 

p. 114, the idea in Artha Panchika p. 87, Ramanuja asked by his 

borrowed not from Christianity but teacher to establish the religion 

from Islam, p. 115 

of, p. 99, within the Vedantic 

Adharma principle of inertia accord- philosophy, p. 100, the soul attains 

ing to Jains, p. 19 

to God by, p. 102, p. 103, two 

Ad it is, p. 3, spoken of as mothers new features of Bhakti, devotion to 
as well as wives of their sons, guru, and reception of men of all 
p. 76 

Ahankara, p. 21 


Ahetuki motiveless bhaki^ p 
AjTva not-souls, according to Jains, 

p. 19 

Anagamin, p. 18 
Aniruddha, p. 20, p. 101 
Antaryamln, p. 20, dwells within the 

heart, p. 101 
Anugrah, p. 21 
Aradhna, p. 21 
Arch* or image, p. 101 
Arhat, according to Buddhism, p. 18, 

according to Jainism, p. 19 
As*i experienced by Kabir, p. 161 
Asana posture, p. 17 
A tat (non-existence), p. 2 
Asrava soul, p. 19 
Atman, p. 17 

castes as devotees, attributable to 
Islam, pp. 106 8, according to 
Ramanuja permitted to first three 
classes alone, p. 1)4. p. 117, the 
doctrines of travel to North and 
give strength to Vaisnavism, p. 132, 

the asm of described by Prahlad, 
p. 133, Ramanand teaches the 
doctrine to all four castes, p. 144, 
according to Kabir, p. 150, *s 
taught by Sundefdaql, p. 190l 
Paltoo, p. 209, in Maharastra takes 
the Krisnite form and centres 
round Vithoba of Pandharpur, pp. 

Bharcrm, p. 161 

Bhedabhed, theory of Nimbaraka, 
p. 102 

Bodhisattvas. p. 19 

Avatars according to Kabir, born Brahman =God, p. 17, according to 

of water, p. 157 Sankara, p. 98, according to Rama- 

Avigat Absolute God, p. 151 nuja, p. 100, enveloped in tamat, 

p. 101 

Brahmaloka. p. 18 

B &addhi or human soul, p. 70 

Baddha souls that are still bound, 
p. 101 

a, p, 20 Cetana= consciousness, p. 19 




Dhamma, p. 18 

Dharma, principle of motion, accord- 
ing to Jains, p. 19, Kabir not the 
follower of , p. 152, Gharlbdas, 
p. 205 

Dharana fixation of mind, p. 17 

Dhyana, p. 17, p. 158 

Dukha experienced by Kabir, p. 161 

Durasa explained by Kabir, p. 161 

E karri, p. 2 

Ekantin God development of the 

conception, p. 109, the idea taken 

from Islam, p. 112 

Farman decree, p. 151 

Gayatri, p. 122, Kabir identifies it 
with izhchha or will, which gave 
birth to Brahma, Visnu, and 
Mahesa, p. 156 

Govinda, as God. p. 154, p. 158, 
Raid as* s conception of , p. 179, 
Dadu has placed hi* whole soul 
under , p. 185 

Guru, p. 23, p. 25, p. 95. Sankara 
ready to acknowledge even a 
chandal as his . p. 96, the Saivite 
idea of- differs from Hindu con* 
ception, p. 106, bhakti. the idea 
taken from Islam, p. 112, adora- 
tion of , p. 113, bhakti not a 
Hindu idea, p. 114, difference 
between the ancient ideal and 
mediaeval ideal, attributed to the 
influence of Islam, pp. 114-15, 
among the tyngayats, p. 118, p. 
125, p. 127. exaltation of by Kabir, 
pp. 158-9, p. 165, the according to 
Nanak remained the same, p. 167. 
p. 168, directed the disciple upon 
the path which Has four stages, 

corresponding to those of the Sufis. 
p. 176, p. 178, or Ilahi, p. 186, the 
position of according to Dadu, p. 
188, Jagjivandas, p. 200, Charan- 
das, p. 203 and p. 204, Dulandas, 
p. 207 


Hara (Mahetfa), p. 156 

Hari p. 133, as God, p. 154, p. 156, 
p. 158, p. 160, Raidas's concep- 
tion of , p. 179, p. 180, Kesavdas, 
p. 203, Charandas, p. 203 and 
p. 204, Chaitanya, p. 219, Namdev, 
p. 223, Tukaram, p. 226 

Ilvara, p. 7, p. 16, analogy between 
and the Shiife God, p. 54, god 
of the phenomenal world, accord- 
ing to Sankara, p. 98, according to 
Ramanuja, the Lord of all, and 
as universal soul, the Highest Per- 
son, p. 100, at first without a 
second, his five different manifes- 
tations, p. 101, p. 123 

Jangama, p. 116, initiation of , 
p. 117. a follower, represents the 
incarnation of a deity, p. 118, p. 172 

Japa, p. 22 

J'wa the Soul as emanating from 
IsVara, p. 101. according to Kabir, 
p. 156 

Jnana, p. I, the second path for the 
attainment of salvation, how dis- 
covered, various approaches to the 
problem produced a number of 
theosophic systems p. 13, p. 24, 
p. 27, Sankara the great prota- 
gonist of the path of, p. 99, con- 
centration, and meditation, p. 102 

, Kala. P . 21, p. 164 

1 Kalpa the cycle of creation, >. 10 F 


Karana the causal condition, p. 101, 
p. 164 

Karma, p. 1. path of action, recog- 
nises the principle of personality, 
p. 3, according to Bhagavadgita, 
p. 4. details of the Marga describ- 
ed, pp. 5 13, its importance in 
the Vedic conception of law, p. 14, 
p. 19, p. 22, p. 24, the soul puri- 
fies itself by, p. 102, Kanda of 
Pran Nath, p. 199 

Karya the effect condition, p. 101 

Kevalas those souls that have puri- 
fied their hearts and are free from 
birth and death, p. 101 

Khasarn Nanak conceived God as , 
p. 169 or Husband, Dulandas, 
p. .207 

Laksmi its two aspects, p. 20 

Lay a or absorption, p. 20 

LiJigo Shrltiea at, p. 9, p. 86, the 
symbol of divinity, p. 118, p. 121, 
p. 122, p. 124, p. 126, p. 127, 

Ekalinga, p. 132 


Mana or 'aql t its three constituents, 
p. 73 

Mantra, p. 21, p. 134 

Math or monastic orders, p. % 

Maya, p. 22, or illusion, growth of 
the conception in Muslim Sufism, 
p. 71, as equivalent to not-light 
p. 72, ankara*s conception of , 
pp. 97-8, in Kabw's terminology, 
p. 155, Raidas, p. 180, Malukdas 
p. 189, Kesavdas, p. 203 

Milan experienced by Kabir, p. 161 

Moh Raidas, p, 180 

Afofoo aim of Hindu religion 
p. I, p. 23, p. 27 

AfuV/o those souls who have broken 
their better a, and wait on God, 

ku those souls that have a 
desire for liberation and are stand- 
ing to attain it, p. 101 


Narayana, p. 101 

Niranjan God as (light) according 
to Nanak, p. 170 

Nirankar God as according to 
Nanak, p. 170 

Nirguna, p. 75, without constituents, 
p. 132, Jagjivandas, p. 200, Bulla 
Sahib, p, 202, the group consist- 
ing of upasaks. p. 211 

Nirjara, p. 20 

Nirvana according to Buddhists, also 
Nibbana, p. 18, or moksa accord- 
ing to Jains, p. 20, p. 67 

Nitya souls which do not enter cycles 
of birth and death, p. 101 

Niyama injunctions, p. 17 

Niyati or knowledge, p. 21 

Pachhtatoa sorrow experienced by 
KabTr, p. 161 

Padodaka water in which the pre- 
ceptor's feet are washed, p. 118 

Panchaksara, the five-syllabled for 
mula, p, 118 

Para the highest form of Isvara, 
p. 101, KabTr speaks of God as- 
Brahma or Absolute, p. 155 
Brahma of Shivanirayanis, p. 206, 

Paranjoti, Peroli or Vetta Veli. the 
eternal light p. 125 

ParmesVara, p. 9. p. 124 

Parvati, p. 9, or Uma, p. 123. p. 124 

ParSvidva or mSrfat of Kabir, p. 148 

Pasupati, p. 121 

Pradyumna, p. 101 

Prakrit! the matter as emanating 
from Isvara, p. 101 

Pranayim, p. 17, compared to dhikr 
p. 82 



Prapannaa those who take refuge in Sacf/ma according to Jains, p. 19, 

God, the Sudras are., the idea has p . |60, p. 174, p. 194, Jagjivan- 

resemblance with Islam, perhaps das, p, 201, p. 202 

borrowed by Ramanuja from the Saguna p. 75. the group consisting 

latter, p. 114 of up5 ^ 8 . p . 211 

Prapatti resolution to yield, forma- Sa'm as God, p. 154, JagjTvandat, 

tion of two schools, p. 102, em- p 201 

phasised by Nimbiraka, p. 103, Sakrdagamin, p. 18 

self-surrender, the idea taken from Samadhi direct realization, p. 59. 

Islam, p. 112, p, 113, the idea of the 8tatc of dcep trancc , p . % 

attains importance in the school Sarhkarsana, p. 101 

of Ramanuja, closely connected Samprad&ya, p. 102 

with the adoration of teacher 
source of division among Vaisna- 

vas * P- ll4 

Sarhsara, p. 17 
Samvara, p. 20 

I Samyak-dristi, p. 18 
118, Sankalpa 


acti- Karman, 

Smriti, ' 

Prasada sacramental food, 

P- 123 
Praiyahara reaction of se 

vitie f- P- 17 
Portisa, p. 2, p. 21, or divine soul, 

p. 71, passive jtmru-sa associated 

with active manag, p. 73, accord- Samadhi 

ing to KabTr the Supreme Soul, p. Sankranta, p. 122 

155, (male) Jagjlvandas, p. 202 Sanyasin Sankar recruited them from 

Purusottama-- the Highest Person, the a ]j Ca8 ie8, p. 96, Ramanuia bftcnme 

univeral soul, p. 100 before becoming an author, 

p. 100 

Sat (existence), p. 2 

Rajas courage and ambition, p. 73 Satguru, p. 125, God as according 

Rama worship substituted for to Nanak, p. 170 

Visnu by Ramanand, p. 144, as SatpurusW as God, p. 154 

God, p. 154, p. 160, p. 163, p. 165, 5affua reason or intelligence, p. 73 

as referred by Nanak, p. 169, Siddhis p. 133 

Nanak declines to accept him as r5ddha, p. 118 

incarnation, p. 173, so also Raidas, Siddhas, according to Jains, p. 19 

p. 180, calls as Sultan, p. 181, in Skandhas = aggregation of parts. 

Dadu DayaTs poems, p. 185, p. 187, p . 18 

Malukdas, p. 190, Paltoo Das, p. Srotapanna, p. 18 

210, p. 211 

Rudrakia rosary, p. 118 t 

Tamas lust, hunger, passion, p. 73 

8 as ultra-subtle matter envelopes th< 

&abda according to Kabfr, born of Brahman, p. 101 

knowledge and gave birth to five 

Brahmans, p. 156, the female prin-j fj 

ciplc, p. 157 | Upidnyat, according to fain, p. I' 


Vaikuntha, p. 101 
Vasudeva, p. 101 
Vibhav or incarnations of Narayana, 

p. 101 

Vibhuti- ashes, p. 118 
Viranchi p. 133 

Viraha experienced by Kablr, p. 161 
Vyuhas the liypostases of , Para 

p. 101 


Yama interdictions, p. 17, p. 164, 

p. 170, Malukdas, p. 190, Gulal, 
p. 208 

Yoga, p. 13, denned, p. 15, details 
of the system, pp. 16-17, p. 21, 
p. 22, the practice appropriated in 
Islam, p. 67, p. 82, Yogic trance, 
p. 101, the discipline of Yoga, 
p. 104, spiritual training without 
dependence on a god, p. 113, 
p. 134, meditation, p. 159, Nam- 
deva, p, 223 

Yuga, p. 121 



of absolute annihilation, p. 73, 

Ahadiya, p. 75 p. 79 

Al~haqq, p. 75 Fikr Jagjivandas, p. 201 

Al-lyialq, p. 75 Fuqr indifference towards suffering 

Allah p. 154, p. 165, Dadu Dayal, O r sickness, etc., the tendency in 

p. 184, p. 185, Go&a'm Jam, p. 197, Islam borrowed from Christianity, 

Pran Nath, p. 200, la Makan, p. p . 65, p. 80, or faqir. p. 174 

207, Ramai Pandit, p. 216, 

Tukaram, p. 227, and p. 228 

'A ma cecity, p. 75 Q 

A^niya, p. 75 Ghaibat- absence, p. 161 

'Aql, p. 52, the M'uitazalites make GhaibT unknown, p. 150, 169, 

the chief source of knowledge, Jagjivandas, p 202, /itirur. Dulan- 

p. 55, equivalent to human soul, das, p. 207 

its constituents, p. 73, p. 78, Gharib-Nivaz Charandas, p. 204 

Gharibdas, p. 205 

A'rsha DadQ, p. 184 and p. 185, H 

Gharibdas, p. 205 Habib, p. 152 

'Aahiq p. 152 Had? Dulandas, p. 207 

Azal pre-eternal existence of God, Ha/iur, p. 162, explained by Kablr, 

p. 70 p. 162 

Hairat, p. 161 

B Haj Shl'ah interpretation of, p. 52. 

Bag a- Kharraz the first to explain p. 78 

its meaning, p. 69, p. 79 Hakim Nanak conceived God as , 

p. 169 

I Hal or states 7 according to Sufia, 

Dhat essence, p. 76 ; p. 80, experienced by KabTr. p. 161 

Dhikr repetition of God's name, the j Haq (Truth), p. 162, Paltoo Dl, 
tendency in Islam accentuated by j p. 209 

the Christian contact, p. 65, the ) Haqiqat Union with Divinity, p. 79, 
discipline of the seeker, of two j al-haqaiq, according to JilT the 
kinds. Khafi and M, p. 82. p. 158 idea of ideas, p. 156, Pran Nath, 
Didar. p. 181, Gharibdas, p. 205 p. 199 

Divana Bulla Sahib, p. 202 Hoy 0/5, substance, p. 76 

Hubab Kabir both the and sea, 

p. 152 

Faidh, p. 79 Hudh&r p. 161 

Fono, p. 67. Kharraz the first to ex- Hulul incarnation, the doctrine held 
plain its meaning, p. 69. the desti- by extreme Sufi*, p. 69 
nation of individual soul, a state Huwiya, p. 75 



Ilahiya, p. 75 

Imam or faith, p. 7ft, or spiritual 

guide, the Shi'ah conception of , 

p. 81, Imam or spiritual teacher, 

p. 115, p. 151, in Pran Nath, p, 199, 

in Gharibdas, p. 205 
Imtizaj, commixture the doctrine 

held by extreme Sufis, p. 69 
*lnayat, p. 79 
In fir ad perfect isolation of God, 

p. 70 
Ins^n-i-Kamil, p. 47, the fourth stage 

in spiritual perfection, p. 77 
latidlal, p. 79 
Itmtnan, p. 80 

rat, p. 161, Paltoo Das, p. 209 
jalal grarfieur, p. 76. experienced 

by KabTr, p. 161, Nur explained 

by KabTr. p. 162 
Jamal, beauty, p. 76, experienced by 

KabTr, p. 161, Nur explained by 

KabTr, p. 162 
Jar as, p. 77 


Ka'bah. p. 79, p. 160, KabTr, Nanak. ' 
p. 173 ! 

Kalam, p. 59 

Kamal, perfection, p. 76 

Kara mat, p. 67 

Kartm=God. Dadu, p. 184, p. 185. 
Gharibdas, p. 205 

KhaKf*, p. 52 

Khauf, p. 80 

KhMmat, p. 52 

Khuda, KabTr, p. 165, Dharnidas. 
p. 198, Pran Nath. p. 199. or 
Khud In Bhika, o. 208, Paltoo Das. 
n. 210, Ramai Pandit, p. 216 

KhuJi (egotismV-Kesavd^s, p. 203 

Khutba according to KabTr, p. 148 | 

Lahut, the absolute God in His 
Divinity, p. 70, explained by Kabir, 
p. 162, Paltoo Das, p. 209 


Madar Gharfbdas, p. 205 

Mahbub. p. 152, Bulla Sahib, P . 202 

Malakut. p. 161, explained by Kabir. 
p. 162, Paltoo Das, p. 209 

Moqamat stages by which a novice 
rises to union with God 7 accord- 
ing to Suns, p. 80, p. 152, Dadu, 
p. 183 

Maraqbah. p. 67, p. 80 

Ma* r fat, p. 78, or par~-vidya cf 
KabTr, p. 148, as in Dadu Dayll's 
poems, p. 184, Pran Nath, p. 199 

Ma'shuq, p. 152 

Mihr - experienced by KabTr. p. 161 

Muhabbat, p. 80 

Mu'jizah, p. 67 

Mujra Dharmdas, p. 1% 

Mulla, Nanak, p. 173 

Murid, p. 82, the initiation of the 
Muslim compared to that of a 
jangam, p. 117, Dadu Dayal, p. 18$ 

M unhid, p. 81, p. 185 

Musanr, p. 152 

Mushahda, p. 80 


Najs, p. 52, p. 78, Dadu Dayal, p. 

Naskh-i-arwah transmigration, the 

doctrine held by extreme Sa/ts, 

p. 69 
Nasut God in Humanity, p. 70, 

explained by KabTr, p. 161, p. 162, 

Paltoo Das, p. 209 

War a school of Muslim Sufism re- 
garded ultimate reality as Nur, 
p. 71, -i-Qahir, p. 72, the word as 
used by KabTr, p. 155 



Pa tg ham bar s according to Kabir, 
born of water, p. 157, p. 164 

Parvardigar Hindu and Muslim 
saints are according to Nanak His 
dlwant, p, 171 

Pay bazi, p. 83 

PiWar-^Gharibdas, p. 205 

Pir, p. 52, or spiritual guide, p. 61, 
p. 115, the four successors of 
Basava, compared to four fnr$ of 
Musalmans, p. 117, twenty-one 
according to Kabir, p. 148, born of 
water, p. 157, p. 164, p, 165, p. 167, 
Dadu Dayal. p. 184, p. 185 

Qidir^God, Raidas, p. 181 

QaKr, p. 161 

Qurb, p. 80 

Qu'b or spiritual guide, p. 


Shan at the surrender of will to the 
commands of God, p. 78, as used 
by Dadu Dayal. p. 184, Pran NatH, 
p. 199 

5hauq, p. 80 

Saluk, p. 67 

Sultan -God, Raidas, p. 181, Dharni 
Das, p. 198 

Taharat, p. 78 

Talib. p. 78 

Tarlqa, p. 67, tarTqat, p. 78 

Tasavvar Dulandas, p. 207 

Tcrubah, p. 78 

Tawakkd, complete detachment 
from the world and utter depen- 
dence upon God th'. tendency in 
Islam borrowed from Christianity, 
p. 65, p. 80 


Radha, p. 80 | Un$, p. 80 

Rahlm or Rahman, p. 185, p. 190, 

Ramai Pandit, p. 216 W 

Rija, p. 80 Wahidiya, p, 75 

Run, p. 76, or soul, p. 156 War 'aabstinence, p. 80 

Watl, p. 81 

S Wujud Mutlaq the absolute, p. 75 

Safer, p. 80 
Sahib the favourite name of God 

used by KabTr-p. 154, p. 161, 

Gharlbdas, p. 205, Tukaram, p. 


Saint, p. 78 
Salik, p. 78 
Sama' -song and dance sanctions forj 

them, pp. 82-3 
Saqi, p. 161 
Saum, p. 78 
Shaikh, p. 61, or spiritual guide 

p. 115, p. 151, p. 165, p. 172 

p. 80, Gharibdis, p. 205 

7-fc-V/ or Zuhd, p. 64 

Zakflt ShTah interpretation, p. 52, 

n, 78 
Z5t paV< or pure essence, accord- 

ing to Kabir, p. 155 
Zi'frr Tagjfvandas, p. 201, Tukarlm, 

p, 228 


Abul Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq 
al Nadim author of Kitab al Fihrist, 
p. 10, p. 12 
Sevener sect the significance of Abul Hasan al 'Asharl rhis life and 

'Abdullah ibn Meymun, founded the 

the number seven general teach- 
ings, pp. 53-4 

'Abdul Haq, p. 47 ns., p. 140 n. 

'Abdul KarTm Jilt, Commentator of 
Ibnal 'Arab! and author of Inaan- 
i-Kamil, p. 47, p. 70, p. 74, h ; s 

theories explained, pp. 75 78, cf. Abul Hasan Basri, p. 55 
to Kablr, p. 152, identity between Abul Hasan Khirqani, p. 79 
his and JCablr's account of the Abul Hudhail. D. 55, his meanings of 
creation of world, p. 156 creation, p. 56 

'Abdul Qadir Badaoni : Mun'a Abu Musa. p. 58 

teachings, occupied a position mid- 
way between the extreme absolu- 
tists and the extreme anthropo- 
morphists, p. 58, p. 60, notices 
Indian religion and philosophy, 
p. 67, p. 112 

khab-ut-Tawarilch, p. 48 n. 
Abdul Qadir Jlllni, p. 47 
'Abdur Rahman Samri the Muslim 

Abu Sa'ld ibn Abul Khair, p. 

p. 78 
Abu T#mmam. p. 60 


name of Cherman Perumal, p. 34 Abu 'Ubaida M'amar, p. 55 

'Abdur-Razzaq his account, p. 38 Abu Zaid al Hassan Sirafi, p. 10, 

and n. 39, 45 

Abhlras, iv, origin of Gopal Krisra Actium, p. 30 

of, p. 109 
Abraham, p. 69 
Abu 'Abdullah al Harith al Muhi- 

sib* the earliest Muslim Sufi, his 

Adam, p. 69, the first theatre of the 
manifestations of the spirit, p. 77 
'Adil Sh5h, p. 220 
Adiyir, Saiva Saints of the South. 

work tinged with Christianity, p. grouping of their works, p. 87, 

65, p. 69 I p. 90. disputed the theories of 

Abu Bakr, p. 69 j <ankara, p. 99 

Abu Dulaf Muhalhil, p. 37 j Afghanistan, p. 8, Hindu or Bud- 

Abu Fida, p. 37 j dh'st. p. 66. p. 135, p. 240 

Abu Hanlfa Nu'man, an early mys- 1 Agamas (aiva\ v 

tic, p. 68 Agatharcides, p. 30 

Abu Hashim of Kufa, the first Sufi, Agnl, p. 3, p. 4, largest number of 

p. 67 hymns in Vedas devoted to him, 

Abu Hifa RabT bin Sahib al Asadi p. 5. Cult, p. 11 

al Basari. p. 46 Ahichhatra (Ramnagar). n. 7 

Abu Sa'id al Kharraz (pupil of : Agra a centre for Sadhs, p. 192, 

Haan). an early mystic, p. 68, the j p. 243, p. 248 n. p. 269, p. 272 

first to explain /ana and baqa, p. 69 j Ahmad Shah, p. 153 
Abu 'Ala'al Maa'rrl, his teachings \ Aiyangar (S. K.), p. 4! n. 
' a^d poems, pp, 61-2 i Aiyangar (K. S.), p. 99 n. 




Aiyangar (Srlnivas), p. 87 n, ridi- j 
cuies the Siddhars, p. 124 and n., ' 
p. 125 n. i 

Aiyer (K. V. Subrahmanya), p. 86 

Aiyer (KrishnaswamI), p. 95 n., p. | 
% n. I 

Ajanla, v, difference between the ' 
slyle of painting and that of 
Delhi or Jaipur, p. 138, the frescoes 
of the only surviving remains of 
the Indian art, traces in them of 
pre-Christian literature and later 
Hindu poetry, p. 258, the date, the, 
artists, the conditions of prcduc- ! 
ticn, p. 259, the motifs secular nd 
religious, their treatment, pp. 260 j 
62, the medium of expression is i 
line, pp. 262-63 the process of 
frescoes, pp. 263-4, p. 266, p. 268, 
p. 271, p. 272, p. 273 

Ajmer. p. 131, p. 182, p. 185, 
p. 243 

Akbar, p. 136, his Dm-i-llahi not 
an isolated freak, p. 165, p. 182, 
p, 189, p. 217, p. 247, his buildings 
at Fatel^pur, the temples built 
under his encouragement, 

pp. 248*49, p. 243, appearance of 
fully developed new Hindu-Mus- 
lim schools of painting under him, 
names of his artists, pp. 270-1, 
pp. 272-73 j 

'Alaol translated Pcdmatiati into ! 
BengolT, p. 214 

Ala'uddm Khiljl, p. 136 

'Ala'-ul-Haq- a saint of the Punjab, 
p. 176 

Al-Biriinl. p. 11, devotes chapters to 
Indian religion and philosophy, p 
67, p. 108, religious condition of 
India as described by different 
from that of the time of Harte, 
p. 131 n.. his information about ' 
religious condition one-sided, p. 


Alexandria, p. 29, relations between 
and southern Jndia ceased in 
the beginning of the 3rd century, 
p. 43 

'All his death and the foundation 
of Shiism, p. 53 

'Alt bin Usmun al Hujwiri, author 
of Kashful Mahjub, p. 46 

'All ibn Udthorman, p. 33 

'Alf-lllahiyas Shi'ahs came into 

existence early in Islamic history. 
in India and Persia, an extreme 
sect, their beliefs and practices, 
p. 52 

'Aliyar Shr^h Sahib (Hazarat), lies 
buried at Madura, p. 40 

Al-Kindl, p. 10, one of the brothers 
of Purity, p. 62, wrote a book on 
Indian religion, p. 66 

Allahabad (Prayag) R~ma Nand 
born at, p. 144, p. 148 

Allama Prabhu according to Basava, 
the manifestation of God as world- 
teacher, p. 117, perhaps of Mus- 
lim origin, p. 120 

Almut, p. 54 

Al-Nadim depends for his informa- 
tion about Indian religion about 
sects on Al-Kindi, p. 62, devotes 
chapters to Indian religion and 
philosophy, p. 67 

Ai-ShahristnnT Kitab al Mila) ft 
Nihal. p. 10. p. II, p. 12. devotes 
chapters to Indian religion and 
philosophy, p. 67 

'Alvars Vaitnav Sainta of the South, 
their number reckoned aa twelve, 
four were Pallavas, three Cholas, 
one Chera and the remaining four 
were Pandyas, pp. 87-88, separat- 
ed the Vaisnao cult from Saioism, 
some of them came from lower 
castes whereas others were Brah- 
mins, their teachings, pp. 93-94, 
disputed the theories of $ank.ara, 
p. 99, their hymns deprecate ^pt- 


ternalia in religion, p. 113, as in- 
carnations of Vi&nu, p. 115, p. 132 

Amardas, the third Guru, p. 176 

Amir-' All Muhammadan law, p. 
55 n. 

Amir ibn ul 'Ubaid, p. 55, 56 

Amir Khusrau, p. 42 

Ammian Marccllani, p. 29 

Anandagiri, p. 95 n., conception of 
Sankara as the incarnation of $it)a, 
p. 115 and n. 

Anantanand, a disciple of Rlma- 
nand, p. 145 

Andal one of the four Pandya 
Vaisnav saints, p. 86, was a 
woman, p. 93, p. 94 

An gad (Guru), Nanak blended his 
light with, p. 167 

Anhilwara, p. 45, p. 131, p. 136 

/* nushlrvan Khusrau, p. 30 

Arab or Arabia, vi, writers and 
their testimony, p. 5. p. 9, refer- 
ences to Hindu worship in writers, 
p. 10, Arabia, p. 29, p. 30, p. 31, 
trader?, p. 32. fleets, p. 33, Arabia, 
p. 34, merchants patronised by 
Zamorin, p. 35, p. 36, appear on the 
East coast of India earlier and estab- 
lish centres of trade, their evidence, 
pp. 3843, their colonies settled in 
Ceylon and Southern India, p. 39, 
favoured in Gujerat, p. 45, Arabia, 
p. 49, changes in the moral and 
social life of Arabe, p. 50, Arabian, 
p. 59, p. 61, Greek works translated 
into Arabic in 9th cenutry, p. 65, 
the Arabs familiarise themselves 
with Indian literature and sciences 
from early times, translated 
Buddhist works in 2nd century 
A.H., p. 66, philosophers made 
Sufism the religion of high and low, 
p. 78. Arabia the Aryan land p. 91, 
p. 107, Arabia, p. 111. Arabian sea 
p. 130, p. 138, Arabia, p. 139, p. 
* J40, Arabic, p. 141, Arabic words 

in Kablr's Btjafe, p. 153, p. 167. 
Arabic, p. 240 

Araahja: made an attempt t3 
organise a reformed Vaisnava 
faith, p. 169, make a Jan gam in 
the same way as Muslim pirs 
made a murid, p. 117 

Architecture Indian, exhibits a 
synthetic tendency the Islamic 
influence on , p. 138, Hindu 
architecture the objecti fication or' 
Hindu religious consciousness, the 
idea explained, pp. 234 36, three 
divisions of Hindu style, the 
Northern Indian, the Cfti/ofo/on, 
the Dravidian, the characteristics 
of each, pp. 236 37, an analysis 
of Hindu buildings, pp. 23740, 
Muslim art conditioned by certain 
practical needs of religion and 
worship, the feeling realized in a 
mosque, p. 242, causes of the 
difference in Muslim styles of 
architecture its general characters 
in India, pp. 243 44, mosques of 
Qutubuddin Aibak, and temple at 
Girnar, p. 244, the earliest instance 
of a Hindu structure different 
from the orthodox style, p. 245, 
palaces of Rana Man of Gwalior, 
p. 246 47, temples at Brindaban 
and Govardhan. pp. 248 49, 
buildings in the Madras presidency, 
pn. 250 52, of Rajputana. pp. 
25253, of Bundelkhand. pp. 253 
254, the temple in Bengal, p. 255, 
influence ;n Nepal, pp. 255 56, 
palaces of the 19th century, pp. 
256-67, p. 258 

Aristotle, p. 62 

Arjunayanas, p. 130 

Arjun Mai the fifth Guru, 
p. 176 

Arnold (T.W.), p. 46 ns., p. 47 

Arulnindl Deva a Saiva theologian, 
p. 103 



Arya Bhatta, v, p. 134 

Aeh'ari See Abul Hassan 

'Ashariya (Twelvers) believe in 12 
Imams the last was Md. ibn Hasan 
the Safavides belonged to this 
sect, p. 54 

Assassins their stronghold was 

Alamut, turned out by Halaku, p, 54 

Asvalayana, Grlhya Sulras, p. 144 n 

Asvamedh, p. 85 

Atharva-Veda, iii 

'Attar See Farlduddln. 

Augustus, p. 29 

Aurangzlb persecuted he 5atnc?mls, 
p. 192, p. 198, p. 200 

Avicenne, p. 57 n, Ibn Slni holds a 
premier position among the Muslim 
thinkers, his canon the last word on 
Muslim medicine and philosophy, 
unsurpassed in keenness of mind, 
pp. 62 63, introduced Into 5u/i 
thought the conception of ultimate 
reality as 'eternal, p. 71, cf. to 
Kabir, p. 157 ! 

Ayodhya, p. 18 j 

Azadah A Brahman saint, p. 197. I 

Biba Lai born in Malwa, p. 195, 
settled at Sirhind, patronised by 
Dara, his teachings, p. 1% 

Blbur, p. 141, p. 142, p. 247 and n. 
p. 265, introduced the models of 
the Tlmuride School to Hindu and 
Muslim artists, p. 269 

Babylon p. 30 

BadamI, v 

Baerlein p. 61 ns., p. 62 ns. 

Badrayana Brahma Sutras, p. 99, 
p. 100 

Baghdad p. 37, p. 46, p. 58, p. 59 
p. 135, p. 241, School of painting, 
p. 265 

BahauddTn Zakaria (<*. 1266), p. 47 

Bahllkas iv 
Bahlul Lodi, p. 167 
BahmanI rulers patronised the art 
and literature of the people they 
j governed, p. 220 
1 Bahrain, p. 31, p. 38 
Bah ram Bhai Twice changed hi. 

religion to find the truth, p, 224 
Balban, p. 136 
Balhira the Vallabhl ruler of 

Gujarat, p. 45 

Balakh had a large Buddhist 
Vinar, its superintendent known 
as Barmak, p. 66 
Ballaldeva, p. 100 
Balui'hlstan, p. 66, p. 135 
BSna, p. 9 and n. f p. 11 
BaqillinT developed the ideas of 
'Ash'an,' p. 58 
Barcelore, p, 37 
Baramak Barmakide, vitirs of 

Abbasids, their origin, p. 66 
Barnett, p. 23 n., p. 87 n., p. 103 ns., 

106 n. 

Barth, p. 107 n., p. 112 n., p. 128 n. 
Barara, p. 65, and Kufa, two main 

centres of Su/ism, p. 67 
BVav, p. 84, D. 107, founder o r lli* 
lingayat faith, minister of Biijala, 
opposed to Jain and Brahman 
Influences, p. 1 16, his system 
critically examined, pp. 117 120, 
extracts fnom the Vac hang of i. 

Beal, p. 5 n., p. 7 ns., p. 8 n. 
Benares, p. 7, p. 123, p. 138, p. 141, 
P . 144, p. 148, P . 149, p. 153, 
p. 165, p. 178, p. 179, p. 181. 
fr. 190, the Viivc:hu)ar temple et 
p. 256. 

Bengal, p. 39, n. 130, Buddh'sm and 
Saktism confined to, p. 131. p. 
136, p. 137, p. 165, the religious 
condition of- on the eve cf 
Muslim conquest, p. 213, p, 21 A 
p. 217, p. 220, p. 255 


Bengali, p. 97, develops into a Bharvl, v 

literary language, p. 139, p. 140, Bhashyacharya, p. 95 n., p. 134 

p. 213, p. 214 Bhattacharya (Jadu), p. 205 n., p. 219 

Benoy Kumar Sarkar, p. 217 n. n. 

Bergaigne, p. 3 n. Bhavabhuti, p. 9, p. 134 

Bertrand Russel, p. 104 n. bhavSnnnd a disciple of Ramanand, 

Beveridge, p. 142 n. p. 145 

Bhagavadglta, compiled, iii, teaches Bhfka, p. 206, of Ghazipur, his pan- 
that salvation may be won through theistic outlook, pp. 208-9 
the path of action, p. 4, p. 24 ns., Bhlma. p. 6 
p. 25 and ns., its teaching, pp. 24- Bhramargiri, p. 8 
25, p. 27, commentary on by Bidpa, translated into Arabic, p. 66 
Ramanuja p. 100, as the source of Bijapur, p. 243 

Bhakti cult, p. 105, p. 106, specu- Bihzad, born in the middle of the 

lations of the cults of various tribes fifteenth century, the influence of 

merged into , p. 110, Jnanes'var's his style on Indian art, pp. 265 

Marathi commentary on , p. 221 69 

Bhagodas compiled the Btjafa p. (Bijjal the Kalachurl King of Kal- 

153, p. 181 yan, p. 116 

Bhagwandas, p. 24 n. Biladhurl, p. 32 

Bhdgwatas, p. 11, p. 20, Bhagwatism, Binvall, S/o. Hiraman Kayastha a 

p. 113, the Guptas proclaimed saint, p. 197 

themselves aa , p. 132 Blrbhan founder of the Scdh or 

Bh'fWata Purana the ba^.'s of Ma- Satnami sect his teachings col- 
dhava's philosophy, p. 103, the cults lected in Poihi his followers do 
of various tribes merged into , not observe caste, their chief seats, 
p. 110, Conception of God and p. 192, the twelve commandments 
Bhakti in, pp. 13234, marks the of the sect, pp. 1934, his out- 
transition from the ancient religion spokenness, p. 195 
of works to the medieval religion BisKr ibn Mu'tamir contemporary of 
of bhakti, p. 134, translated into al-Rashid, p. 55 
Bengali, p. 214 Blochet, p. 53 n. 

fiha! Bala a companion of Nanak, Blochmann and Janet, p. 83 n. 

p. 167 Bloomfield, p. 2 n. 

Bhakt-mala see Sitaram Bhagwan Boer History of Muslim philosophy, 

Prasad p. 62 n. 

Bhandarkar, p. 30 n., p. 93 ns., p. Bohras their leader settles in Guja- 

99 ns. t p. 102 n., p. 103 n., rat, p. 46 

p. 106 n., attributes to Christianity Bokhara, p. 241, school of painting, 

the introduction of the idea of j its style Muslim-Mongol, patronis- 

prafHstti and prapanna, p. 114 and ed by Timur, p. 265 

n., p. 118 n., p. 143 and n., p. 144, Bombay Gazetteer, p. 47 n. 

p. 146, places. Jnanesvar in the Brahma the primeval being born 

fourteenth century, p. 221, p. 222 as, and creates gods, etc., p. 2, 

* n., ], 223 n. presided over the deities in epic 

*>Lr.L.^ : mythology, p. 5, p. 9,-cult, p. llr 



identified with Surya, p. 12, 
p. 14, analogy between and the 

ShiCte God, p. 54, according to Jil? 
scriptures revealed by him, p. 77, 
p. 90, p. 92, sutras p. 99, as 
God's name used by KabTr, p. 151. 
p. 155, accounts of his birth as 
given by KabTr, p. 156, reference 
by Nanak, p. 169, p. 170, p. 185, 
p. 187, guru compared to , p. 204, 
as Vishuoakarma, p. 258 

Brahmanas, iii, develop the path of 
action, p. 1, defined, p. 2, emph 
sised the value of action, p. 13 
Jill quotes the sect, p. 77 

Brahmans their influence at th 
court of KalchurT King of Kalyan 
and its effect, p. 116, p. 122, p. 127- 
p. 128, changed the religious con 
dition of India after the death o 
Harsa, appropriated Vaisnavism 
p. 131, p. 132, employed by 
Muslims as legists and as astro- 
nomers, p. 137, their supremacy 
denounced by KabTr, p. 162, by 
JagjTvandas, p. 202, their Supre- 
macy in Bengal, p. 213, and their 
struggle with Buddhists in Bengal, 
p. 215, P . 259 

Brahmgupta, v, p. 134 

Brha*pati, p. 3 

Brindaban, p. 103, p. 138, the temple 
of Govind Deva, Madan Mohan, 
p. 248, of GopTnath, of Haridev at 
Govardhan, and of Jugal-Kishore 
as instances of Muslim influences, 
p. 249 

Broach, p. 31, p. 44, p. 46 

Brockelmann, p. 52 n., p. 65 n. 

Brown (J.P.), p. 78 n., p. 81 n. 
p. 82 n., p. 83 n., p. 117 and n. 
p. 118 ns., p. 119 and ns., p. 120 n 

Browne (E.G.), p. 51 n., p. 53 n. 
p. 67 n. f p. 68 n. 

Buddhism founded, iii, its expan 
sion and division into schools, iv 

receives a definite check, v, on 
decline, p. 5, p. 6, p. 8, p. 13, 
its different schools, p. 17. des- 
cribed, p. 18, p. 19, p. 26, p, 27, 
influenced Abul 'Ala', p. 61, sup- 
plied a number of ideas to Su/itm, 
p. 63. Buddhist works translated 
into Arabic, p. 66, the legend of 
Buddha entered into Muslim litera- 
ture, ' and also the idea of fourfold 
vows and eightfold path, p. 67, 
p. 84, Buddhist Missionaries in the 
south, p. 85, destroyed in the 
south in the eighth century, p. 86, 
p. 88, p. 91, stoutly opposed by 
Alvnrs, p. 93, p. 95, p. %. 
Sankar's philosophy dealt a fatal 
blow to, p. 97, p. 105, p. 109. 
p. 110, p. Ill, p. 113. p. 114. 
confined to Bengal, p. 131, Buddha, 
p. 148, Buddha, p. 163, in Bengal 
undergoing complete transforma- 
tion, p. 213, Buddhists or Sattlhar- 
mis, p. 215, p. 217, Buddhist 
caves and treatment of their en- 
trance, p. 238, p. 259, P . 260 

Bulla Sahib, p. 200, his real name 
BulnqTdas, his utterances, p. 202, 
p. 208 

Bulla Sahib ka SabJsar, p. 202 ns. 

BundT palace at, p. 253 

Burgess p. 245 n., p. 255 n., p. 256 

Burnell, p. 106 n. 

Bussrah, p. 29 

Candl-Sataka, P- 11 and n. 
Calicut, p. 36, p. 37, p. 38 
Cambav, p. 31, P . 37, p. 38, p. 44, 

p. 45 

Cambridge Mediaeval History, p. 50 
Campbell, p. 46 n. 
Cam pa, p. 6 
Candra, p. If, p. 12 


Cannanore, p. 36, p. 42 China, p. 39, p. 41, p. 42 

Canton, p. 39 Chishti order of Suns, p. 83 

Caracalla, p. 29 Choisy, p. 65 n. 

Carangnore, p. 29, p. 35 Chokhamela a Mah&r, his teachings, 

Carpenter (Estlin), p. 106 and n. p. 224 

Carra de Vaux, p. 57 n., p. 58 n., Cholas, p. 39, prosperity under their 

P* 71 n. rule in the south, p. 84, their ascen- 

Chaitanya condition of religious life dancy in the South in eighth cen- 

in Bengal before him, his birth and tury, p, 86, twelve Chola Vaiinava 

life, p. 218, the essence' of his ahars, pp. 87-88, Chola King 

teachings, p. 219 Kulottunga 1 threatened to prose- 

Chalukyas fighting with Pallavaa, cute Ramanuja, p. 100 

p. 86, style of architecture, p. 237 Christian, Influence on Hinduism. 

Chanakya translated into Arabic, its likelihood in South, pp. 43-44. 

P- 66 p. 49, Christianity, a source of 

Chandala The story of one who Su/ism, p. 63, p. 85, possibility of 

met Sankara on the banks of the christian contact with Hinduism 

Ganges, p. 96, p. 133 in South, pp. 106-7. p. Ill, p. 112, 

Chandel, p. 130. Yashoverman p. 114, p. 115. p. 119, p. 220, 

built a temple of Kianu, p. 132 p. 258, p. 265 

Chandrika Prasid Tripathl, p. 183 n., Cladwell, p. 40. p. 106 n., p. 125 

p. 185 n., p. 186 ns., p. 187 ns., ns., p. 126 ns., p. 127 ns., p. 128 

p. 188 n. ns . 

Channb5/3ava nephew of Basava Cleopatra, p. 30 

carried on the Lingayat propa- Claudefield, p. 58 n. 

ganda after his uncle's death, p. Cohen, p. 104 n. 

116. his prophecy, p. 120 Coimbatore, p. 39 

Charak, translated into Arabic, p. 66 Cole, p. 253 n. 

Charandas, born in Mewat, his dis- Colebrooke. p. 52 n. 

ciples both male and female, de- Coomarswamy, p. 272, p. 273 ns. 

nounced idolatory, p. 203 Cordier, p. 30 n., o. 39 n. 

Chauhans, p. 130 Coromandal, p. 39, p. 41, horse 

Chaul, p. 30, its old name Seymore, trading, p. 42 

p. 36, p. 37, p. 44 Co?ma Indiconleustes, p. 29, p. 30 

Chedis. p. 130 Cowell and Thomas, p. 9 n., p. 11 

Cheras, losing power, p. 33, p. 91 n. 

Chhatrasal, Raja of Panna, p. 198, Cunningham, p. 246 n. 

the cenotaph of and his queen Cut, p. 39 

Kamalavati, p. 255 
Chhuti Khan had the A&Wamedha 

Parva of Mahabharat translated 

into Bengali, p. 214 Dabistan-i-Mazahlb and Munsuvi. 

CHandragiri, p. 250. successors of the FanT See Troyer and Shea 

Vijayanagar dynasty settled at, Osbul, p. 31, p. 32, o. 44 

their palaces an example of Muslim Ddu Day*l used the language of 

influence, p. 251 Muslim Sufis, p. 70, controversy 



regarding his birth and caste, his 
early life and death, p. 182, his! 
poems, pp. 183-4, manifests greater! 
knowledge of Sufism, a staunch j 
tupporter of Hindu-Muslim unity, ' 
pp. 185-6, his ideas of God and j 
world, pp. 18688, P . 189, p. 190, 
p. 191. p. 192, p. 195 | 

Dahir, p. 32 | 

Darius, p. 30, dammed up In the ! 
channels of the Euphrates, p. 38 ' 

Datia the palace built by Blr Singh ! 
Deva and others at Orcha its style j 
described, p. 254 

Da'ud al Tai, an early mystic, p. 68 

Day (Francis) the land of Perumals, 
p. 32 and n. 

Dayaba'i a lady disciple of Charan- 
das, p. 200, p. 203, p. 204 

Deccan, p. 130, its conquests by 
Muslims in the thirteenth century, 
patronage of local art and litera- 
ture by the Bahmanids, p. 270, 
effect of Hindu-Muslim intercourse, 
pp. 221 28, including Mysore, the 
Kanarese districts and the terri 
tories of Nizam as far as Nagpur, 
has temples of the Chalukyan style, 
p. 237, p. 272 

Defremery and Sanguinetty see 
Ibn Batutah, p. 42 n. 

Delhi, p. 47, p. 131, p- 136, differ- 
ence between painting and that 
of Ajanta, p. 138, p. 141, p. 182, 
a Sadh centre, p. 192. p. 203, 
p. 243, p. 248 n., p. 272 

De Slane, p. 68 n. 

Deussen (P), p. 95 n. 

Devaram the first f-sven grnuna rf 
Saiva literature, used on religious 
occasions like Vedas, p. 87, p. 98, 
p. 103 i 

Dhankatika, p. 8 \ 

Dhanna, a disciple of Ramanand, 
p. 145, a J*t bv caste, a hymn of i 
his quoted, p. 178 i 

Dharam Das, deifies Kabir, p. 151, 
and n.. p. 182 

Dharma-Sdsiras, p. 1, p. 90. teaching 
of , p. 113, lay down rules govern- 
ing the relation of guru and brah- 
machari, the teacher compared to 
God, pp. 113-14 

Dharmdas born at Chapra, a /Cy- 
asiha, p. 197, his teachings Con- 
tained in Satya Pra^asa and Prem 
Pra^asa, his followers spread over 
whole India, uses Persian expres- 
sion, p. 198 

Dhul-Nun MisrI, p. 81. p. 128 

Dinesha Chandra Sen, p. 140 n., ac- 
knowledges the debt which 
Bengali owes to Muslim conquest, 
pp. 213-14 and ns., p. 215, p. 216 
n., p. 217 and n., p. 218 n. 

Djemal Uddm Muhammad al-Hin- 
ourl, p. 37 

Druzes, p. 54 

Duka, p. 66 n., p. 67 n. 

Dulandas. a SombansT Kshatriya 
speaks of Muslim Sufi his poems 
quoted, p. 207 

Durga worshipped with human 
sacrifices, p. 8, hymns In Maha- 
bharat addressed to her, p. 12 

Dutt, p. 133 ns., p. 134 na. 

Edkins, p. 39 n. 

Egypt, p. 29, P . 38, p. 43, p. 44. 

p. 243 
Elliot History of India, p. 131 n., 

Vol. I, p. 36 n., Vol. HI. p. 41 n.. 

Vols. I and III. p. 42 n.. Vol. I. 

p. 44 n., Vols. I and II. p. 45 ni. 
Ekintada Ramayya, associated with 

Basava a founder of the lingayat 

sect, p. 116 
Ekorama a successor of Bawva, 

p. 117 t 


Ellora, v, p. 9. temples characteris- 
tic of the Dravidian style, p. 237, 
Ahalyabal's temple at ,p. 255 
Encyclopaedia of Islam, p. 52 n. 
Evelyn Underhill, p. 104 n., p. 146 

Fa-Hien, p. 5 

Fakhr Uddm Ahmad, p. 42 

Fakhr Uddm (Baba), p. 40 

FarTd Uddm 'Attar, p. 46, p. 70, | 

compared with Kablr, p. 151 and 

with Dulandas, p. 207 
Farabi one of the brothers of Purity, 

attempted to combine Plato with 

Aristotle, p. 62 
Farid (Baba) of Pakpattan, p. 47 

p. 166, Nanak had a long inter- 
course with his successor, p. 167 
Farquhar, p. 143 and n., p. 144, and 

Traill on Dadu's caste, p. 1S2 
Fatimides, p. 54 
Fawcette, p. 107 and n. 
Fazlullah Lutfullah Faridl (K.B.), p. 

Fergusson, p. 244 and n., p. 246 n., 

p. 250 n., p. 251 and ns., p. 252 

and n., p. 254, p. 255 ns., p. 256 


Ferrand, p. 10 n., p. 37 ns. 
Field, p. 83 n. 
Fleet (Dr.), his evidence on the 

origin of the lingayai, p. 116 and 


Fluegel, p. 66 ns. 
Forbes Ras Mala, p. 46 ns. 
Fraser and Marathe, p. 226 ns., p. 

227 ns. 

Frazer, p. 2 n., p. 4 n., p. 103 ns. 
Friedlander, p. 52 n. 
Fudayl ibn 'Ayaz, an early mystic, 

p. 68 
fuehrer, p. 248 n. 

Gaharwars or Rathors, p. 130 

Gandhara, p. 6 

Ganesa, p. 11, or Ganpati, p. 12 

Ganga Prasad Varma, p. 152 n., p. 
164 n. 

Gardabhillas, iv 

Garga, p. 16 n. 

Garuiman, p. 4, p. 94 

Gaur, p. 131, p. 136, p. 243, p. 255 

Gaya, p. 6, p. 131, Sikhara, lines in 
temples straight characteristic of 
n. Indian style, p. 236 

Geden, p. 12 n. 

Gharibdas a saint, p. 200, lived in 
Rohtak, a Jat, p. 204, belonged to 
Kabfr School, used Persian terms, 
p. 205 

Ghazal! set seal upon Muslim theo- 
logy t P- 58, called Hu;;au/-/s/am, 
his life, p. 59, his contributions to 
Islamic theology, pp. 59-60, one of 
the premier Muslim thinkers, p. 62, 
started with dogma and landed into 
Mysticism, p. 63, p. 70, his views 
on Sama', p. 82, p. 83 n., p. 112 

Ghazm, p. 241 

Ghiyasuddm (of Bengal), p. 214 

Ghlyasuddin Damghani, ruler of 
Madura, p. 42 

Ghorl, rulers turn towards East, 
P . 135 

Ghulam 'Alt Azad (Mir) of Bilgram, 
p. 46 n., p. 139 and n., his list of 
Muslim poets in Hindi, p. 140 
and n. 

Girnar, the temple of Vastupal and 
Tejapal at, p. 244 

Goldziher, p. 54 n., p. 64 n., p. 66, 
n., p. 67 n. 

Gopaldas (Srut), compiled Stt^h- 
nidhan, p. 153, succeeded Kablr a 1 
Benares, p. 181 

Gosa'm-Jam and his sect, his fol 
lowers included both Hindus am 
Musalmans his creed, p. 197 



Cover, p. 126 n., p. 127 n. 

Govindaeharya, p. 85 n., p. 94 n. 

Greeks, p. 29, p. 39, works translat- 
ed into Arabic in ninth century, 
p. 65, Greece compared to India, 
p. 135, p. 140, p. 231, p. 232 

Grierson, p. 13, p. 24 n., p. 25 n., 
p. 106 n., p. 140 n., p. 143 and n., 
p. 200 n., p. 206 n. 

Griffin, p. 246 n., p. 247 n. p. 249 
n., p. 250, p. 253 n., p. 254 ns., 
p. 265 n. 

Griffiths, p. 259 n., p. 260 ns., p. 
261 ns., p. 262 ns., p. 264 n. 

Growse Mathura\ p. 200 n., p. 249 

Gujarat, p. 9, p. 44, p. 130, p. 132, 
p. 137, p. 165, monastery of 
Malukdas at Isfahabad, p. 189, 
temples, characteristic of n. Indian 
style, P . 236, P . 243, P . 245. p. 271 

Gulal, p. 206, hailed from Ghazipur, 
a Kshatnya his religious beliefs, 
P . 208 j 

Gurjars, p. 130 

Guru Govind, p. 209 

Guru Mukh Singh, p. 177 n. 

Gwalior, p. 131, p. 136, temples, 
characteristic of n. Indian style, 
p. 236, the buildings of Raja Man 
as showing the Muslim influence, 
p. 246, p. 248, p. 271 


Hablb 'AjmT, an early mystir, p. 68! 

Hadland Davis, p. 82 n. 

Haidari Fakirs, p. 37 j 

Hajjaj, p. 32, organises and expedi- j 
tion to Sindh, p. 44, planted aj 
colony of Indians in Kasghar, I 
p. 66 j 

Hadis, p. 55, p. 168 

Hafiz, p. 1%, p. 207 

Hakim Sana* I, p. 78 

Halkathi (P.G.), p. 120 n. 

Hanifs early reformers, p. 49 

Haridas founder 'of NOT ay am sect* 
p. 1%, their beliefs, p. 197 

Haiiram Purl a saint, p. 197 

Harisvara a Balldl raja, p. i 16 

Harsa, v, paid equal reverence to 

Hinduism and Buddhism^ p. 6, 
styles himaekf parmaditya b/iafcta, 
p, 12, p. 20, p. 84, his tolerant rule 
p. 85, p. 13U, India of mainly 
Buddhist or $mvitc, p. 131 

Harsuchatitra, p. 9, and n., p. II 

Hurun ibn Hayyan, p. 69 

Hasan, p. 53 

Hasanal Basri r~an early mystic, 
p. 68 

Hafa-un, father of Djcmuluddin, p. 37 

Havell. p. 244 and n. 

Hemingway, p. 39 n. 

Herat, p. 241, school of painting, 
encouraged by Mansur ibn Baiqara, 
p. 265, p. 272 

Herringham, p. 260, ns,, p. 261, ns. 

Himyaii (-al Sayyid al), the poet, a 
Shi'ah, p. 52 

Hinayana, iv. in the fifth century 
A.D. prcva'ent b'lwe*n Kabul and 
Mathura, two hundred years later 
replaced by Mahayana, p. 6, its 
two divisions, p. 17, as different 
from Mahayana, p. 19 

Hindi, p. 96, development of dis- 
tinctive from Urdu, p. 139, Muslim 
writers in, p. 140, p. 144, Kabir 
uRcd bhifi, p. 150, p. 151, Kabir 
used bhaa in preference to Sans* 
krit, p. 166, teachings of Sadhs 
are inbhwa, p. 192, p. 212, p. 

Hinduism its reassert ion, iv, attaint 
fully developed form, v. as reli- 
gion treated from the point ol 
view of mofcfa, p. 1, the number 
and significance of God changed on 
the eve of the advent of Muslims, 
p. 4, its assimilation with Bud- 
dhism in the fifth century f A.D. 


two hundred years later vigorously p. 165, condemned by Nanak, 

established by the side of Bud- p. 172, p. 179, p. 1%, p. 212^ its 

dhism, p. 6, Siva worship becomes revival in Bengal, under Pala and 

a part of it, p. 9, Northern India Sen Kings, led to Brahman supre- 

of the seventh and eighth century macy, p. 213. the character of 

A.D. not Vaisnavite but Saivite, the Hindu consciousness and its in- 

position had changed when *A1- fluence on art, p. 234 40 

Birunl came here, p. 11. How Hippaius, p. 29. 

Buddhism assimilated to it, p. 19, Hira, p. 29 

neo-Hinduism struggling with Bud- j Hiuen Tsiang, p. 6, disputed with 
dhism and Jainism for the upper Bhutas, p. 8, refers to Visnu wor- 
hand, p. 33, in the South came in ship, p. 11, p. 12, Found Bud- 
contact with Islam, its influence, dhism and Jainism stongly en- 
probability of Christian influence trenched in the Deccan, but 
on Hinduism in the Deccan dis- Saivism was also rising, p. 85, 
cussed, pp. 43-44, parallelism be- p. 217 
tween Hindu philosophers and Hopkins, p. 106 and n. 
GhazalT, pp. 59-60, supplied a Hoysala Yadava Ramanuja took 
number of ideas to Sufism, p. 63, protection with them, converted 
Hindu colonies planted in Syria, Vithaldev, brother of Ballaldev, 
Kasghar, the Eastern dominions ot p. 100, p. 117 
Caliphate, Hindu or Buddhist, pp. Hulaku, p. 54 

65-66, upto eighth century the Hujwfr! describes the early mystic 
North was the leader of religious schools Fully, p. 69, p. 70, his 
reform, after that till the fifteenth views on Sama', p. 83 
century South, the store-house of a Humayun introduced Persian in- 
number of movements, its causes, fluence in Indian art, p. 265, the 
p. 84, triumph of in the South in copying of Dastan Hamzah, con- 
eighth century, p. 86, Sankara's tinued, 269, His artists, Persian 
philosophy rallied the Hindu sects and Qalmaqs, their style, p. 
together, p. 97, the Southern type 270 

of Bha^jti traced to Islamic influ- Huns, p. 110, transformed into 

ence, pp. 107-7. Hindu mind Rajputs by Brahmans, p. 131 

worked in subsequent stages on Hunter (W. W.), p. 29 

the basis of Sankara's philosophy, Hurgronje, p. 49, p. 50 

p. 109, the religious symbol of the Husain, p. 53 

unity of Brahmanism is Trimurti, Husain bin Mansur, p. 46, the man 

p. HI, p. 114, absorbs the Snfi who produced greatest stir in the 

conception of Guru, p. 115, p. 117, Islamic world, p. 69, the story of 

the absorption of Muslim ideas, his life, his torture and execution, 

causes of the change from his mystical system explained, 

the time of Harla, p. 131, on pp. 70-71, p. 207 

the eve of Muslim conquest, Husain Shah (of Bengal), Patronised 

pp. 13134 upset by Muslim con- the translation of Bhagivat, p. 214, 

quest, p. 136, Kablr's the first originator of the cult of Saiya 

* attempt to reconcile and Islam, Ptr, p. 217 



Ibn al 'Arabl, p. 70, one of the 
greatest authorities on Sufi 

philosophy, p. 73, his theory 
explained, pp. 73 4, p. 75 

Ibn al Faridh, p. 70 

Ibn Baja, p. 62 

Ibn Batutah his account of Muslim 
settlements on the west coast of 
India, p. 37 and n, p. 42 

Ibn Haukal, p. 12, p. 45 

Ibn Hanbal, p. 57 

Ibn Hazm, p. 60 

Ibn Maskawaih, p. 62 

Ibn Rushd, p. 62 

Ibn Sa'id, p. 37 

Ibn Sina See Avicenne 

Ibn Tufail, p. 62 

Ibrahim ibn Adham, an early mystic, 
p. 68 

Ibrahim Shah Bander, p. 38 

Ibrahim Shahtd (Sayyid) his militant 
mission, p. 40 

IdrlsT, p. 45 

Ilyas, p. 37 

Imam, p. 52, the Shi'ahs regard him 
as the living representative of God 
Imamat a cardinal tenet of their 
faith, pp. 5354, p. 81 

Imam J'afar Sadiq, an early mystic, 
p. 68 

Imam Shah of Pirana 15th Century, 
p. 47 

Impey, p. 252 n, p. 254 n, p. 255 n. 

Jndra, p. 3, p. 4, largest number of 
hymns devoted to him, p. 5, cult, 
p. 11. p. 92 

Indus iii, p. 7, p. 31, p. 44 

Indian culture its scope, character 
and composition i, its historical 
divisions into periods ii, character- 
istics of the first period, ii, iv, of the 
second period iv v, of the third 
period v vi, "pre-MuslinvHindu 
culture, pp. 1 28, effects on of 
Muslim contact, pp. 136 42 

Innes, p. 33 n, p. 35 and n, p. 36 ns, 

p. 85 n, 

Iqbal, p. 62 n, p. 71 n, p. 74 n, p. 75 
'Iraq, p. 32, p. 41. p. 44, p. 65, p. 241 
Isfahan, p. 52, p. 241, School of 

painting, p. 265 

Islam its rise in the 7th century, 
and expansion, p. 31. essentially a 
missionary religion, p. 33, appears 
in India when the mind* of the 
people were perturbed, produced 

a tremendous effect conversion of 
the Perumal Chirf mosques on 
Malabar coast, p. 34, decline in iu 
influence in the succeeding centuries 
evidence of travellers, pp. 36 8, 
its advent in Southern India, pp. 
39 44 f protected and respected 
in Gujarat, p. 45, its original 
doctrines simple, divisions after 
the death of the Prophet, the 
earliest sects of Kharijiil, Shi* ah, 
Mu*ia, and Qcdiriya, p. 5!, th - 
neo-Plaionists strengthened the 
feeling of contempt for the world. 
and such ideas passed into Islam 
in the beginning of the ninth ccn- 
tuy, p. 65, first came into contact 
with Hinduism in the South, p. 85, 
as a contributing factor to Bhakti 
in the South, pp. 107 8, its 
influence on Sankara, p. Ill, 
Ramanuja influenced by Islam, 
pp. 112115, gave the idea of 
Prapatii and prapanna to Hinduism, 
p. 114, p. 115, its influence on 
Lingayats and Siddhart, pp. 1 16* 
120, the hymns of Siddhart remind 
of the uncompromising severity of 

, p. 128, p. 129, points of contact 
between and Hinduism, and ita 
effects, pp. 137-42, p. 155. 
Kabir's the first attempt to 
reconcile Hinduism and , p, 165, 

condemned by Nanak, p. 172, 
p. 179, p. 1%, p. 200, p. jll, 


p. 212, and Hindu art p. 229, west India, p. 131, Jain Caves and 

influences of Islamic style in the treatment of their entrance, 

Madras Presidency, pp. 2802 p. 238, the process of the trans- 

Isma'Il Bokharl (Shaikh) came to formation of the Jain temple into a 

India in the 11th century, p. 46, mosque, p. 244, p. 259 

p. |66 Jai Singh (Maharaja) reforms the 

lama titans (SeVcners), p. 54 Hindu Calendar, p. 140, p. 252, 

Istakhri, p. 12, found Musalmans in p. 254 

the kingdom of Balhara, p. 45 Jaialuddln Surkhposh, p. 47 

lyengar (S.K.), p. 85 n. Jaialuddln Bokhari (Sayyid) settled 

Iyer, p. 33 n. in Bahawalpur in 1244 A.D., p. 47, 

p. 166 

Jalaluddln Rum! made Sufism the 
religion of high and low, p. 78, 

Jadu a saint, p. 197 p. 81. laid great emphasis on 

Jadu Nath Sarkar, p. 218 n., song and dance, p. 83, cf. with 

p. 219 ns. KabTr, p. 151 

Jagjwandas born in Barabankl Jalaluddln TabrezI (Shaikh) vis'ted 

established a Community of Bengal in 13th century, p. 47 

thought with Islam, emphasised Jalandhar, p. 7 

the unity of God, p. 200, his Jamaluddm (Malikul-I&lam) ruler of 

hymns, pp. 200-202, P . 207 Kis, p. 41. 42 

Jagjwan Sahib fet SabdaVali, Jam! his Lawa'ih the best 

p. 201 ns. summary of Sufi philosophy, 

JahangTr, p. 248, under him the p. 78 

style of painting completely freed Jaunpur. p. 148, p. 243, p. 245 

itself from imitation, p. 271 fean Perier, p. 65 n, p. 66 ns. 

Jahiz (al), p. 55, p. 60 Jews, p. 49 

Jaipur, n. 138, p. 141, or Amber Jill See 'Abdul Karim 

p. 182, p. 189, a Sadh centre, Jivan Dasfounder of the Satnami 

p. 192, the palaces of Man Singh sect, p. 182, p. 200 

and Jai Singh at , p. 252-53, palace Jnanesvar his popularity in India, 

of Jai Singh at, p. 254, p. 272, p. 221 

and p. 274 Julian, p. 29 

Jain&m. founded, iii, its expansion Junaid of Baghdad, his followers 

iv, receives a definite check v, prudent and sober, p. 69, p. 70, his 

p. 5, p. 13, its principles described, saying quoted, p. 74, p. 79 
pp. 1920, p. 27. p. 84, Jain 
missionaries, p. 85, destroyed 
in the South by the combined 

efforts of Saioa and Vai&hnava Saints, Kb!r used the language of Muslim 

p. 86, its contribution to the new Sufis, p. 70, p. 143, a disciple of 

system, p. 87, p. 88, p. 89, stoutly Ramananda, a radical thinker, 

opposed by ^ Ivors, p. 93, p. 95, brings a new message for the in- 

p. 105, p. 109, p. 110, p. Ill, 113, dividual and society, p. 145. dispute 

. J[am influence, p. 116, confined to regarding the date of his birth, 


p. 146, son of a Brahman widow, 
his early Itfe, 147, wandered from 

p. 152 n., p. 157 and n,, p, 158 n., 
p. 162 ns. 

place to place and mixed with j Kabul, p. 6, monastery of Malukdaa 
Muslim Sufis, not learned, settled j, at, p. 189 
down at Benares, p. 148, offended i Kadambari, p. 9, p, ] | 
both the Moulds and the Prnc/iff, Kalacnuris, p. 120, p. 130 
exiled, his marriage and offspring, j Knlamukhas, p. 22, p. 23 
His death at Maghar, p. 149, Kabir'sj Kalidas v, p. 8, p. 9 and n., 
message, p|p. 149 50. The mission! p. 134 
of , p. 150, the expression of hiai Kalpa Suiras, p. | 
teachings shaped by that of Muslim Kalyan, p. 30 

saints and Sufis, p. 151, c/. Jill and Kamiil a disciple of Kablr, had 
other Muslim mystics, p. 152, used j a following in West India, 
both Persian and Arabia words, but , p. 182, had greater leanirg* 
Hindi his favourite, p. 153, various', towards Islamic ways of thinking, 
names of God, and his vision of p. 185 
God, pp. 154 55, accounts for the; Kandhar, p. 37 
creation of universe, comparison with Kangda, p. 138, p. 272, p. 274 
Jill, pp. 156 57. Exaltation of j Kanauj, p. /, p. 44, p> 13^ t h e 
guru, pp. 15859, preaches! <**ujar-P f xtihdr ruler M.'hir Bhoj 
asceticism, p. 160, mystical j of passed as an incarnation of 
experiences of , p. 161, explains j Vsnu, p. 132, p. 136 
the Mi'raj, p. 162, turns the Kans (Raja) patronised Krittivas, the 
attention of the Hindus and! translator of the Ramayan. p. 214 

Muslims to a religion of universal j Kantanagar in Dinajpur, temple at , 

path, pp. 16365, p. 169, p. 176. ''* the style of the mosques at 
p, 178, p. 179, ,p. 181, p. 182, Gaud and Malda, p. 255 
p. 186, p. 195, p. 200, p. 203, Kapalikas, p. 8. p. 10, p. 22, p. 23 
p. 205, p. 206, p. 210, p. 221, Kapilvastu, p. 6, a temple of 
p. 226 Jsvardev, p. 8, p. 131 

KabTr Bijak, p. 147 n., p. 148 n., Kapitha (Sankiaa), p. 7 
p. 152 n., compiled by Bhagodas Karamat, p. 67 

and Sukh Nidhan by Gopaldas, Karma-Mtmamta, p. 1, Sabar and 
p. 153 and n., p. 156 ns., p. 157 n., ^umarila were Mimunaka, tenet 
p. 161 n., p. 162 n., p. 165 to establish the religion of action 

Kablr Gyan-Gudri, p. 152 n. and sacrifice, p. 109 

KabTr Ramainl. p. 147 n., p. 148 Karmathians, P 54 
and n., p. 156 and ns.. p. 157 ns,, Kartikeya, p. 12 

p. 161 n. t Kashful Mahjub, p. 46 and n., 

Kabir Saktns, p. 150 and n., p. 151 P- 68 n., p. 69 n. 
n., p. 152 n., p. 153 n., p. 158 ns., Kashghar A Hindu colony planted 
p. 159 ns., p. 163 n., p. 164 ns., there, p. 67 

p. 156 n. Kashmir, p. 6, p. 104, p. 271, p. 272 

Kabir-^S/iaWa, p. 150, p. 152 n.. Kathsawar, p. 44 

p. 163 n., p. 165 n. Kavindra Parameiwar, translated tne 

Kabfr-Si<Wfian*<i dipaka. p. 151 ns., Mahdbharat into Bengali, p. 214 


Keyal or Kalkhoi, p. 39, agency for 

horse trade established there, p. 41, 

Kennedy, p. 29 ns., p 39, p. 43 n., 

and Keith, p. 106 
Kereya Padamrasa a port, p. 116 
Kern, p. 12 n., p. 130 n. 
KeSava a salht, p. 200, a \>ania by 

caste, taught at Delhi his teachings 

p. 203 
Khafi Khan, p. 47 n,, on Satnaml 

revolt, pp. 19293 
>Khaiyat (al), p. 55 
Khajuraho a temple of Visnu at- 

p. 132, temples, characteristic ol 

North India Style, p. 236 
Kh'rijltes, p. 58 
Katmandu, t>. 138 
Khasnn Singh, p. 168 ns., p. 169 ns 

rv 171 n* , p. 175 n., p. 177 
Khvzr, p. 37 

Khorasan Hindu or Buddhist, p 
Khotan, p. 6, p. 265 
Khurumiyah Shi* as known as in 

Isfahan, p. 52 
Kilh a founder of the fCfiifei sect, 

P. 189 
Kingsbury and Phillips, ,p. 88 n,, 

p. 89 ns., p. 90 ns. 
Kiiabol Bud, translated into Arabic, 

p. 66 
Kitabal Fihritt, p, 10. refers to 

Soma worship. 12 
KftA-SvufltaZ. p. 66 
Kittei p. 120 n. 
Konkah, p. 37 
Konkan, p. 44 
Kosalas, p. 130 

Koulam, p. 31, p. 37, p. 38, p. 41 
Krsna, p. 11, hte teachings, pp. 24-5, 

cult in North India, p. 103, the 

origin ol theof Yoctauas, p. 109, 

the events of his life described in 

BhSgwaia Purana. p. 133. p. 160, 

Sahiarand taucrht the warship of 

worship propagated by Chaitanya 

in Bengal, p. 219, or Vithoba of 

Pandharpur, the centre of Mahd- 

raitra Bhakti. p. 221 
.rsna Misra author of Prabodh 

Chandrodaya, p. 134 
Irittivas translated Ramayan into 

Bengali, p. 214 
Kriyas overthrew Buddhism in 

Kashmir, p. 7 
Kshiti Mohan Sen, p. 152 ns., p. 155 

ns., p. 158 n., p. 159 n., p. 160 n., 

p. 163 n., p. 164 n., p. 165 ns. 
Kubera, p. 5,cult, p. 11, identified 

with Surya, p. 12 
Kubla'i Khan of China, p. 42 
Kulottunga 1, the Chola king who 

persecuted Ramanuja, p. 100 
Kulshekhara the only Chera Vaii- 

nai) saint, p. 88, a king, p. 93 
Kun Pandya, p. 41, converted to 

Saiviam, p. 88, gave grants of 

land for erection of mosques, p. 112 
Kurus. p. 130 
Kusanas, break-up of their empire, 

iv, p. 9 and n. 
Kusinagar, p. 6, p. 131 

Labbes their orig:u, pp. 32-33, p. 40, 

P. 43 

Lakshmidas son of Nanak, p. 167 
Laksman Sen of Bengal, p. 136 
Laldas founder of La /daws, his 

teachings modelled on the lines of 

Kablr, p, 195. p. 1% 
Lamghan, p, 6 

Latas a tribe conquered by Samudra 
Gupta, p. 130 
U Bon, p. 256 ns. 
Lingayat* or Jangama*. disputed 

origin of the sect, p. 116, their 

practices summed up in a athta- 

Daman, p. 118, p. 129 



Logan, p. 34, p. 35 n., p. 36 n., 

p. 106 and n. 
Lokayata, p. 13 


Ma* bar see Coromandal, p. 41 

Macauliffe the Sikh religion, p. 47 
p. 146 and n., p. 168 and n., 
p. 146 and n.. p. ,168 and n., 
p. 169 ns., p. 170 ns., p. 171 ns., 
p. 172 ns., p. 173 ns., p. 174 ns., 
p. 175 ns., p. 176 ns., p. 178 and 

Macdonald, p. 58 n. 

Macdonnel, p. 2 n., p. 76 n. 

Macnicoll, p. 106 and n., p. 224 n., 
p. 227 n. 

Madhavacharya, p. 84, or Anand- 
tlrtha, rejects the theories of Rama- 
nuja and Sankara his own philo- 
sophy, p. 103, p. 107, p. Ill, com- 
pared to Ghazall, etc., p. 112 

Madhurkavi one of the four Pandya 
Vaisnava saints, p. 88 

Madhya Dea, p. 6 

Madura, p. 40 and n., p. 41 n. 
p. 42 and n.. p. 88, p. 91, p. 138. 
temples, characteristic of the 
Dravldian style of architecture, 
p. 237, p. 250, Tirumalai Nayak'a 
palace at , in Hindu-Muslim style, 
pp. 251-52, p. 252 

Mahabhairava, p. 9 

MahabhFrata, v, p. 1, p. 9, hymns 
addressed to Durga. p. 12 and n.. 
exposition of Bhakti in the Nara- 
yaniya section, p. 25, p. 27, ori- 
gin of the iva t p. 109, literary 
expression of the unity of Brah- 
manism, p. HI, its teaching, p. 113, 
translated into Bengali in 1325 A.D. 
and again in the time of Husain 
Shah, p. 214, p. 258, P . 272 

Mahakala (Siva), p. 9, p. 10 

Mahamallapuram, the pagoda of , 
p. 86 

Mahamirrah, Shl'ahs known as In 
1 rans-cxiana, p. 52 

Maharastra, p. 137, p. 213, results of 
intercourse between Hindus and 
Musalmans in, pp. 220-21, Bhakti 
in centred round the shrine of 
Vithoba in Pandharpur, pp. 221- 
22, p. 225 

Mahasara (Masar), p. 1 1 

Mahayan, iv, doctrine professed by 
Buddhists, p. 6, its divisions, p. 17, 
its points of difference from Hma- 
yan, p. 19, conception of bfiafeti in 
, p. 26, p. 27, as a source of 
bhakti cult, p. 105, develops a 
theistic cult, p. 113, -or Dharma cult 
of Bengal, its followers elated at 
the suppression of Brahmanism in 
Bengal, pp. 21518 

Mahesvara, p. 6, and pur, p. 7. 
p. 8, account of his birth accord- 
ing to Kablr, p. 156, referred to 
by Nanak, p. 169, p. 185 

Mahmud of Ghazna, p. 45, p. 46. 
the aim of hi's Indian invasions, 
p. 135, had a numerous body of 
Hindu troops, p. 136 

Major, p. 38 n. 

Makhdum Jahaniyan, p. 166 

Makran, p. 6 

Malabar, p. 30, p. 31, p. 32, for a 
century the Muslims established 
there, p. 33, mosques built there, 
p. 34. p. 36, p. 44 

Malamatls see QassarTt. 

MalatT-Madhav, p. 9 

Malcolm, p. 78 n., p. 82 n. 

Malik ibn Dinar, p. 34, a saint 
whose appearance in India doubt- 
ful, p. 35 

Malik ibn Habib. p. 34 

Malik Kaffir, p. 42, p. 43 

Malik-ul-Mulk led the Musalnuyis to 
Madura, p. 40 


Malukdas dispute regarding the ( 
identity of his tutor, born at Kara, j 
founded an order, the places where , 
his Monasteries are established, 
influenced by contemporary reli- 
gious ideas, his teachings, pp. 189- 

Ma/ufcias # Bam, p. 190 n., p. 191 

MSlwa, p. 8, P- 44, p. 243, p. 245 

Malwas, p. 130 

M'amar ibn 'Abbad makes the unity 
of God an abstract possibility, 
p. 56 

Mandhata, p. 9 

Manikka Vasahar author of Tiru- 
vachkam, the eighth book of 
Satuism, which corresponds to 
Upanishods, p. 87, a Brahmin of 

Madura, his life and teachings, 
pp. 91-92, p. 106 

Manikpur, the dwelling plac of j 
Kabir, p. 148 J 

Manism, p. 64, p. 72 | 

Mansur-al-HaUaj r e HusaJn b'.a j 

Manu Dfiaram Sastras, p. 114 n. | 

Mapoillahs see Moplahs 

Marathi, its growth into literary Ian- 1 
guage, p. 139, p. 140, p. 141, p. j 
213, its popularity, in the Deccan 
p. 220, made court language by 
fne 'Adil SfiafiTa and Nizam 
Shah'ts, p. 250 j 

Marco Polo. p. 37, p. 42 j 

Mardana the Muslim minstrel of 
Talwandi who accompanied i 
Nanak, p. 167 j 

Margoliouth, p. 60 n., p. 64 n.,! 
p. 65 ns. ! 

Martin, p. 266 ns,, p. 267 ns., p. 268 < 
ns., p. 273 ns. | 

Ma'ruf KharqT, p. 81 i 

Marul a successor of Basav, p. H7{ 

Massignon : Kitab al Tawasin, p. 
46 n., p. 70 ns., p. 71 n. 

Tvlas'udl the traveller and his ac- 
count, p. 36 and n., p. 39, p. 45, 

p. 56, collected information about 
India during his travels, p. 66 

Masyaf, p. 54 

Mathura, iv, p. 6, p. 138, p. 141, 
p. 248 n., p. 225 

Matsyas, p. 130 

Matrikascult allied to Saktism, p. 12 

Mayur, p. II and n., account of 
Surya worship, p. 12 

fylazdaqah Shi'ahs, p. 52 

Mecca, p. 33, p. 35, p. 49, mystical 
note in Suras, p. 64, thrice visit- 
ed by Mansur, p. 70, p. 164, p. 
241, p. 243 

Medina, p. 33, p. 40, mystical note 
in Suras, p. 64, p. 241 

Mehren, p. 58 n., p. 67 n. 

Meykandar Dcva, a Sudra, the first 
Saica theologian, translated the 
Agama Sutras into Tamil, p. 103 

Mehirchand a 5un5r saint, p. 197 

Misra Bandhu Vinod p. 144 and n. 

Mitra, p. 4 

Moplahas, p. 32 Muslim converts 
meaning of thi name their posi- 
tion in society, p. 35 

Mrcchakatika, p. 8, and ... 

Muawiya the Umayyid Caliph plant- 
ed a colony of Indians in Syria, 
pp. 65-66 

Mubayyfezah ShT'ahs known as- -in, 
Trans-oxiana. p. 52 

Muhammad, the prophet, p. 33, cir- 
cumstances amidst which he was 
born, his new mission, p. 50, 
main features of his simple reli- 
gion birth of sects after his death 
p. 51. p. 57, in the poems of Abul 
'Ala, p. 61, his life, one of the 
sources of Sufam. pp. 63-64, p. 69, 
the Logos of God, p. 77, p. 81, 
explanation of his M'iraj by Kabir 
p. 162, p. 164, reference by Nanak, 
p. 169, c/. to Nanak, p. 171, 
p. 185, Goaa'm JSnT, p. 197, Fran 
Nith, p. 199, p. 243 



Muhammad bin Qasim, p. 31, p. 32. 
leader of the Sindh expedition, 
p. 44 

Muhammad Gisudaxaz, p. 47 

Muhammad Ghaus Shattarl, p. 48. 

Muhammad Husain Azad, compares 
Hindi and Urdu, p. 139 and n., 
p. 140 n. 

Muhammad ibn Hasan the last 
Imam, disappeared in 673 A.D. 
n.s return expected, p. 54 

Muhammad Shah the Moghal Em- 
pt or, p. 20t> 

Muiuammad Tughlak, p. 136, p. 244 

Muhammad "Ufi, p. 45 

Mufcasibi see Abu 'Abdullah 

Mu'muddln ChistI (Khwajah), came 
to Ajmer in 497 A.D., p. 47 

Muktagiri- temples in Berar exam- 
ples of Muslim art, p. 250 

Muntakhib-ut-TawauriLh see Abdul 
Qadir Badaonl, p. 48 

Muslim, their advent in India their 
first fleet appears in 636 A.D., p. 
31, their growing influence on 
the West Coast, p. 33, evidence of 
historians, travellers and commerce 1 
and the conclusion from it 
p. 38, inherited the legacy of the 
pagan Arabs their settlement on 
the coastline up to China, p. 39, 
coins of the seventh century A.H., 
p. 40, formed a well-established 
community on the east coast in 
twelfth century, p. 41, other Mus- 
lim settlements, in the Tamil country 
and its evidence, p. 42. their settle- 
ments in important centres of 
trade established relationship with 
the people round them from the 
intercourse of Arabs and Tamil* 
many muted communities sprang 
up, p. 43, their encroachments on 
North India, p. 44* attitude of Hindu 
rulers on the West Coast towards 
Muslims, p. 45, original doctrines, 

F 21 

simple, p. 51, complete circle of 
Muslim philosophy, p. 60, Muslim 
philosophers and their trend to- 
wards Su/wm, pp. 62-63, theo 
logists assimilated the stories of 
Ibn Adham to the Buddhist legend 
adepts took from Indian faqtr 
the fourfold vows, and the use of 
rosary, the conception of nirvana, 
and the practice of yoga, p. 67, 
beginning their activities in India, 
p. HI, verily prapcnna, sub- 
mission to the will of God an 
essential part of religion, alsa the 
idea of absorption in God through 
devotion to teacher, p. 114, ana- 
logy between Muslim pirn and the 
lingayat Arcdhyat, p. 117, p. 120, 
Siddhara, disciples of Muslims in 
alchemy, p, 128, p. 130, conquest 
of India, pp. 135-36, its effect on 
the evolution of Indian culture, 
pp. 136-42, p. 146, p. 147. 
mystics and Kablr, p. 152, in- 
fluence on Kablr, pp. 153 65, 
Kabir's exhortation to , p. 164, 
saints of the Punjab, p. 166, DadQ 
Daval a strong supporter of Hindu 
unity, p. 185, conquest of Ben- 
gal and its effect, pp. 21319, the 
character of consciousness and 
its influence on art, pp. 24042, 
effect of impact on Indian art, 244 

Mu'tazalites the rationalists of 
Islam, p. 54, 
rites, believed 
lived in 
of the 
leaders sun 

P P . 55-5* Mw*lwr* < Mr:io 

Su/wm, p. I 

mystically mcBfcd^TI 


gion -which he preached was 
simple, branched off into sects 
shortly after his death, p. 51, the 
outstanding characteristic of 
Mu'tazala metaphysics was unity, 
and that of their ethics justice, 
vjew of life tinged with asceticism, 
p. 56, Muslim philosophers intro- 
duced the ideas of emanation into 
Muslim thought, p. 63, sources of 
Muslim mysticism, pp. 64 67, 
two periods in the history of mys- 
ticism, first from the earliest times 
to the beginning of the ninth cen- 
tury and the second from that time 
onward, p. 67, the chief charac- 
teristic of the belief of early 
mystics was the submission of 
human will to God, they were 
seekers of piety and other worldli- 
ness, had an overwhelming dread 
of divine retribution, had also 
developed emotional and ecstatl 
features, negated the externalia o 
religion, p. 68, the second period 
of Sufism and its features, pp. 69- 
70, terms of Muslim 5u/fsm used 
by Man stir, p. 70, ideas of Suhra- 
wardl, pp. 7173, ideas of 'Arab!, 
pp. 73-74, ideas of Jlli, pp. 75 
78, practical side of mysticism, 
pp. 78 83, parallelism between 
the schools of Muslim theology and 
mysticism and the systems of 
ankara, p. 109 


Nsbhajl, p. 143, repeats the mes- 
sage of Kablr, pp. 149-50, p. 178. 
p. 179, p. 189 

N*gnitha, p. 9 

Nairn, p. 119 and n. 

Nakklrarhis writings in the ele- 
venth book of &H}* p. 87, p. 93 

Nalanda, university, p. 8 

Nambiandar Nambi of Tanjore, 
arranged the aiva literature into 11 
groups in eleventh century, p. 87, 
p. 93, p. 103 

Namdeva, p. 221, the instructions of 
his gum, p. 222, exposes the in- 
efficiency of external rites and de- 
scribes his goal, p. 223, his follow- 
ing included Hindus and Muslims, 
etc., p. 224, and p. 225 

Nammalvar compiled and arranged 
Vaisnava hymns, p. 87, one of the 
4 Pandya Vai&nava saints, p. 88, 
the foremost among the saints, hi* 
poems considered as sacred as 
Vedas, pp. 93-94 

Nanak used the language of Mus- 
lim Sufis, p. 70, his parentage, edu- 
cation, service, p. 166, marriage 
and children, and wanderings, 
p. 167, his death and the miracle, 
his mission to unify Hltidu and 
Musalman, regarded himself as 
prophet, p. 168. took Mohammad 
as his model, his conception of 
religion, p. 169, his conception of 
God, pp. 169-71, impressed with 
the worthlessness of man. pp. 171- 
72, strongly condemns both Hindu- 
ism, and Islam, pp. 172-73, pointi 
out the four virtues which shoulc 
be cultivated to attain salvation 
p. 174, believed in transmigratior 
of souls, p. 175, necessity o' 
having guru for guidance, his deb 
to Islam, pp. 176-77, p. 178, p. 195 
p. 210 

NaqshbandT, order of So/w, p. 82 

Narayandeva, p. 11, or Ktfnts, th 
first God in Alberum's pantheon 
p. 131, Sahjanand taught the woi 
ship of . p. 207, the shrine of- 
has a oyan image and its effed 
on the construction of the temple 
p. 236 

INDEX 317 

Narayanit *ecr, see Harldas. p. 112. gave great predominance 

Narayan Singh (Swaml), founder of to Prafxttti, p. 114 

Shivanarayani sect, a native of Nishapur, p. 59 

Ballia taught Md. Shah, pp. 205-6 Nityanusandhanam series, p. 94 n. 

Narharidas a disciple of Ramanand, Niyaltigin, p. 137 

. P. 145 Nlzamuddm, p. 42, p. 207 

Narsinha, p. II Nizamul-mulk, p. 59 

Narsingh Varma Pallava, advanced Noah, p, 69 

the cause of Hinduism, p. 85 Mural Din or Nur Sola gar, converts 

Nasik, p. 9 several castes in Gujarat, p. 46 

Nasir Shah of Bengal ordered the Nusairis, p. 54 

translation of Mchibharat, p. 214 Nathmuni one of the first Kafsnfloa 

Nathid Vali the tradition about him, AcHaryas, p. 99 

p. 40, p. 112 Nyayalays down the method of 

Nathmuni edited Vaitnava hymns reasoning, p. 15 
p. 87, p. 103 

Navadevkula, p. 11 

Nazzam (al), p. 55, his disciples re- 
cognise a contigent God, he es- 
tablishes the idea of law and 

gradual evolution of the world, Ohramare, p. 3 n., p. 13 

p. 56, compared to VisnuswamI Oldenberg, p. 16 n. 

and others, p. 112 Orissa, p. 130, the temples of 

Nellore or Nillawar, p. 41 Bhuvaneswara in characteristic of 

Nelson, p. 40 n., p. 41 n., records aj Hindu style, p. 236, p. 237 
number of tradition relating to 
the Muslim invasion of Madura, 
p. 42 and n. 

Nepal, Muslim influence on its 

architecture, pp. 255-6 Padmavati a disciple of Ramanand, 

Newayets, p. 33 p. 145 

Newton, (. P.), p. 40 n. Painting Islamic influence on Indian 

Nicholson, Kashful Mahjub and , p. 138, Indian only a history 

Tadhkiratul Auli'a, p. 46 ns., of Indian architecture, AJanta 

Studies in Islamic mysticism, p. frescoes the only remains of early 

47 n., Islamic mysticism, p. 53 style, p. 258, Indian analysed and 

and n,, p. 65 n., p. 66 n., p. 68 discussed, pp. 25964, examples 

ns., p. 69 ns., p. 73 ns., p, 74 nt., of the intervening period, pp. 264- 

p. 75. p. 76 n., p. 77 ns., p. 79 5, growth of in Central Asia, 

n., p. 80 ns., p. 81 ns., p. 83 n., p. 265, influence of Bihzid on 

p. 128 n., p. 156 n. Indian art, pp. 2659, birth of * 

Nimbaditya of Nimbaraka, p. 84, new style under the care of the 

carried the doctrine of devotion Mughals. Its r*r>id evolution, 

further, his philosophy summari*- pp. 269, under BSbar and Humi- 

ed, pp. 102-3, p. Ill, compared yfin, p. 270, under Akbar, pp. 270- 

to Nazzam, Ghazill and others, 71, under Jahangir and Shih-Jehin, 


pp. 271, the portraits, pp. 271-2,. 

the scenes, 272, the Rajput and 

the Moghal and their affinity, 

pp. 273-4 

Pakpattan, p. 166, p. 167 
Palestine, p. 29 
Pallavaa great protagonists of $aiv- 

ism, p. 85, p. 86, four Pallava 

Vai&nav saints, p. 87 
Paltoodas. p. 206, a bania and resi- 

dent of Faizabad, familiar with 

Sufi ideas, pp. 209-10 
Pa/too Sahib fc! bam, p. 209 n., 

p. 210 ns. 
Pancaratra-Samhiia, v, p. II, pp. 20 

22, p. 25, p. 26, non-Vedic, 

p. 100, Kar>nat>a system, p. 104 
Pancatantra, v, translated into Arabic 

as ' Kalailah Damnah,' p. 66, cult 

of various tribes mingled wor-| 

ship, p. 110 
Panchalas, p. 130 
Pandit a successor of Basava, 

p. 117 

Panipat p. 166, p. 167 
Pan jab, p. 6, p. 7, p. 130, p. 137, 
P*4ffUL p. 140, p. 165. p. 166, 

Panjabi, p. 183. p. 192, Hindu 

cenotaphs, and palaces in , p. 256 
Panwlrs, p. 130 
Pargiter, p. 9 n. 

Parangal Khan had another transla- 
tion of MahSbh&rat made in 

Bengali, p. 214 
Parih*rs, p. 130 

Partipmal Chadah a saint, p. 197 
PasajMto &aiva worship in form 
prevalent in the Swat valley, p. 6, 

their temple*, p. 7. Maha~~, p. 9, 
system described, pp. 22-3, Ptf 
Lord, Pate ~ individual soul, 
Pin, bond, p. 104, origin of the 
system, p. 109 

wu p. *, p. m 

Patton, p. 52 n., p. 53 ns., p. 81 

Periplus, p. 29 

Periyar one of the four Pandya 

Vaisnanva saints, p. 88 
Persia, p. 8, Persians, p. 29, p. 30, 
p. 31. traders, p. 32, p. 43, p. 44, 
p. 52, p. 54, Persian, p. 60, reli- 
gions of and their contribution to 
Sufism, p. 64. p. 65, 67 n. Per- 
sian poets made Safism the religfon 
of high and low, p. 78, p. 138, 
p. 139,' ICablr unacquainted with 
Persian, p. 148, Kablr and Persian 
terms, p. 150, Persian words in 
Bijak, p. 153, p. 166, p. 167, p. 179. 
p. 183, p. 205. Persian, p. 220. 
Persians, p. 232, p. 240, p. 241, 
p. 243, p. 265, p. 270, P . 271. 
P . 272, p. 273 

Perumal, p. 32 n., the last Cheraman 

Perumal becomes a convert to 

Islam the story related and its 

truth analysed, pp. 34-5, p. 36 

Peyar one of the four Pallava 

Alvars, p. 87 
Phoenicians, p. 29 

Pipa. a disciple of Rimanand. p. 145, 
the raja of Gagraungadh a saint, 
p. 178 

PI**" *nd Ghaxafr, p. 60, p. f2. 'K- 
philosophers introduced neo-Pla- 
tonic ideas into Muslim thoughts, 
p. 63. passed in the ninth century 
when Greek works translated in 
Arabic, p. 65, p. 71. neo-Platonic, 
p. 111 
Pliny, p. 29 
Plotinus, p. 7? 
Pope, p. 91, n., p. 92 n., p. 103 n. 

p. 106 and n., p. 115 n. 
Poygaiar, one of die four Pallav 

AlvSn, p. 57 
Portuguese, p. 31, p* 38 
Potatta, p. 9 

PrmhlSda, the exemplar of Bhmk& 
rr's views on Bhakti, p. 133 

Prajipati, p. 2, the tource of its I 
power, p. 3, ^Lord of creation, 
P. 5 

Pran Nath, p. 197 founder of the 
Dharni *ecf, p. 198. well acquint- 
ed with sacred books of Islam, 
compares the text of Veda* and 
Qoran his teachings, pp. 199-200 

Pratt, p. 104 n. 

Procopious, p. 30 

Ptolemys, p. 29, p. 30, p. 39 

Pudattar (Bhutatta), one of the four 
Pallava Alvara, p. 87 

Pulakesin II revives Brahmanism, 
p. 85 

Purana first redactions made, iii, 
crystallised into systems, iv, re- 
edited, v, p. 1, absence of a fixed 
chronology for them, p. 9 f the 
assimilation of Buddhist and Jain 
ideas into Puranic theology, the 
eleven books with Periya Purana 
constitute the sacred lore of the 
Saivas, p. 87, Vai^nava saints of 
the South drew their ideas from 
them, p. 93, p. 172, p. 177 

Purnalingam Pillai, p. 89 ns., 

p. 93 ns. 

Pur Da Afimama deals with practi- 
cal side of religion, p. 15 

Qadir Husain Khan, p. 34, p. 40 n. 

Qassarfs, school of mystics, also 
known as Afa/amaft* pushed the 
detachment from the world to 
extremes, p. 69 

Qazi, p. 36, p. 37. p. 71, p. 172 
in Malukdas, p. 190 

Qoran. p. 55, according to Mntaxa- 
lite* not the eternal incarnate, in- 
fallible, word of Cod, p. 57. the 
original source of Svftm, p. 63, 


mysnc note in Mecca Suras main- 
ly and Medina 5uros occasionally, 
r>. 64 and ns., the starting point 
of the Muslim mind. p. 109, 
p. 168, p. 173, p. 188, texts from 
and Vedas brought together by 
Pran Nath. p. 99, p. 217 

Quackenbos, p. 11 n., p. 12 n. 

Qudiyyah. Shi'as known as in 
Uy, p. 52 

Qushair! introduced into Sufi 

thought the neo-Platonic idea of 
creation, p. 71 

Qutb mmfir, p. 47 

Qutb Shah a patron of culture, him- 
self a poet in Defcham, p. 220 

Qutubuddm Aibak, p. 136, retained 
the Hindu staff, p. 137, built mos- 
ques at Delhi and Ajmer. p. 244 

Qutubuddm BakhtiySr Kakf, p. 47 

Qutubuddm (Mullah), taught Persian 
to Nanak, p. 166 

Rabi'a al 'Adawiya an early mys- 
tic, her sayings, p. 68 

Rabindra Nath Tagore. p. 154 ns., 
p. 155 ns., p. 157 n., p. 160 ns., 
p. 162 n., p. 232 

Radhacult. p. 103 

Raghavanika a poet, p. 116 

Raghuvarhsa, p, 8, p. 9 and n. 

Raids* a disciple of Ramanand< 
p. 145, p. 178, a worker in leather, 
his early life, his hymns breathe a 
spirit of humanity, his cardinal doc- 
trine* resemble those of Sa/is, 
p. 179, rejected the theory of in- 
carnations, looked upon the world 
as the play of God. p. 180. atti- 
tude of complete surrender, p. 1 81* 
p. 189, p. 192 

RaidaM Ki Ban?, p. 179 n., p. 180 *., 
p. 18? ns. 



Rajaraja Kulsekhara LJK>la the 
Saiva literature arranged into 11 
groups in his time, p. 87 

Rajgopalachariar (T.), p. 93 ns.. 
p. 99 ns., p. 115 n. 

Rajput or Kshatriya, iii, tribes, v, 
p. 84, p. 131, devoted to the wor- 
ship of Siva, p. 132, p. 134, p. 135, 
p. 136, p. 141, p. 179, difference 
between the School of painting 
and the Moghul School, and their 
essential identity, p. 27274 

Rajsekhara, p. 134 

Rimagrama, p. 131 

Ramcharan the founder of Ram 
Sanchi order of Jaipur, opposed 
to idol worship, p. 205 

Ramdas the fourth Guru, p. 176 

Ramai Pandit author of Surya 
Parana quoted by D. C. Sen. pp. 
21516, his song, pp. 21617 

Rimanand a pupil of Ramanuja, 
p. 84, bridge between the bfcafcit 
movement of the South and North, 
disputed date of his birth, p. 143, 
disputed date of his death, born at 
Prayag, made a bold departure, 
p. 144, names of his disciples, his 
teaching gave rise to two Schools 
conservative of Tulsidas, and 
radical of Kabir, p. 145, p. ,146, 
p. 147, p. 178, p. 211 

Ramanuja, p. 84 his life and 
teachings, pp. 99102, p. 103, 
p. 107 and p. Ill, influence of 
Muslims on *s philosophy, admis- 
sion of Sudra* and worship of 
God with faith and devotion, 
p. 112, p. 113, p. 114. p. 115. 
importance of prapatii in the 
School of, bhakti allowed to 
the three higher classes alone, 
p. 114, p. 128, p. 143. his Sri sect 
p. 144, and his Sri Sampradoya, 

v, translated into Bengali 

by the order of Muslim Ruler* 
ot Bengal, p. ^14, p. 258 

Ramdulal organised the Kartabhajas 
sect their doctrines summarised, 
p. 21920 

Ram Prasad Chandl, p. 113 n. 

jRam Sanehi an order, p. 200, 
opposed to idol worship and 
caste, their religious services 
similar to those of Mohammadans, 
p. 205 

Ram Smaran Pal (Karta Bab!) 
founder of the Sadgop sect, also 
known as Kartabhaja*. left 22 
disciples, p. 219 

Ranade describes the religious 
movement in Mahirastra, p. 221, 
and n, p. 222 n, p. 224 n. 

Rani Kumbha, p. p. 245, the ruins 
of his palace, p. 246 

Rangachirya, p. 99 n. 

Ranpur in Jodhpur, the characteristic 
of the temple there as exempli- 
fying Muslim influence on Indian 
art, pp. 24546 

Rapson, p. 9 n. 

RashTd (al), p. 55 

Rashid Uddfn, p. 42 

Raamdlc, p. 46 ns. 

Rastra Kuta ascendancy in the South 
in 8th Century, p. 86, p. 130 

Ravuttans, p. 40, their mixed 
descent, p. 43 

Ray, p. 52 

Reinaud, p. 10 ns. p. 29 ns. p. 30 
and n, p. 3) n, p. 38 and n, p. 39 
and n, p. 45 n. 

Rehatsek, p. 10 n, p. 12 n. 

ReWi/fl used by Kabir. p. 150, 
p. 152 n. p. 153, p. 155 ns., p. 162, 
and n, used by Raidas, p. 180, 
DadudayaTs verses in, p. 183 

Renan p. 59 

RevSn a successor of Basava, p. 117 

Rhys Davids (Mrs.), p. 18, n., p. 
110 n. 



Rice, p. 32 and n, p. 189 

Ridding, p. 9 n. 

Rigveda describes the first stage 
of social life of Aryans, i, 
p. 2 ns. 

Rlhan (Baba), p. 46 

Rivoira, p. 65 n. 

Roman, P . 29, p. 39 

Rousselet p. 246 n., p. 252 n., 
p. 253 ns., p. 255 n., p. 256 ns. 

Rowlandson Tun/of ul-Muja-hidin 
p. 32 and n. 

Rudra Siva receives meagre atten- 
tion in Vedic panthion, p. 5, of 
the Vedas gathers power, p. 109, 
p. 123 

Rum! see Jalaluddm. 

Russel p. 195 n. 

abara, p. 109 

Sachau see Al-Birunl. 

Sacrifice the symbol of universal 
order, the means of attaining pros- 
perity, p. 3. its three kinds, p. 4 

Sadh see Birbhan. 

Sa'di cf. with KabTr, p. 151 

Sadr-uddin (Pir), founder of Khojah 
sect, p. 47 

Sahl'is a school of Sufis laid em- 
phasis on self mortification, p. 69 

Sahjanand, p. 206, founder of 
Swami Narayanv sect, born near 
Ajodhia prohibited killing of ani- 
mals, opposed to caste, popular 
among the backward tribes, 
p. 207 

Sahjo a lady disciple of Charan- 
das, p. 200, P . 203, P . 204 

Sa'm a disciple of Raman and, p. 
145, p. 178, a native of Rewa, 
p. 179 

Saiva, v. references to worship in! 
Hhien Tsiang, p. 6, p. 8, p. 10, 

p. 11, p. 13, p. 20, System and 
its branches, pp. 22-23, atift*m, 
p. 27, Saivitc saint starts the school 
of Bhakti in the South, p, 84, 3aiva 
and Vaiqnava saints combined to 
wean the people in the South 

j from Buddhism and Jainism in the 

J eighth century, adopted tome 
features from both into their sys- 
tem, p. 86, Saiva literature arrang- 
ed into 1 1 groups in eleventh cen- 
tury, the collection named Tiru- 
murai, p. 87, stoutly opposed by 
Alvart, p. 93, SicW/ianfa, teachers 
disputed the theories of Sankara. p 
99, p. fOO, dcharyaa who taught 
the religion of B/iafcfi, pp. 103-4.-* 
Siddhanta written by Sudra, the 
Tamil Saioa schools affiliated to 
Kashmir schools, p. 104, main ele- 
ments of Saivism, as religion of 
love and devotion, p. 104, p. 106, 
origin of the cults, p, 109, linga- 
yats trace their origin from sect, 
p. 116, in relation to Siddhdrt, 
p. 125, p. 213 

&akas, iv, p. 130, transformed into 
Rajputs by Brahmans, p. 131 

SakhT-Sarwar, p. 48 

$ak.ii cult, rising' into prominence, 
p. 5. p. 11, noticed by writers, 
pp. 11-12, p. 21, p. 27, 
p. 27, p. 84, p. 109, the 
philosophy exactly on the model 
of Siva sect, p. HO. p. 114, con- 
fined to Bengal, p. 131. causes of 
its growth in Bengal, p. 217 

Saladin. p. 71 

Sama-Veda. iii 

Samarqand, p. 241, School of paint* 
ing. p. 265, p. 272 

Samudragttpta the tribes conquered 
by him. p. 130 

anlrar* like the mu'tazalttt com- 
bated vigorously for the monijtic 
conception of God, p. 55* p. 84, 


one of the great scholastics who ShaHjahan culmination of the 

forged the instruments which re- school of painting under him, his 

suscitated Hinduism, his parentage, artists, p. 271 

his early life, p. 95-%, his philo- Shah Madar p. 46 

sophy, pp. 9799, p. 100, p. 103, Shah Mir (Sayyid), founder of the 

influenced by Islam, p. 107, para- Qadri order, p. 47 

llelism between &ankara's system Shah TaqI a preceptor of Kabir. 

and the schools of Muslim theology p. 148 

and mysticism, p. 109, born when Shams-i-Tabriz p. 81, P- 207 

Hinduism was triumphing and Shaqlq Balkhl an early mystic, p. 

Muslims beginning their activities, 68 

connection between him and Shaitjilvatt race and its origin, 

Islam, p. Ill, as incarnation of p. 249 

Siva, p. 115, p. 128 Shaikh Badruddm. p. 83 

Sankhya, p. 13, denned, p. 15, de- Shaikh Ibrahim successor of Baba 

tails of the system, p. 16 and n., Farid, p. 167 

p. 17, Yoga, its teaching, p. 113, Shaikh Mohammad his followers 

Kablr's account of the creation of observe both Ramzan and Efco- 

the world according to system, dashi, p. 224 

p. 156 Shaikh Sekke Uddin, p. 34, his iden- 

Sant Bam Sangrah p. 146 and n., t;ty, p. 35 

or PustafcmaJd, p. 189, p. 198, ns., Shaikh Sharaf of Panipat, p. 167 

p. 203 ns., p. 204 ns., p. 205 ns., Sharif ibn Malik, p. 34 

p. 207 n., p. 208 n., p. 209 n. Shl'ah p. 46, extreme ones known 

Sasaika a Saiva, persecuted the as Ghalat, believed in excess 

Buddhists, p. 8, p. 217 (ghuluv), defect (taqsir), (Jm/aJ) and 

Sassanides, p. 29, p. 30 (tanasukh), p. 51, tashb'ih, bidd and 

Soinami See Jiwandas, Dulandas re- raja, these extreme sects known 

organised the order, p. 207 by vaiious names, their doctrines 

Sathra a saint, p. 197 discussed, pp. 524, p. 70, p. 81 

Satvatas, p. 109 and n., devotion to his Spiritual 

Saura cult, references to its exis- teacher a idea, p. 114, p. 151 

tence, p. 12 SHibll his definition of Snfitm, p. 82 

Schrader p. 26 n. ShidayT a saint, p. 197 

Sedgwick, p. 24 n. Shiriz p. 241 

dekkirar a Saiva saint, p. 93 Shtvaji. p. 225 

Sendipur p. 37 Shivanarayarnan order, p. 200, 

Shabistarl, p. 78 founded by Nariyan Singh, oppo- 

Shahab Uddin Suhrawardl (Shaikh), sed to caste, has 3 monasteries in 

p. 47, regarded ultimate reality as Ballia, p. 206 

5r, denounced by the Qazts and Shyam Biharf Misra (Pandit), p. 140 

executed, wrote a number of Siddhant translated into Arabic, p. 

works on Hikmatnl Ithraq, p. 71. 66 

his ideas explained, pp. 72-3 Siddhir*, p. 116, a school of philo 

Sr>K lsmi*fl Safari patronised , sophical rhymists, p. 124, ridi- 

* Bihzaa, p. 265 i ailed Brahmans. were monotheit- 



ticai quietists, quotations from their 
poems, pp. 125 28, p. 129 

Siddh Raj. p. 45 

Sikander Lodl persecuted Kablr, j 
p. 149 

Sindbadiyah, Shi'ahs known as in 
Azarbaijan, p. 52 

Sindh p. 31, p. 38, p. 41, Muslim 
invasions of , p. 44, p. 46, p. 135, 
Sindhi, p. (40 

Sirhind p. 166 

Sirajuddln, p. 42 

Slstan, p. 66 

Sitaram Saran Bhagwan Prasad, p. 
143 and n., p. 146 and n., p. 150 n. 

Siva iii, its worship overshadows 
that of other Gods, iv, v, with 
Vi$nu and Brahma formed the 
Trinity, p. 5, (Nllkontha), p. 8 
references in literature to his wor- 
ship, p. 9, p. 10, p. II, identified | 
with Surya, p. 12, p. 22, p. 23, 
Pancratra, p. 27, p. 86, p. 88, 
p. 89, the Siva of Appar, p. 90, 
p. 91, p. 93, faith in Siva and his 
grace, p. 104, growth of the idea 
in Hinduism origin of the Maha- 
bharat Siva, p. 109, p. 110, p. 113, 
p. 114, Sankara as incarnation of , 
p. 115, the Redeemer of the 
Lingayctt. p. 117, the Siddhar, p.! 
125, p. 127, only incidentally men- 
tioned by Alberunf, his worship 
religion of common folk only, 
p. 131, the Rajputs attached to 
Siva worship, its causes, p. 132, 
p. (70. Guru compared to, p. 204, 
p. 211, worship a leading fact in 
Bengal, cause of its decline, p. 217, 
, the shrine of has a seated image 
and its effects on temple construe- j 
tion, p. 238 

divarina a saint, p, 197 

Skandaa cult, p. If, p. 12 

Smith (V.A,), p. 12 n., p. 130 n., 
p. 27Y n. 

Smrifo iv, their followers offer only 
non-bloody sacrifices, p. 4 

Solankls, p. 130 

Solomon, p. 29 

So ma, p. 3, large number of hymns 
devoted to him, p. 5 

Somnath, p. 44, its ruler had a 
number of Muslim officers, p, 46 

Sonagarh, the Jain temples at, visi- 
bility of Muslim influence in them, 
pp. 249-50 

Spand Sattras, p. 22, the system 
described, p. 23 

Sravastl. p. 6, p. 131 

Sri Chand son of Nanak and foun- 
der of the order of Udasts, p, 167 

SrTkaran NandT translated the Aiwa- 
mcdh-parva of Mahabriarat into 
Bengali, p. 214 

Sri Ram of Delhi, p. 140 

Sri Ran gam, p. 100, temples charac- 
teristic of the Dravidian style of 
architecture, p. 237 

Sriitta the source of Hindu sects, 
p. 97, the starting point of 1 the 
Hindu mind, p. 109, Kabtr dis- 
cuses the creation of the world 
from, p. 151, or knowledge, first 
to appear in the world according 
to Kablr, p. 156, Jagjlvandas on, 
p. 201 

Starbuck, p. 104 n. 

Sturrock, p. 32 and n. 

Sudhakar Dwivedl, p. 182 and n., 
p. 183 ns.. p. 185 ns., p. 186 ns., 
p. 188 ns. 

Sudraka, p. 8 

&8dras RSmanuja opened the way 
for , while still maintaining the 
privileges of the first three order*, 
p. 102, some &ri0a theologian*, 
pp. 103-4. Sudra author of Saiva 
Siddhanta, and had for his disciple 
a Brahman, p. 104, p. 113, Bhakt* 
not permitted to them, they |re 
prapannas, p. 114, p. 133* 


Sufi, p. 59, the Sufi* gathered the Sundarar (Murtl), author of the 

havest of the seeds sown by seventh group of Saiva literature, 

Muslim philosophers, from 12th p. 87, a Brahman of South Arcot, 

century onward the sway of the last of Adiyars, the main prin- 

Sufism became dominant, its ciples of his philosophy, p. 90 

causes the beginning and gradual Sundardas a disciple of Dadu, born 

development of Sufi tendencies in in Jaipur, spread the religion of 

Islam, pp. 6371, two periods in BhakH, p. 190, a Sanskrit scholar, 

the history of Sufism, p. 67, the his work Sundarvilas, draws from 

name first applied to Abu Hashim, Hindu sources, p. 191 

p. 67, different Sufi schools, p. 69, Sundar Pandya, p. 42 

p. 70, terms of Muslim Sufism, p. Surajmal (Raja), his palace at Digh, 

70, JamT's Lawai'h the best sum- p. 254, his cenotaph at Govardhan, 

mary of Sufi philosophy, the piac- p. 255 

tical aim of Sufi absorption in God Sur Das, p. 212 

according to ba shar'a school, three Sursuri, a disciple of Ramanand, 

stages in the attainment of goal, p. 145 

p. 78, p. 79, Sufism taught sur- Surya, p. 6, cult, p. 11 

render to teacher, p. 81, as denned Syria, p. 31, Syrians, p. 33, p. 43, 

by Shibli. p. 82, the conception p. 44, p. 54, p. 61, Indian Colony 

of teacher assimilated by Hindu- in Antioch, p. 66, p. ?41, p. 243 
ism, p. 115, the siddhars and 
Sttfit, p. 128, assimilate Hindu 

practices even forms of worship, Tabarl, p. 60 

pp. 137-38, Kablr freely uses tech- Tabriz, p. 241. Bihzad resided mostly 

nical terms of Sufism f p. 148, p. at , p. 265 

151. Kabtr's indebtedness to Sufi Tabari, p. 30 

literature, pp. 152-3, the Guru Tajik section of Indian astronomy, 

holds the same position as in p. 30 

order, p. 158, Sufi saints of the Timralipti, p. 6 

Punjab, p. 166, Nanak like other Tana, p. 31 

Sufis emphasised the need of a Tantraa, p. 12 and n., p. 13 

preceptor, p. 176, p. 179, p. 205, Tantrik, v, p. 20, confined to Bengal, 

identity between the Hindu radical p. 131, p. 213 

reformers fend the Muslim So/is, TaqT-uddm 'Abdur-Rahman, p. 42 

p. 211 Thibaut (G), p. 95 n., p. 99 n. 

Suhrawardl see ShahabuddTn. Tholucks, p. 59 

SuhrawardT order of Sufis, p. 83 Thumma ibn Ashras, p. 55 

Sukha, a disciple of Ramanand Thurston, p. 29 n., p. 40, p. 118 ns., 

p. M5 p. 119 n. 

Sukhtankar, p. 99 n. Tilak the general of Mahmud, p. 

Sulaiman, p. 10, visited India in the 136 

ninth century, p. 38. p. 39, p. 44. Tinnavelly, p. 39 

p. 45, collected information about Tfrthakaa, p. 6 

1 C India, p. 66 Tirujftina Sambandamurti Swaml 

Sundaram Piilai, p. 87 n. i author of the three groups of 



literature, p. 87, sketch of his life, 
specimen of his hymns, pp. 86-9 

Tirumaiisai one of the four Pallava 
alvars, p. 87 

Tirumangai Alvar one of the three 
Chola Vaifnava saints, p. 88, reli- 
gious dispute between and Tiru- 
jnana Sam band har, p. 88, wrote 
the largest number of hymns, p. 93 

Tiru-Mular collection of his songs, 
forms the tenth book of Saivitm, 
p. 37, p. 93 

Tiru-nlwukkarasu (Appar) author 
of the second set of three groups 
of Saiva literature, p. 87, his early 
life and his philosophy of Siva, 
pp. 89-90 

Tiruppanar one of the three Chola 
Vaijnav saints, p. 88 

Tod RajastHan, p. 132 n. 

Tomaras, p. 130 

Tondarad'ippodi one of the three 
Chola Vaijnava saints, p. 88, p. 

Trans-Oxiana, p. 52 

Trichinopoly, p. 39, p. 40 

Troyer and Shea, p. 147 n., Muhsin 
Fani's description of Sikkhism, 
p. 137, according to Muhsin Dadu 
a cotton cleaner, p. 182, Muhsin 
Fani's account of numerous sects, 
pp. 196-7 and ns. 

TulsTdas singer of Rama's Bhakti 
and a leader of conservative section, 
p. 145. p. 212 

Tukaram the greatest of Maratha 
saints, his early life, his teachings 
embodied in his Abhangs, p. 225, 
his conception of God and of 
sanctity of life, p. 226, idea of 
grace, rejection of externalia recon- 
ciliation of Hinduism and Islam, 
pp. 227-26 

Tus, p. 59 

Tushtari one of the preceptors of 
Mansiir, p. 70 

Udaipur its places, p. 253, the 
cenotaph of Sangram Singh at , 
p. 255, p. 256, p. 273 

Udyana, p. 6 

Ujjain, p. 9, p. 10 

Umapati the greatest theologian of 
the Sat fa sect, p. 104, his guru- 
vdda an assimilation from Sufim t 
p. 115 

'Umar Caliph, p. 31, in his time 
began Muslim encroachment on 
North India, p. 44, p. 69 

'Umar ibn al Fartdh, p. 78 

Umar Khayyam, p. 61, p. 62 

Upanitads the period of their com- 
pilation, iii, embody the bold 
speculations of forest recluses, 
p. 13, p. 16, SvetaAvatara, p. 25, 
p. 95 n., Svctatvatara, as source of 
Bhakti cult. p. 105, p. 113, p. 114, 
Svetaevatara, p. 115 n. 

TIraiyur, p. 39 

Urdu, vi, p. 97, its origin, compared 
with HinJ?, p. 139 

Usman Sakifl, p. 31 

Uwais al QaranI, an early mystic, 
p. 68. his speech to Ha" run ibn 
Hay van, p. 69 

Vebghatta, v 

Koi'ragis -the sect and its beliefs, 
p. 1% 

Vaiiall, p. 6, p. 131 

Vai&e^iko explained, p. 15, p. 17 

Kaisnauism, v, its early account, p. 
II, p. 13, its main principles de- 
described, pp. 22-23, p. 27, Vaiqnao 
saints start Bha\ti schools in the 
South, p, 84, p. 85, Vffiai> saints 
combined with Saiva saints U* 
wean people from Buddhiftn arid 
JatnUm in the south in the eighth 


century, p. 86, their collection 
of sacred hymns called Nalayira- 
Prabandham, 12 saints, p. 87, p. 
88, separated from Saivitm by 
A hart, some hymns of Vai^nava 
saints, pp. 93-4, Vaifnava Acharyat 
disputed the theories of Sankar, 
p. 99, some account of Vaijnava 
acharyas, pp. 99 103,-^amJUtas, 
p. 110, p. 116, at one time a 
heterodox system, very early 
appropriated by Brahmanas, p. 131, 
History of in India, p. 132, causes 
of its growth in Bengal, p. 217, 
p. 219 

Vallabhacharya, p. 84, p. 211 

Var&h(Adi> identical with Kisntt, 
p. 132 

Varahmihira, v, p. 12 and n., and 
his Virat Samhita; p. 130, p. 134 

Varna&ramadharma, p. 4 

Varuna, p. 3. the most exalted 
god, p. 5 

Vasudev of Sdtvataa, its origin, 
p. 109 

Vatsas, p. 130 

Vedanta, p. 13, defined, p. 15, 
further details, p* 17, Jifi's fifth 
book, p. 77, and Sutras, p. 95 ns. ( 
ankara*s exposition of , had an 
extra-ordinary influence, p. 99, 
Sangraha and Surras, p. 100, 
Vedantiit or moniet, p. 144 

Vedant Desika a Kmsnaoa teacher, 
p. 103 

Vedas lay down the path of action, 
p. 1, in them the gods the earliest 
products of creation, p. 4, empha- 
sised the value of action, p. 13, 
Vedic cosmologies, p. 76, ef, to 
Saiva and fmsnaifei sacred books 
of the South, p. 87. p. 90, p. 93. 
p. 109, p. 123, p. 125, p. 126. the 
Sfc&tftirs had no use for them. 

<p. 12ft, p. 134, p. 162, p. 172, 
p. 188, texts from Qorin and 

brought together by Prim Nath, 
p. 199 

Videhas, p. 130 

Vedic Age and culture , ends in the 
7th century B.C., character of its 
literature, ii, causes of its tremend- 
oua development, iti, conditions at 
the close of the era, iv, sacrifices 
fall into disuse, v, Vedic thought 
contains a well-rounded philosophic 
religious system, p. 2, Vedic 
pantheon peopled with gods, it 
changed in the 7th and 8th 
centuries, p. 5, religion and 
Sanskrit culture brought down in 
the Dravid Kingdoms, p. 85, 
rites, -Siva, and Kisrm and its 
development, p. 109. literature, 
p. 110, Vedic Brahmanism, p. 113, 
p. 114, p. 177 

Vidyapati dedicated his work to 
Nasir Shah, p. 214 

Velapuram, p. 35 

Vidyasagara Bhattacharya, p, 7 n. 

Vijaynagar, p. 84, the kingdom at 
war with Muslims, its pavilions 
and palaces afford proofs of 
Muslim influence, p, 250, a palace 
of a time preceding 1565, p. 251 

Vincent, p. 30 n. 

Virappa Nayakam, p. 41 

Virgil, p. 30 

Vlr Ballal, p. 42 

Kiriaico* See LingayaU... 

Vishwanath Singh, p. 153 n. 

Kisritt iii, its worship overshadows 
that of other gods, iv, v, receives 
meagre attention in the Vedic 
pantheon, p. 5, worshipped side 
by side with diva, p. 9, 11, identi- 
fied with Sorya, p. 12, p. 20, p. 21, 
p. 22, p. 27. p. 90, p. 92, ardently 
worshipped by Xfaors, p. 93. 
p. 109, p. 110, p, 113, p. 114, 
p. 115. or Narayane, die first 
god in AlberanTs pantheon, 



p. 131, temples erected to by 
Rajput chiefs, p. 132, worship 
substituted for by Rama worship 
by Ramanand, p. 144, account of 
his birth according to Kabu, p. 156, 
reference by Nanak, p. 169, p. 170, 
p. 185, Gam compared to, p. 204, 
p. 211, in Tukaram, p. 226, the 
shrine of has a Sthanak. image 
and its effect on the construction 
of temple, p. 238 

Visnu Swam! Filial Lokacharya, a 
Vai^nav teacher, p, 103, p. Ml, 
compared to Nazzitn, Ghazali, etc , 
p. 112 

Visva Karman, p. 2 

Vithaldeva, p. 100 

Vithaldas his disputed identity, p. 189 

Vredenburg, p. 264 n. 


Walld-Caliph, p. 44 

Wasil bin 'Ata founder of 

Mu'tazalite School, p. 55 
Wassif, p. 41, on horse trade, p. 42 
Walters, p. 6, ns., p. 7, ns./p- 8, ns., 

p. 11 

Weber, p. 106, and n, 
Westcott, p. 46 and n, p. 153 
Wilks, p. 32 

William James, p. 104 n. 
Wilson translation of Rig-Veda, 

p. 2 n. 
Wilson, p. S n, p. 153, 

caste, p. 183, p. 189, ' 

p. 1% n. 
Worth, p. 116 n, p. 120 n. 

Yadavas, p, 100, p. 130 

Yadava Prakash first teacher of 

Ramannuja, p. 100 
Yahiya ibn Khalid, p. 10, the Barme- 

kide sent an envoy to India, p. 62 
Varna, p. 5, cult, p. It, identified 

with Surya, p. 12, p. 90, p. 157 
Yamuna-Muni grandson of Nath- 

munl, also known as Atvandar, 

99, taught at Sn ran gam, succeeded 

by his disciple Ramanuja, p. 100 
Yarl Sahib, p. 202, p. 203 
Yajur Veda iii 
Yazid-Caliph, p. 60 
Yuechi, iv, p. 110 
Yugalanand, p. 150 n., p. 151 n., 

p. 152 n., p. 153 n., p. 157 n,. 

p. 158 ns., p. 159 ns., p. 163 n., 

p. 165 n. 
Yule see Marco Polo, p. 37 n., 

p. 42 n. 
Yusufuddm (Say y id) founder of the 

Momnah sect, p. 47 

Zamorin shaved and dressed like a 
Musalman at the time of coro- 
nation, p. 34, origin and rise of 
the house, p. 35, favours the 
Musalmans and encourages conver- 
sion, p. 36 

Zeno, p. 29 

ZoToastriamsm, p. 64, p. 72 

Zubair (al), p. 55 


Buddlia ixusweriug qxiestions (Ajanta) 


Departure of Botlhisatva as a deer (Ajanta) 

Xo. V 

Xhe king of Bt-nafcs and tin- jfoldt-n tfc-.c (Ajanfi 

1'LATK So. VI 1 

Temptation of Buddha by Mara (Ajan'ta; 


A Palace Scene Dancing Girls f Ajanta) 

1'LATK No. X 

Husband and wife in a forest (Ajanta) 


A J'rooession of Yidlnm-Paic1ita Jataka (Ajanta) 




1'UTK No. XV 

1'aru.l sla\> Zarasj, on Mun1 Sajm.l (IVrsiun, al)ut 1440) 


A disputation of Doctors (Mir Ali Shir Nawui, 1485) 

X<>. XVII 

Scene in a I'ultlio Hntli (Hili/.;i.l L4H-")) 

Zahir-ud-din Md. Babar Padishah in his youth at 
his i-aiupui K ii against Kandahar and India, 

I1US O f 


Pattle between the armies of Alexander Hie (ireal and 1li 
of Darius, Kinjj 1 of Frrsiji (Mir Ali Shir Xawai, !. r >^f>) 

1'LATK No. XX 


Pastoral Scene (Mir Sayyid All, 1539-43) 



Aguta Patika (Rajputana) 


Ragini Sarangi (Jaipur Sekqol) 





Hour of (W-])u>l (Clianilm School; 


Maharaja Sluiirujii on horseback (Hundela School (17(KM801) 

*. i^^W 1 **;) 

1'LATU JSo. XXXYiri 

Temple, Halebid (Sculpture OIL eastern side) 


Cairo, Madrasah oi (Jayt Hey. 


Mosque at 


Tomb of TTljaitoo 


Mosqw in Mirzapur (junritM 1 ;i< 

1M.ATK No. XLV1 

Central portion of Varade of ,huni Ma^.jid at Ahiuedaba 





The pavilion oi Jain Maiulir, in the Palace of Amber 


anatfiir Temple 

J'LATK >'<>. 1.1 X 

'JVinjilt 1 of Inyal KNIior, Hriiululm